Solid-state battery

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Solid-state lithium-ion battery)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Solid-state battery is a battery technology that uses both solid electrodes and solid electrolytes, instead of the liquid or polymer electrolytes found in lithium-ion or lithium polymer batteries.[1][2]

The technology is a proposed alternative to conventional lithium-ion battery technology.[2]


Michael Faraday discovered the solid electrolytes silver sulfide and lead(II) fluoride, which laid the foundation for solid-state ionics.[3][4] High performance batteries are considered to be solid-state ionic devices.[5]

In the late 1950s, efforts were made to develop a solid-state battery.[6] The first solid-state batteries, which utilized silver ion conducting electrolytes, had low energy density and cell voltages, in addition to very high internal resistance.[6] A new class of solid state electrolyte, developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 1990s, was later incorporated into certain thin film lithium-ion batteries, which are considered to be a form of solid state battery.[7]

In 2013, researchers at University of Colorado Boulder announced the development of a solid-state lithium battery, with a solid composite cathode based upon an iron-sulfur chemistry, that promised higher energy capacity.[8] In 2014, researchers at Sakti3 announced a solid-state electrolyte lithium-ion battery, and claimed higher energy density for lower cost.[9] The company was acquired by Dyson in the following year.[10]

In 2017, John Goodenough, the co-inventor of Li-ion batteries, unveiled a new solid-state battery, using glass electrolytes and an alkali-metal anode consisting of lithium, sodium or potassium, which is not possible with conventional batteries.[11]

In 2018, Solid Power announced it had received $20 million in funding for a small manufacturing line to produce all-solid-state, rechargeable lithium-metal batteries.[12] The line will be able to produce batteries with about 10 megawatt hours of capacity per year.[13]

Fisker to use solid-state batteries from 2020.[14]


Many materials have been proposed for use as solid electrolytes in solid-state batteries, including ceramics,[15] glass,[11][16] and lithium sulfide.[17]


Solid-state batteries have found use in pacemakers, RFID, and wearable devices.[18][19]

Potential use in electric vehicles[edit]

Currently, hybrid and plug-in electric cars use a variety of battery technologies, including Li-ion, Nickel–metal hydride (NiMH), Lead–acid, and Electric double-layer capacitor (or ultracapacitor),[20] with many car makers adopting Li-ion technology for their EV offerings.[21] A number of car makers and other companies, however, are looking into developing or using solid-state batteries due to the advantages described below.

Toyota announced in 2014 its solid-state battery development efforts.[22] In 2017, the company announced the deepening of a decades-long partnership with Panasonic, which will include a collaboration on solid-state batteries.[23] Volkswagen announced a $100 million investment in QuantumScape, a solid-state battery startup that spun out of Stanford.[24] Other car makers developing solid-state battery technologies include BMW,[25] Honda,[26] Hyundai Motor Company,[27] and Nissan.[28]

Other companies are also developing solid-state battery for automotive applications. Dyson, a company known for manufacturing household appliances, announced in 2017 that it plans to launch an electric car by 2020.[10] Two years prior to the announcement, Dyson bought Sakti3, a company researching solid-state batteries.[10] Fisker Automotive claims its solid-state battery technology will be ready for "automotive-grade production" in 2023.[29] NGK, a company known for spark plugs, is developing ceramic-based solid state batteries, utilizing its expertise in the area of ceramics.[30]

A Chinese company, Qing Tao, started a production line of solid-state batteries. [31]



Solid-state batteries are traditionally expensive to make[32] and current manufacturing processes are noted to be immune to economies of scale.[7] It was estimated in 2012 that, based on then-current technology, a 20 Ah solid-state battery cell would cost US$100,000, and a high-range electric car would require 800 to 1,000 of such cells.[7] Cost is noted to be a factor that has impeded the adoption of solid-state batteries in certain areas, such as smartphones.[18]

Temperature and Pressure Impacts[edit]

In addition, low temperature operations may be challenging[32] and solid-state batteries were once noted for having very poor performance, making their use in rechargeable batteries impractical.[8]

Meanwhile, solid-state batteries with ceramic electrolytes require high pressure to maintain contact with the electrodes.[33] Solid-state batteries with ceramic separators may break from mechanical stress due to their rigid nature.[7]

Dendrite Formation and Growth in Lithium (Li) Metal Anodes[edit]

Solid lithium (Li) metal anodes in solid-state batteries are replacing graphite anodes in lithium-ion batteries for higher energy densities, safety, and faster recharging times as mentioned below in the advantages section. One disadvantage of using solid Li metal as anodes is the formation and the growth of Li dendrite due to the reactivity of the Li metal.[34]

Dendrite Formation[edit]

Lithium metal dendrite from the anode piercing through the separator and growing towards the cathode.

