Solar power in Spain

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Spain is one of the top ten countries by solar photovoltaics installed capacity and the first country for concentrated solar power (CSP) in the world. In 2016, the cumulative total solar power installed was 6,969 MW, of which 4,669 MW were solar PV installations and 2,300 MW were concentrated solar power.[1] In 2016, nearly 8 TWh of electrical power was produced from photovoltaics, and 5 TWh from CSP plants.[2] During 2016 Photovoltaics accounted for 3% of total electricity generation and solar thermal an additional 1.9%.[3]

Spain is one of the European countries with the most hours of sunshine. The country initially had a leading role in the development of solar power. However, in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the Spanish government drastically cut its subsidies for solar power and capped future increases in capacity at 500 MW per year, with effects upon the industry worldwide.[4] Between 2013 and 2016, new installations stagnated in Spain whilst growth accelerated in other leading countries leaving Spain to lose much of its world leading status to countries such as Germany, China and Japan. As a legacy from Spain's earlier development of solar power, the country remains a world leader in concentrated solar power, accounting for almost a third of solar power installed capacity in the country, a much higher ratio than that for other countries as of 2017. Many large concentrated solar power stations remain active in Spain and may have provided some of the impetus for large CSP developments in neighboring Morocco. In 2017 Spain held large auctions for renewable energy capacity to be constructed by 2020: solar and wind projects each won 4 GW.

Installed capacity[edit]

1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
2006
2010
2014
Installed Capacity (MW)        Solar PV        Solar thermal   
Installed solar generation capacity (MW)[1]
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Solar PV 125 637 3,355 3,399 3,840 4,261 4,561 4,639 4,646 4,656 4,669
Solar thermal 11 11 61 232 532 999 1,950 2,300 2,300 2,300 2.300
Total 136 648 3,416 3,631 4,372 5,260 6,511 6,939 6,946 6,956 6.969

Installed capacity grew rapidly until 2013. Since 2013 growth has been negligible in Spain, and the country has fallen behind many other European countries in the development of capacity, although it retains its leading position in the deployment of solar thermal power.

Timeline of developments[edit]

The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity even when the sun isn't shining.[5]

2017[edit]

In May 2017, Spain held an auction for new renewable capacity to be online by 2020. Solar projects won only 1 MW of the 3000 MW awarded. After complaints by the solar industry which felt the auction terms favored wind power, another auction occurred in July. In this auction, solar projects received 3,909 MW and wind received 1,128 MW.[6][7] Financing, land acquisition and solar panel price fluctuations could reduce the actual amount of solar power installed.

2014-2016[edit]

The first three units of Solnova in the foreground, with the two towers of the PS10 and PS20 solar power stations in the background.

Almost no new solar capacity is added during this period following the removal of government feed in tariffs. Having promoted the solar industry with large government subsidies during earlier periods, the system now operates under a 180 degree turn with a punitive "solar tax" applied to new PV systems which would otherwise flourish. Spain has been cited as a model in "how not to" develop renewables.[8] The hoped for growth in self consumption solar generation during 2016 fails to materialize due to delays to reforms following the extended time taken to form a government, all be it with just one party opposed to reforms in this area.[3]

2012[edit]

By the end of 2012, 4.5 GW of solar photovoltaics had been installed, and in that year 8.2 TWh of electricity was produced.[9] Since then, new installations of solar photovoltaics have slowed down significantly. By the end of 2012 Spain had also installed over 2,000 MW of CSP.

2010[edit]

Since 2010, Spain has been the world's leader in concentrated solar power (CSP).

2008[edit]

In 2008 the Spanish government committed to achieving a target of 12% of primary energy from renewable energy by 2010 and by 2020 expected the installed solar generating capacity of 10 GW.[10] Spain added a record 2.6 GW of solar photovoltaic power in 2008,[11] a figure almost five times that of the next record year, increasing capacity to 3.5 GW.[12] PV capacity added during 2008 would still account for more than half of total capacity as of 2016.

