|"Stadium in a Park"|
Soldier Field in 2006
|Former names||Municipal Grant Park Stadium (1924–1925)|
|Location||1410 S Museum Campus Drive, Chicago, Illinois, United States|
|Public transit||Museum Campus/11th Street (Metra station)
18th Street (Metra station)
|Owner||City of Chicago|
|Acreage||7 acres (2.8 ha)|
|Broke ground||August 11, 1922|
|Opened||October 9, 1924
92 years ago
|Closed||January 19, 2002 –
September 26, 2003 (renovations)
|Construction cost||US$13 million (original)
($180 million in 2015 dollars)
$632 million (2001–2003 renovation)
Renovations: ($814 million in 2015 dollars)
|Architect||Holabird & Roche
Wood + Zapata, Inc.
Lohan Caprile Goettsch Architects
|Project manager||Hoffman Associates|
|Structural engineer||Thornton Tomasetti|
|Services engineer||Ellerbe Becket|
|General contractor||Turner/Barton Malow/Kenny|
|Notre Dame Irish football (NCAA) (1929)
Chicago Rockets/Hornets (AAFC) (1946–1949)
Chicago Cardinals (NFL) (1959)
UIC Chikas football (NCAA) (1966– 1973)
Chicago Spurs (NPSL) (1967)
Chicago Owls (CFL) (1968–69)
Chicago Bears (NFL) (1971–2001, 2003–present)
Chicago Sting (NASL) (1975–76)
Chicago Fire (WFL) (1974)
Chicago Winds (WFL) (1975)
Chicago Blitz (USFL) (1983–84)
Chicago Fire (MLS) (1998–2001, 2003–05)
Chicago Enforcers (XFL) (2001)
Soldier Field is an American football stadium in the central United States, on the Near South Side of Chicago. It opened 92 years ago in 1924 and is best known as the home field of the Chicago Bears of the National Football League (NFL), who moved there in 1971.
The stadium's interior was mostly demolished and rebuilt as part of a major renovation project in 2002, which modernized the facility and lowered seating capacity, but also caused it to be delisted as a National Historic Landmark. Soldier Field has served as the home venue for a number of other sports teams in its history, including the Chicago Cardinals of the NFL, University of Notre Dame football, and the Chicago Fire of Major League Soccer, as well as games from the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, and multiple CONCACAF Gold Cup championships. With a football capacity of 61,500, it is the second smallest stadium in the NFL.
- 1 History
- 2 Public transportation
- 3 Events
- 3.1 Football
- 3.2 Hockey
- 3.3 Soccer
- 3.4 Special Olympics
- 3.5 Rugby union
- 3.6 Concerts
- 3.7 Other events
- 4 In popular culture
- 5 Gallery
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Soldier Field was designed in 1919 and opened on October 9, 1924, as Municipal Grant Park Stadium. The name was changed to Soldier Field on November 11, 1925, as a memorial to U.S. soldiers who had died in combat. Its formal dedication as Soldier Field was on Saturday, November 27, 1926, during the 29th annual playing of the Army–Navy Game. Its design is in the Neoclassical style, with Doric columns rising above the East and West entrances.
In its earliest configuration, Soldier Field was capable of seating 74,280 spectators and was in the shape of a U. Additional seating could be added along the interior field, upper promenades and on the large, open field and terrace beyond the north endzone, bringing the seating capacity to over 100,000.
Chicago Bears move in
Soldier Field was used as a site for many sporting events and exhibitions. The Chicago Cardinals used it as their home field for their final season in Chicago in 1959. A dozen years later in September 1971, the Chicago Bears moved in, originally with a three-year commitment. They previously played at Wrigley Field, best known as the home of the Chicago Cubs baseball team, but were forced to move to a larger venue due to post-AFL–NFL merger policies requiring that stadium capacities seat over 50,000 spectators. They had intended to build a stadium in Arlington Heights. In 1978, the Bears and the Chicago Park District agreed to a 20-year lease and renovation of the stadium. Both parties pooled their resources for the renovation. The playing surface was AstroTurf from 1971 through 1987, replaced with natural grass in 1988.
