Sulfur at the Solfatara crater
|Elevation||458 m (1,503 ft) |
|Age of rock||40,000 years|
|Mountain type||Crater of Campi Flegrei|
|Volcanic arc/belt||Campanian volcanic arc|
Solfatara is a shallow volcanic crater at Pozzuoli, near Naples, part of the Campi Flegrei volcanic area. It is a dormant volcano, which still emits jets of steam with sulfurous fumes. The name comes from the Latin, Sulpha terra, "land of sulfur", or "sulfur earth". It was formed around 4000 years ago and last erupted in 1198 with what was probably a phreatic eruption - an explosive steam-driven eruption caused when groundwater interacts with magma. The crater floor is a popular tourist attraction, as it has many fumaroles and mud pools. The area is well known for its bradyseism. The vapours have been used for medical purposes since Roman times.
This volcano is where the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus was first isolated. The archaeon is named for the volcano, as most species of the genus Sulfolobus are named for the area where they are first isolated.
- "Campi Flegrei". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
- Kilburn, Chris; McGuire, Bill (2001). Italian Volcanoes (Classic Geology in Europe 1). Terra Publishing. pp. 174 pp. ISBN 1-903544-04-1.
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