2004[edit]

Through a ministerial ruling in March 2004, the Spanish government removed economic barriers to the connection of renewable energy technologies to the electricity grid. The Royal Decree 436/2004 equalized conditions for large-scale solar thermal and photovoltaic plants and guaranteed feed-in tariffs.[13]

Solar thermal power plants[edit]

The 11 megawatt PS10 solar power tower produces electricity from the sun using 624 large movable mirrors called heliostats.
Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants
Name of Plant DC
Peak Power (MWp)
GW·h
/year
Capacity factor Completed
PS10 10 23.4 0.24 2007
Andasol 1 50 495 0.41 2008
PS20 20 48 0.27 2009
Eureka 2 2009, June[14]
Andasol 2 50 2009
Puerto Errado 1 1.5 2009
Puertollano 50 2009
La Risca 50 2009
Extresol 1 50 2010
Extresol 2 50 2010
La Florida 50 2010, July
Majadas 50 2010, August
Solnova 1 50 2010
Solnova 3 50 2010
Alvarado I 50 2010
Solnova 4 50 2010
La Dehesa 50 2010, November
Palma del Rio 2 50 2011
Manchasol 1 50 2011
Manchasol 2 50 2011
Gemasolar 20 2011
Palma del Rio 1 50 2011
Lebrija 1 50 2011
Andasol 3 50 2011
Helioenergy 1 50 2011
Astexol 3 50 2011
Arcosol 50 50 2011
Termosol 50 50 2011
Helioenergy 2 50 2012
Valle 100 340 2012
Puerto Errado 2 30 2012
Aste 1A 50 2012
Aste 1B 50 2012
Moron 50 2012
Helios 1 50 2012, May
Solaben 3 50 2012, June
Guzman 50 2012, July
La Africana 50 2012, July
Olivenza 1 50 2012, July
Helios 2 50 2012, August
Extresol 3 50 2012, August
Orellana 50 2012, August
Solaben 2 50 2012, October
Solarcor 1 50 2012
Solarcor 2 50 2012
Termosolar Borges 25 2012, December
Three Solar Towers from left: PS20, Eureka, PS10.
Solar Towers from left: PS10, PS20.

In March 2007, Europe's first commercial concentrating solar power tower plant was opened near the sunny Andalusian city of Seville. The 11 MW plant, known as the PS10 solar power tower, produces electricity with 624 large heliostats. Each of these mirrors has a surface measuring 120 square meters (1,290 square feet) that concentrates the Sun's rays to the top of a 115-meter (377 feet) high tower where a solar receiver and a steam turbine are located. The turbine drives a generator, producing electricity.[15]

The Andasol 1 solar power station is Europe’s first parabolic trough commercial power plant (50 MWe), located near Guadix in the province of Granada, also in Andalusia (the plant is named after the region). The Andasol 1 power plant went online in November 2008, and has a thermal storage system which absorbs part of the heat produced in the solar field during the day. This heat is then stored in a molten salt mixture and used to generate electricity during the night, or when the sky is overcast.[16]

A 15 MWe solar-only power tower plant, the Solar Tres project, is in the hands of the Spanish company SENER, employing molten salt technologies for receiving and energy storage. Its 16-hour molten salt storage system will be able to deliver power around the clock. The Solar Tres project has received a €5 million grant from the EC’s Fifth Framework Programme.[13]

Solar thermal power plants designed for solar-only generation are well matched to summer noon peak loads in prosperous areas with significant cooling demands, such as Spain. Using thermal energy storage systems, solar thermal operating periods can even be extended to meet base-load needs.[13]

Abengoa Solar began commercial operation of a 20-megawatt solar power tower plant near Seville in late April, 2009. Called the PS20, the plant uses a field of 1,255 flat mirrors, or heliostats, to concentrate sunlight on a receiver mounted on a central tower. Water pumped up the tower and through the receiver boils into steam, which is then directed through a turbine to produce electricity. The new facility is located adjacent to one with half its capacity, called PS10, which was the world's first commercial solar power tower plant. According to Abengoa Solar, the new facility is exceeding its predicted power output.[17]

Photovoltaics[edit]

Small systems[edit]

Utility-scale systems[edit]

Spain's largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants[18]
Name of Plant DC
Peak Power (MW)
GW·h
/year[18]
Capacity factor Notes
Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park 60 85 0.16 Completed September 2008
Puertollano Photovoltaic Park 47 2008
Planta Solar La Magascona & La Magasquila 34.5
Planta Solar Dulcinea[18] 31.8 Completed 2009
Merida/Don Alvaro Solar Park 30 Completed September 2008
Planta Solar Ose de la Vega 30
Arnedo Solar Plant 30 Completed October 2008
Merida/Don Alvaro Solar Park 30 Completed September 2008
Planta Fotovoltaico Casas de Los Pinos 28
Planta solar Fuente Álamo 26 44 0.19
Planta fotovoltaica de Lucainena de las Torres 23.2 Completed August 2008
Parque Fotovoltaico Abertura Solar 23.1 47 0.23
Parque Solar Hoya de Los Vicentes 23 41 0.20
Huerta Solar Almaraz 22.1 Completed September 2008
Parque Solar El Coronil 1 21.4
Solarpark Calveron 21.2 40 0.22
El Bonillo Solar Park 20 Completed October 2008
Huerta Solar Almaraz 20 Completed September 2008
Granadilla de Abona Photovoltaic Park 20 Completed 2008
Planta solar fotovoltaico Calasparra 20
Planta Solar La Magascona 20 42 0.24
Beneixama photovoltaic power plant[19] 20 30 0.17 Tenesol, Aleo and Solon solar modules with Q-Cells cells
Planta de energía solar Mahora 15 Completed September 2008
Planta Solar de Salamanca 13.8 n.a. 70,000 Kyocera panels
Parque Solar Guadarranque 13.6 20 0.17
Lobosillo Solar Park 12.7 n.a. Chaori and YingLi modules
Parque Solar Fotovoltaico Villafranca 12 High concentration PV technology
Monte Alto photovoltaic power plant 9.5 14 0.17
Viana Solar Park 8.7 11 0.14