In 1989, Soldier Field's future was in jeopardy after a proposal was created for a "McDome", which was intended to be a domed stadium for the Bears, but was rejected by the Illinois Legislature in 1990. Because of this, Bears president Michael McCaskey considered relocation as a possible factor for a new stadium. The Bears had also purchased options in Hoffman Estates and Aurora. In 1995, McCaskey announced that he and Northwest Indiana developers agreed to construction of an entertainment complex called "Planet Park", which would also include a new stadium. However, the plan was rejected by the Lake County Council, and in 1998, Chicago mayor Richard M. Daley proposed that the Bears share Comiskey Park with the Chicago White Sox.
Renovation and landmark delisting
Beginning in 1978, the plank seating was replaced by individual seats with backs and armrests. In 1982, a new press box as well as 60 skyboxes were added to the stadium, boosting capacity to 66,030. In 1988, 56 more skyboxes were added increasing capacity to 66,946. Capacity was slightly increased to 66,950 in 1992. By 1994, capacity was slightly reduced to 66,944. During the renovation, seating capacity was reduced to 55,701 by building a grandstand in the open end of the U shape. This moved the field closer to both ends at the expense of seating capacity. The goal of this renovation was to move the fans closer to the field. The front row 50-yard line seats were then now only 55 feet (17 m) away from the sidelines, the shortest distance of all NFL stadiums, until MetLife Stadium opened in 2010, with a distance of 46 feet. Soldier Field received new light emitting diode (LED) video technology from Daktronics. Included in the installation was a video display measuring approximately 23 feet (7.0 m) high by 82 feet (25 m) wide and ribbon displays mounted on the fascia that measured more than 321 feet (98 m) in length.
In 2001, the Chicago Park District, which owns the structure, faced substantial criticism when it announced plans to alter the stadium with a design by Benjamin T. Wood and Carlos Zapata of the Boston-based architecture firm Wood + Zapata. Stadium grounds were reconfigured by Chicago-based architecture firm of Lohan Associate, led by architect Dirk Lohan, the grandson of architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. The stadium's interior would be demolished and reconstructed while the exterior would be preserved. This is an example of facadism. A similar endeavor of constructing a new stadium within the confines of an historic stadium's exterior was completed in Leipzig, Germany's Red Bull Arena, which similarly build a modern stadium while persevering the exterior of the original Zentralstadion.
Dozens of articles by writers and columnists attacked the project as an aesthetic, political, and financial nightmare. The project received mixed reviews within the architecture community, including criticism by civic and preservation groups. Prominent American architect and Chicagoan Stanley Tigerman called it "a fiasco". The Chicago Tribune architecture critic Blair Kamin dubbed it the "Eyesore on the Lake Shore". The renovation was described by some as "a spaceship landed on the stadium". Lohan responded,
"I would never say that Soldier Field is an architectural landmark. Nobody has copied it; nobody has learned from it. People like it for nostalgic reasons. They remember the games and parades and tractor pulls and veterans' affairs they've seen there over the years. I wouldn't do this if it were the Parthenon. But this isn't the Parthenon."
Proponents argued the renovation was direly needed citing aging and cramped facilities. The New York Times ranked the renovated Soldier Field as one of the five best new buildings of 2003. Soldier Field was given an award in design excellence by the American Institute of Architects in 2004.
On September 23, 2004, as a result of the 2003 renovation, a 10-member federal advisory committee unanimously recommended that Soldier Field be delisted as a National Historic Landmark. The recommendation to delist was prepared by Carol Ahlgren, architectural historian at the National Park Service's Midwest Regional Office in Omaha, Nebraska. Ahlgren was quoted in Preservation Online as stating that "if we had let this stand, I believe it would have lowered the standard of National Historic Landmarks throughout the country", and, "If we want to keep the integrity of the program, let alone the landmarks, we really had no other recourse." The stadium lost the Landmark designation on February 17, 2006.
The closest Chicago 'L' station to Soldier Field is the Roosevelt station on the Orange, Green and Red lines. The Chicago Transit Authority also operates the #128 Soldier Field Express bus route to the stadium from Ogilvie Transportation Center and Union Station. There are also two Metra stations close by—the Museum Campus/11th Street station on the Metra Electric Line, which also is used by South Shore Line trains, and 18th Street, which is only served by the Metra Electric Line. Pace also provides access from the Northwest, West and Southwest suburbs to the stadium with four express routes from Schaumburg, Lombard, Bolingbrook, Burr Ridge, Palos Heights and Oak Lawn.