Photovoltaics (PV) convert sunlight into electricity and many solar photovoltaic power stations have been built in Spain.[18] As of November 2010, the largest PV power plants in Spain include, the Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park (60 MW), Puertollano Photovoltaic Park (47.6 MW), Planta Solar La Magascona & La Magasquila (34.5 MW), Arnedo Solar Plant (34 MW), and Planta Solar Dulcinea (31.8 MW).[18]

BP Solar begun constructing a new solar photovoltaic cell manufacturing plant at its European headquarters in Tres Cantos, Madrid.[20] For phase one of the Madrid expansion, BP Solar aimed to expand its annual cell capacity from 55 MW to around 300 MW. Construction of this facility was underway, with the first manufacturing line expected to be fully operational in 2009.[20] The new cell lines would use innovative screen-printing technology. By fully automating wafer handling, the manufacturing lines would be able to handle the very thinnest of wafers available and ensure the highest quality.[20] Thin wafers are of particular importance since there has been a silicon shortage in recent years. However, after the new national law limiting installed power by year, in April 2009 BP Solar closed its factories.[21]

Since the beginning of 2007, Aleo Solar AG has also been manufacturing high-quality solar modules for the Spanish market at its own factory in Santa Maria de Palautordera near Barcelona. In 2014 SITECNO S.A. took over this facility[20]

Regional PV distribution[edit]

Solar panels in Cariñena, Aragon
PV capacity in watts per capita by autonomous communities in 2013[22]
  <1 watt
  1—10 watts
  10—50 watts
  50—100 watts
  100—200 watts
  200—350 watts
  350—500 watts
  500—750 watts
  >750 watts
Installed PV capacity in megawatts
Autonomous Communities 2010 2011
Andalusia 765 822
Aragon 142 146
Asturias 1 1
Balearic Islands 60 66
Basque Country 20 23
Canary Islands 133 138
Cantabria 2 2
Castile-La Mancha 897 923
Castile and León 410 467
Catalonia 202 234
Ceuta and Melilla 0.1 0.1
Community of Madrid 38 48
Extremadura 492 558
Galicia 10 12
La Rioja 83 89
Navarre 142 155
Region of Murcia 357 404
Valencian Community 277 313
Source: EPIA[23]

Policies, laws and incentives[edit]

New Technical Building Code[edit]

In 2006, Spain implemented a regulatory instrument of national jurisdiction promulgated by the Royal Decree 314/2006 referred to as the Technical Building Code (TBC or CTE in Spanish) in order to regulate the basic quality requirements of buildings and their respective installations concerning thermal and photovoltaic solar energy. It applies to new constructions as well as any modifications made on any existing building with the final goal to guarantee and promote the use of renewable sources of energy.[24]

Concerning thermosolar energy, Spain was the first country in Europe to enforce the integration of solar thermal systems in new constructed or refurnished buildings in order to cover from 30 to 70% of the Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. Article 15.4 of the TBC states that “buildings with foreseen demand for hot water or the conditioning of a covered swimming pool, part of the thermal energy needs shall be covered by incorporating systems for the collection, storage and use of low temperature solar energy […]”.[25]

In relation to Photovoltaic power, Article 15.5 requires the incorporation of “systems for the collection and transformation of solar energy into electric power by photovoltaic processes for proprietary use or supply to the network”.[26] This policy triggered the production of this type of renewable energy positioning Spain on top of the largest producers of photovoltaic electricity in the world by 2009.[27]

Subsidy reductions[edit]