- The stadium hosted its first football game, on October 4, 1924, between Louisville Male High School and Chicago Austin Community Academy High School. Louisville's team won 26–0. (Chicago Tribune, October 2, 1924)
- Over 100,000 spectators attended the 1926 Army–Navy Game. It would decide the national championship, as Navy entered undefeated and Army had lost only to Notre Dame. The game lived up to its hype, and even though it ended in a 21–21 tie, Navy was awarded the national championship.
- The all-time collegiate attendance record of 123,000+ was established November 26, 1927, as Notre Dame beat the University of Southern California 7–6.
- Austin defeated Leo to win the 1937 Prep Bowl; another contender for the highest attendance ever (estimated at over 120,000 spectators). The Chicago Prep Bowl games are held at Soldier Field yearly on the day after Thanksgiving. The bowl game is older than the IHSA state championship tournament held since the 1960s.
- The stadium was host to 41 College All-Star Games, an exhibition between the previous year's NFL champion (or, in its final years, Super Bowl champion) and a team of collegiate all-star players prior to their reporting to their new professional teams training camps. This game was discontinued after the 1976 NFL season. The final game in 1976 was halted in the third quarter when a torrential thunderstorm broke out and play was never resumed.
- In 2012, Notre Dame hosted a game at Soldier Field against the University of Miami as part of their Shamrock Series.
- Four NFC Championship Games have been held at the stadium.
- NFL teams winless at Soldier Field: Baltimore Ravens (0–3), Cleveland Browns (0–3), and San Diego Chargers (0–4).
- NFL teams unbeaten at Soldier Field: Houston Texans (2–0).
- The 1985 NFC Championship Game took place in Soldier Field, where the Bears defeated the Los Angeles Rams 24–0.
- The 1988 NFC Championship Game took place here, where the Bears lost to eventual Super Bowl XXIII champions San Francisco 49ers 28–3.
- The 2006 NFC Championship Game granted the Bears their second trip to the Super Bowl, the first in 21 years, with a 39–14 victory over the New Orleans Saints.
- The 2010 NFC Championship Game matched the Bears against the Green Bay Packers, where the Bears were defeated by the eventual Super Bowl XLV champions, 21–14.
- Other Bears playoff games at Soldier Field:
- 1985 NFC Divisional Playoff: Bears 21, New York Giants 0
- 1986 NFC Divisional Playoff: Washington Redskins 27, Bears 13
- 1987 NFC Divisional Playoff: Washington 21, Bears 17
- 1988 NFC Divisional Playoff: Bears 20, Philadelphia Eagles 12 (this game is best remembered as the Fog Bowl, where a dense fog covered the stadium, reducing visibility to 15–20 yards.)
- 1990 NFC Wild Card: Bears 16, New Orleans Saints 6
- 1991 NFC Wild Card: Dallas Cowboys 17, Bears 13
- 2001 NFC Divisional Playoff: Philadelphia 33, Bears 19. This was also the last home game before the renovations took place in 2002.
- 2005 NFC Divisional Playoff: Carolina Panthers 29, Bears 21
- 2006 NFC Divisional Playoff: Bears 27, Seattle Seahawks 24 (OT)
- 2010 NFC Divisional Playoff: Bears 35, Seattle Seahawks 24
NIU Huskies football
The NIU Huskies football team plays select games at Soldier Field, all of which have featured the Huskies hosting a team from the Big Ten Conference. The NIU campus is located in DeKalb, 65 miles (105 km) to the west on Interstate 88.
- On September 1, 2007, NIU faced the University of Iowa in the first Division I College Football game at Soldier Field since renovations. The Hawkeyes defeated the Huskies, 16–3.
- On September 17, 2011, the Huskies returned to play the Wisconsin Badgers in a game that was called "Soldier Field Showdown II". The eventual Big Ten champion Badgers topped NIU, 49–7.
- On September 1, 2012, NIU hosted the Iowa Hawkeyes in a season opener that was called "Soldier Field Showdown III". The Hawkeyes narrowly defeated the Huskies, 18–17.
Notre Dame football
In 1929, Notre Dame used the stadium as home field while Notre Dame Stadium was being constructed. The school has used Soldier Field for single games on occasion both prior to and since the 1929 season.
The Notre Dame Fighting Irish and Miami RedHawks played a doubleheader on February 17, 2013 with the Wisconsin Badgers and Minnesota Golden Gophers in the Hockey City Classic, the first outdoor hockey game in the history of the stadium. A Chicago Gay Hockey Association intra-squad game was held in affiliation with the Hockey City Classic.
The Chicago Blackhawks played against the Pittsburgh Penguins on March 1, 2014 as part of the NHL's Stadium Series. The Blackhawks defeated the Penguins 5-1 before a sold-out crowd of 62,921. The team also held its 2015 Stanley Cup Championship celebration at the stadium instead of Grant Park, where other city championships have typically been held, due to recent rains.
February 7, 2015 Soldier Field hosted another edition of the Hockey City Classic. The event had been delayed due to unusually warm weather (42 °F) and complications with the quality of the ice. The 2015 edition of the Hockey City Classic featured a match between Miami of Ohio and Western Michigan, followed by a match between the Big Ten's Michigan and Michigan State February 5 the organizers of the Hockey City Classic organized the Unite on the Ice event benefiting St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. The event was centered upon a celebrity hockey game with former NHL and AHL players, as well as a public free skate at Soldier Field. Participants in the celebrity game included Éric Dazé, Jamal Mayers and Gino Cavallini. Denis Savard was in attendance, serving as an 'honorary coach' during the game. February 15, 2015 Soldier Field hosted another Chicago Gay Hockey Association intra-league match in association with the Hockey City Classic at Soldier Field.
|Date||Time (CDT)||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|June 17, 1994||14:00||Germany||1–0||Bolivia||Group C/Opening Match||63,117|
|June 21, 1994||15:00||Germany||1–1||Spain||Group C||63,113|
|June 26, 1994||11:30||Greece||0–4||Bulgaria||Group D||63,160|
|June 27, 1994||15:00||Bolivia||1–3||Spain||Group C||63,089|
|July 2, 1994||11:00||Germany||3–2||Belgium||Round of 16||60,246|
|Date||Time (CDT)||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|June 24, 1999||17.00||Brazil||2–0||Italy||Group B||65,080|
|19.00||United States||7–1||Nigeria||Group A||65,080|
|June 26, 1999||16.00||Ghana||0–2||Sweden||Group D||34,256|
|Date||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|21 June 2007||Canada||1–2||United States||Semifinals||50,760|
|24 June 2007||United States||2–1||Mexico||Final||60,000|
|Date||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|23 July 2009||Honduras||1–2||United States||Semifinals||55,173|
|Costa Rica||1–1 (3-5 pen)||Mexico|
|Date||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|12 June 2011||El Salvador||6–1||Cuba||Group A||62,000|
|Date||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|28 July 2013||United States||1–0||Panama||Final||57,920|
|Date||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|July 9, 2015||Trinidad and Tobago||3–1||Guatemala||Group C||54,126|
Copa América Centenario
|Date||Time (CDT)||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|June 5, 2016||16:00||Jamaica||0–1||Venezuela||Group C||25,560|
|June 7, 2016||19:00||United States||4–0||Costa Rica||Group A||39,642|
|June 10, 2016||20:30||Argentina||5–0||Panama||Group D||53,885|
|June 22, 2016||19:00||Colombia||0–2||Chile||Semi-finals||55,423|
- Over 15,000 spectators attended the first leg of the 1928 National Challenge Cup (now known as the Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup) between soccer teams Bricklayers and Masons F.C. of Chicago and New York Nationals of New York City. The match ended in 1–1 tie, and New York won the second leg 3–0 in New York City.
- United States vs. Brazil in a friendly match – September 9, 2007.
- Liverpool F.C. vs Olympiacos in the 2014 International Champions Cup with Liverpool F.C. winning 1-0
- F.C. Bayern Munich vs A.C. Milan in the 2016 International Champions Cup with the game resulting in a 3-3 draw and A.C. Milan winning the penalty shootout 5-3.
The 1st International Special Olympics Summer Games were held at Soldier Field in Chicago on July 19–20, 1968. The games spanned two days and more than 1,000 people with intellectual disabilities from 26 U.S. states and Canada competed in track and field and swimming, sparking a worldwide Special Olympics movement that now thrives today.