In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the Spanish government drastically cut its subsidies for solar power and capped future increases in capacity at 500 MW per year, with effects upon the industry worldwide. "The solar industry in 2009 has been undermined by [a] collapse in demand due to the decision by Spain", according to Henning Wicht, a solar-power analyst.[4] In 2010, the Spanish government went further, retroactively cutting subsidies for existing solar projects, aiming to save several billion euro it owed.[11][28] According to the Photovoltaic Industry Association, several hundred photovoltaic plant operators may face bankruptcy.[29] Phil Dominy of Ernst & Young, comparing the feed-in tariff reductions in Germany and Italy, said; "Spain stands out as an example of how not to do it".[30] As a result, a Spanish association of solar power producers has announced its intention to go to court over the government's plans to cap solar subsidies. In 2014 alternative energy group NextEra filed a complaint against Spain at the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes.[31]

Research and development[edit]

The Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA), part of the Center for Energy, Environment and Technological Research (CIEMAT), is a center for research, development, and testing of concentrating solar power technologies.[32] ISFOC[33] in Puertollano is a development institute for concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) which evaluates CPV technologies at the pilot production scale to optimize operation and determine cost. Technical University of Madrid has a photovoltaic research group.[34]

Solar Concentra is the Spanish technology platform for concentrated solar power (CSP).[35] It was created in 2010, and it combines the efforts of the different agents of the CSP sector in Spain.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Red Eléctrica de España | Series estadísticas nacionales". www.ree.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  2. ^ "Red Electrica de Espana, Statistical data of electrical system April 2017, Balance of electrical energy". p. 2.
  3. ^ a b "IEA-pvps, Annual Report 2016".
  4. ^ a b Gonzalez, Angel; Keith Johnson (September 8, 2009). "Spain's Solar-Power Collapse Dims Subsidy Model". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
  5. ^ Edwin Cartlidge (18 November 2011). "Saving for a rainy day". Science (Vol 334). pp. 922–924. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  6. ^ Spain Awards 4 Gigawatts Solar & 1 Gigawatt Wind In Renewables Auction, CleanTechnica, Joshua S Hill, July 28, 2017
  7. ^ European Energy Auctions Yield Ever-Lower Wind Energy Prices In Germany & Spain, CleanTechnica, Joshua S Hill, May 22, 2017
  8. ^ "Spain Is a Case Study in How Not to Foster Renewables". Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  9. ^ Photovoltaic Barometer
  10. ^ "Spain expects 3,000 MW in solar plants by 2010". Environmental News Network. September 25, 2008. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
  11. ^ a b Couture, Toby D. (February 23, 2011). "Spain's Renewable Energy Odyssey". Greentech Media. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
  12. ^ Sills, Ben (18 October 2010). "Spain's Solar Deals on Edge of Bankruptcy as Subsidies Founder". Bloomberg Markets Magazine. Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
  13. ^ a b c Spain pioneers grid-connected solar-tower thermal power
  14. ^ Abengoa Solar Business Group
  15. ^ "Sunny Spain to Host Europe's First Large Solar Thermal Plant". Environment News Service. June 30, 2006. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
  16. ^ Andasol 1 Goes Into Operation
  17. ^ eere.energy.gov
  18. ^ a b c d e PV Resources.com (2009). World's largest photovoltaic power plants
  19. ^ Citysolar (2007). Solar park of the superlative
  20. ^ a b c d BP Solar to Expand Its Solar Cell Plants in Spain and India
  21. ^ BP Solar closes its Spanish factories
  22. ^ "Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2014-2018" (PDF). www.epia.org. EPIA - European Photovoltaic Industry Association. p. 24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  23. ^ Global Market Outlook 2016 Archived 2014-11-06 at WebCite pg. 71
  24. ^ "CTE". Código Técnico de la Edificación.
  25. ^ "The Spanish Technical Building Code, Article 15.4" (PDF).
  26. ^ "The Spanish Technical Building Code, Article 15.5" (PDF).
  27. ^ A. Prieto, Pedro. Spain´s Photovoltaic Revolution: The Energy Return on Investment (PDF). Springer. p. 20.
  28. ^ Johnson, Steve (January 9, 2011). "Investors may walk after Spain's solar cut". Financial Times. Retrieved 2011-03-01.
  29. ^ Sills, Ben (1 August 2010). "Spain Proceeds With Plans to Cut Solar Subsidies After Talks Break Down". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
  30. ^ Wilson, Peter (March 5, 2011). "Sun setting on European solar subsidies". The Australian. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
  31. ^ "U.S.'s NextEra files complaint over Spain's new renewable energy rules". Reuters. 26 May 2014.
  32. ^ General Description of the PSA Archived 2007-05-15 at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ isfoc.es
  34. ^ ies.upm.es - Instituto Energía Solar
  35. ^ solarconcentra.org

External links[edit]