The stadium hosted its first international rugby union test match between the United States Eagles and New Zealand All Blacks on November 1, 2014 as part of the 2014 end-of-year rugby union tests. More than half of the 61,500 tickets were sold within two days. The All Blacks beat the Eagles 74–6. The stadium hosted its second international rugby union match on September 5, 2015 with the United States hosting Australia shortly before both teams were due to travel to England for the 2015 Rugby World Cup. The Eagles were defeated 47–10. Ireland will also host a match at the stadium against New Zealand on November 5, 2016. This match forms part of the 2016 end-of-year rugby union internationals.
- Johnny Cash – August 15, 1964
- Barbra Streisand – August 9, 1966
- WCFL's Big Ten Summer Music Festival – July 18, 1970
- ZZ Top – July 25, 1976
- Emerson, Lake & Palmer – June 4, 1977, with Foghat, The J. Geils Band and The Climax Blues Band
- Pink Floyd – June 19, 1977 and July 12, 1994
- Ted Nugent – July 10, 1977, with Lynyrd Skynyrd, REO Speedwagon, Journey and .38 Special
- Peter Frampton – August 13, 1977, with Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band, Rick Derringer and UFO
- The Rolling Stones – July 8, 1978, with Journey, Southside Johnny & The Asbury Jukes and Peter Tosh, September 11–12, 1994, with Lenny Kravitz, September 23 and 25, 1997, with Blues Traveler, September 10, 2005, with Los Lonely Boys and October 11, 2006, with Elvis Costello & The Imposters
- Parliament-Funkadelic – August 26, 1978, with The Bar-Kays, Con Funk Shun and A Taste of Honey
- Smokey Robinson – July 19, 1980, with The O'Jays
- The ChicagoFest – August 10–13, 1983
- Bruce Springsteen & The E Street Band – August 9, 1985
- Madonna – July 31, 1987, with Level 42
- Paul McCartney – July 29, 1990
- Grateful Dead – June 22, 1991, June 25–26, 1992 with the Steve Miller Band, June 18–19, 1993 with Sting, July 23–24, 1994 with Traffic, and July 8–9, 1995, with the Band. The 1995 Grateful Dead concerts were the band's last, as guitarist and vocalist Jerry Garcia died a month later.
- Pearl Jam – July 11, 1995, with Bad Religion and Otis Rush
- Little Feat – September 14, 1996, with Taj Mahal
- U2 – June 27–29, 1997, with The Fun Lovin' Criminals, September 12–13, 2009, with Snow Patrol and July 5, 2011, with Interpol
- The Vans Warped Tour – July 18, 1997
- George Strait Country Music Festival Tour – May 10, 1998 and April 25, 1999
- Wilco – May 13, 2000
- The Dave Matthews Band – June 29–30, 2000, with Ben Harper & The Innocent Criminals and Ozomatli and July 6–7, 2001, with Buddy Guy and Angélique Kidjo
- NSYNC – June 16–17, 2001, with BBMak, 3LW and Dream
- Bon Jovi – July 21, 2006, with Nickelback, July 30–31, 2010, with Kid Rock & Twisted Brown Trucker and 7th Heaven and July 12, 2013, with The J. Geils Band
- Kenny Chesney – June 21, 2008, with Keith Urban, LeAnn Rimes and Gary Allan, June 13, 2009, with Lady Antebellum, Miranda Lambert, Montgomery Gentry and Sugarland and July 7, 2012, with Tim McGraw, Jake Owen and Grace Potter and the Nocturnals
- The Chicago Country Music Festival – October 11–12, 2008
- The Bamboozle Roadshow – June 12, 2010
- The Eagles – June 19, 2010, with The Dixie Chicks and JD & The Straight Shot
- deadmau5 – July 2, 2010, with Rye Rye and The Brazilian Girls
- The Wayne Baker Brooks Band – August 23, 2011, with Sugar Blue
- The Spring Awakening Music Festival – June 16–17, 2012, June 14–16, 2013 and June 13–15, 2014
- The Terrapin 5K & Music Festival – August 2, 2012 and August 8, 2013
- Jay Z and Justin Timberlake – July 22, 2013, with DJ Cassidy
- Taylor Swift – August 10, 2013, with Ed Sheeran, Casey James and Austin Mahone
- Beyoncé and Jay Z – July 24, 2014
- One Direction – August 29–30, 2014, with 5 Seconds of Summer
- Luke Bryan – August 31, 2014, with Dierks Bentley, Lee Brice and Cole Swindell
- Fare Thee Well: Celebrating 50 Years of the Grateful Dead, with former members of the Grateful Dead and Bruce Hornsby, Jeff Chimenti, and Trey Anastasio – July 3–5, 2015
- Taylor Swift – July 18–19, 2015, with Vance Joy, Shawn Mendes and HAIM
- One Direction – August 23, 2015, with Icona Pop
- Beyoncé – May 27–28, 2016
- Guns N' Roses – July 1–3, 2016
- Coldplay – July 23–24, 2016; The July 23rd show had to be cut short due to inclement weather.
- The 28th International Eucharistic Congress held three days of outdoor day and evening events from June 21–23, 1926.
- The Long Count Fight, the second heavyweight championship bout between Jack Dempsey and Gene Tunney, was held at Soldier Field on September 22, 1927.
- June 24, 1932 a war show celebrating the bicentennial of George Washington's birth featured Amelia Earhart.
- May 27, 1933 Soldier Field opening ceremonies of the Century of Progress Worlds Fair. Postmaster General and DNC-Chairman James Farley facilitated the opening ceremony.
- October 28 President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt made an appearance at Soldier Field, which was the only Midwestern speaking appearance he made in his last reelection campaign. This appearance was attended by over 150,000 (with at least as many people attempting to attend that were unable to gain admission).
- US General during World War II Douglas MacArthur addressed a crowd of 50,000 at Soldier Field, which was his first visit to the United States in 14 years in April 1951.
- Glenn "Fireball" Roberts won the only NASCAR Grand National race held at the stadium's short track which ran across the old configuration, in 1956. Three Convertible Division races were held at the stadium.
- The Chicago Freedom Movement, led by Martin Luther King, held a rally here on June 21. As many as 75,000 came to hear Reverends Martin Luther King Jr. and Theodore Hesburgh (president of Notre Dame University, Archbishop Arthur M. Brazier, and Minister Edgar Chandler among others.
- The Chicago Freedom Movement held a second rally here on July 10, 1966. As many as 60,000 people came to hear Dr. King as well as Mahalia Jackson, Stevie Wonder and Peter, Paul and Mary.
- The early-to-mid 1980s saw the US Hot Rod Association host Truck and Tractor Sled Pull Competitions and Monster Truck exhibitions here. The engines on some of the vehicles would echo through the skyscrapers in downtown Chicago as they made their pull. Damage to the stadium turf on a few of the event occasion's led USHRA to move events to the Rosemont Horizon (known today as Allstate Arena).
- October 13 David D. Meilahn made the first-ever commercial cell phone call from his 1983 Mercedes-Benz 380SL at Soldier Field on a Motorola DynaTAC. This is considered a major turning point in communications. The call was to Bob Barnett, the former president of Ameritech Mobile Communications, who then placed a call on a DynaTAC from inside of a Chrysler convertible to the grandson of Alexander Graham Bell who was in Germany.
- The stadium was listed on the National Register of Historic Places beginning in 1984. Its National Historic Landmark status was removed in 2006.
- In the summer of 2006, the stadium hosted the Opening Ceremony of the Gay Games
- In 2012, United States President Barack Obama held the 2012 Chicago summit, a summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), at McCormick Place and Soldier Field.
In popular culture
- In the Marvel Comics event Siege, Soldier Field is inadvertently destroyed mid-game by Thor's friend Volstagg when he is tricked into fighting the U-Foes through Loki and Norman Osborn's manipulations of events. The stadium is later seen being rebuilt by the heroes after Steve Rogers is appointed head of U.S. Security, following the aforementioned event.
- The 1977 documentary film Powers of Ten focuses on two people having a picnic on the east side of Soldier Field.
- The stadium appears in the 2006 Clint Eastwood–directed movie Flags of Our Fathers, when the survivors of the Iwo Jima flag-raising reenact it for a patriotic rally.
- The opening match of the 1994 World Cup at Soldier Field was one of the five events covered in the ESPN 30 for 30 documentary June 17th, 1994.
- Soldier Field features (much changed) in August 4017a.d. in From The Highlands short story in David Weber's anthology collection Changer Of Worlds. It appears to have gone through multiple renovations, rebuilds and even having been built over, until nothing but the open space of the original remained
- In the 13th Episode of Chicago Fire's fourth season, Soldier Field was featured on one of their calls for a terrorist hoax.
Aerial view, c. 1988, behind the stadium is the Field Museum of Natural History
View from Northerly Island
View towards the western grandstand's cantilever over the original western colonnade
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Soldier Field
- "Soldier Field". ESPN.com. January 9, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- "Stadium History and Timeline". Official website. Soldier Field. 2010. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "Start Work On New Municipal Stadium In Grant Park, Chicago". The Christian Science Monitor. August 16, 1922.
- Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
- Riess, Steven A. (2005). "Soldier Field". The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- Published October 6, 2003 (October 6, 2003). "After a quick build, showtime in Chicago". SportsBusiness Journal. Retrieved March 10, 2012.
- Hall, Andrew (January 18, 2015). "Report: Annual Blue-Gold Spring Game May Be Moved To Soldier Field". slapthesign.com. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- Ford, Liam T.A. Ford (2009). Soldier Field: A Stadium and Its City (1st ed.). Chicago: University Of Chicago Press. p. 91.
In 1929 a new stadium was under construction at Notre Dame, and the team played its entire home season at Soldier Field
- Ford, Liam T.A. Ford (2009). Soldier Field: A Stadium and Its City (1st ed.). Chicago: University Of Chicago Press. p. 236.
UIC started playing football at Soldier Field in 1966
- Ford, Liam T. A. Ford (2009). Soldier Field: A Stadium and Its City (1st ed.). Chicago: University Of Chicago Press. p. 236.
their last home game at Soldier Field, on November 3, 1973
- Rollow, Cooper (March 14, 1971). "Bears find home; it's Soldier Field". Chicago Tribune. p. 1, part 3.
- "Bears sign to play in Soldier Field". Milwaukee Journal. March 14, 1971. p. 21.
- "110,000 to see game today". Chicago Daily Tribune. November 27, 1926. p. 1.
- "Historical timeline of Soldier Field". Chicago Bears. 2009. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
- "Soldier Field", Chicago Architecture Info. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
- "Truman telss Chicago crowd U.S. must remain strong". Chicago Sunday Tribune. April 7, 1946. p. 10, part 1.
- "Closing meeting at Chicago's Soldier Field". Sydney Morning Herald. Australia. (photo). November 25, 1962. p. 64.
- Lugardo, Sara (2012-12-16). "History of Tailgating in Chicago". WBBM-TV. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- "Bears' games at Soldier Field may be moved". Schenectady Gazette. New York. Asssociated Press. August 16, 1988. p. 26.
- Taylor, Roy. "Soldier Field History". Bearshistory.com. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- "Soldier Field". Soldierfield.net. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- Barboza, David (June 16, 2003). "Chicago Journal; Soldier Field Renovation Brings Out Boo-Birds". The New York Times. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- Sharoff, Robert (November 2002). "Field of Pain". Chicago Magazine.
- Kamin, Blair (April 5, 2001). "Soldier field plan: On further Review, the Play Stinks". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
- Kamin, Blair (June 11, 2001). "The Monstrosity of the Midway; Mr. Mayor: Stop the Madness and Admit That the Lakefront Is No Place for the Bears". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
- Kamin, Blair (July 11, 2001). "A tale of Hungry Bears and White Elephants". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
- Chapman, Steve (September 14, 2003). "A stadium deal that is hard to bear". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- Muschamp, Herbert (December 23, 2003). "Architecture: The Highs; The Buildings (and Plans) of the Year". The New York Times. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- Mayer, Larry. "Soldier Field wins prestigious award". Chicago Bears. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- "Soldier Field loses National Historic Landmark status". General Cultural Resources News. eCulturalResources. April 24, 2006. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- Murray, Jeanne (October 20, 2006). "Leveling the Playing Field". Preservation Magazine. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- "Weekly List of Actions taken on properties: 4/17/06 through 4/21/06". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. April 28, 2006. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "Soldier Field earns top building honor". Chicago Bears. May 31, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- "1926 Army-Navy Game". Library Archives. United States Naval Academy. November 26, 2001. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
-  Archived July 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
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- [dead link]
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The zoom-out continues, to a view of 100 meters (10^2 m), then 1 kilometer (10^3 m), and so on, increasing the perspective. The picnic is revealed to be taking place near Soldier Field on Chicago's waterfront, and continuing to zoom out to a field of view of 10^24 meters, or the size of the observable universe.
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