The dendrite mentioned above are commonly formed during electrodeposition of metals.[35] In particular, the lithium dendrites form during repeated charge and discharge cycles. This is because during the cycles, lithium ions in the solid electrolyte combine with electrons at the surface of the lithium anode as the battery charges - forming a layer of lithium metal.[36] Ideally, the lithium deposition would occur evenly on the anode while the dendrite grows towards the cathode. However, the metal depositions on tip of protrusion yielding structures that grow like a needle across the electrolyte and/or separator.[37]

Problems with Dendrites[edit]

Li dendrites will penetrate the separator that is placed between the anode and the cathode to prevent short circuits. Penetrating the separator is very dangerous and causes severe safety issues from possible overheating, fires, or explosions from thermal runaway propagation.[38] Li dendrites also induce a low Coulombic efficiency - thereby decreasing the practicality of Li metal batteries.[39]

Preventing/Alleviating Dendrite Growth[edit]

Stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) was found to be the most effective strategy to inhibit dendrite growth and achieve higher cycling performance.[39] Although using solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) to prevent dendrite growth seems promising, future research in the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)-like interface layer between Li and SSEs is still needed.[38] A 2018 research found that nanoporous ceramic separators block Li dendrite growths up to critical current densities - proven by the lack of sudden voltage drops as a sign of metal penetration through separator.[40]


Solid-state battery technology is believed to be capable of higher energy density (2.5x),[41] because of their tolerance to higher temperatures, avoiding the use of materials in current batteries that may be dangerous or toxic.[42]

Because most liquid electrolytes are considered to be flammable, solid-state batteries are believed to be safer. As fewer safety systems are needed, a more compact battery is possible, improving energy and power densities.[1][42]

Solid-state battery technology is also believed to allow for faster recharging for electric cars.[43][44] In addition, higher voltage and longer cycle life is possible with solid-state batteries.[42][32]


There have been efforts in researching hybrid battery technologies that utilize solid and liquid electrolytes together. One such battery was unveiled in 2015.[45] Samsung SDI and LG Chem are also reportedly developing hybrid batteries.[46]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Reisch, Marc S. (20 November 2017). "Solid-state batteries inch their way toward commercialization". Chemical & Engineering News. 95 (46): 19–21.
  2. ^ a b Vandervell, Andy (26 September 2017). "What is a solid-state battery? The benefits explained". Wired UK. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  3. ^ Funke K (August 2013). "Solid State Ionics: from Michael Faraday to green energy-the European dimension". Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. 14 (4): 043502. Bibcode:2013STAdM..14d3502F. doi:10.1088/1468-6996/14/4/043502. PMC 5090311. PMID 27877585.
  4. ^ Lee, Sehee (2012). "Solid State Cell Chemistries and Designs" (PDF). ARPA-E. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  5. ^ Weppner, Werner (September 2003). "Engineering of solid state ionic devices". International Journal of Ionics. 9 (5–6): 444–464. doi:10.1007/BF02376599. Solid state ionic devices such as high performance batteries...
  6. ^ a b Owens, Boone B.; Munshi, M. Z. A. (January 1987). "History of Solid State Batteries" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center. Corrosion Research Center, University of Minnesota. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d Jones, Kevin S.; Rudawski, Nicholas G.; Oladeji, Isaiah; Pitts, Roland; Fox, Richard. "The state of solid-state batteries" (PDF). American Ceramic Society Bulletin. 91 (2).
  8. ^ a b "Solid-state battery developed at CU-Boulder could double the range of electric cars". University of Colorado Boulder. 18 September 2013. Archived from the original on 7 November 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  9. ^ Dumaine, Brian (18 September 2014). "Will this battery change everything?". Fortune Magazine. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  10. ^ a b c "Vacuum Tycoon James Dyson To Roll Out An Electric Car By 2020". Forbes. 26 September 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  11. ^ a b "Lithium-Ion Battery Inventor Introduces New Technology for Fast-Charging, Noncombustible Batteries". University of Texas at Austin. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  12. ^ "Solid Power raises $20 million to build all-solid-state batteries — Quartz". Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  13. ^ "Samsung Venture, Hyundai Investing in Battery Producer". Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  14. ^ Fisker to use solid-state batteries from 2020.
  15. ^ Chandler, David L. (12 July 2017). "Study suggests route to improving rechargeable lithium batteries". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Researchers have tried to get around these problems by using an electrolyte made out of solid materials, such as some ceramics.
  16. ^ See glass battery for further details on a battery design that utilizes glass electrolytes
  17. ^ Chandler, David L. (2 February 2017). "Toward all-solid lithium batteries". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Researchers investigate mechanics of lithium sulfides, which show promise as solid electrolytes.
  18. ^ a b Carlon, Kris (24 October 2016). "The battery technology that could put an end to battery fires". Android Authority. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  19. ^ "Will solid-state batteries power us all?". The Economist. 16 October 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  20. ^ "Batteries for Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles". Alternative Fuels Data Center. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  21. ^ "Energy Storage". National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved 7 January 2018. Many automakers have adopted lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries as the preferred EDV energy storage option, capable of delivering the required energy and power density in a relatively small, lightweight package.
  22. ^ Greimel, Hans (27 January 2014). "Toyota preps solid-state batteries for '20s". Automotive News. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  23. ^ Buckland, Kevin; Sagiike, Hideki (13 December 2017). "Toyota Deepens Panasonic Battery Ties in Electric-Car Rush". Bloomberg Technology. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  24. ^ "Volkswagen becomes latest automaker to invest in solid-state batteries for electric cars". 22 Jun 2018.
  25. ^ "Solid Power, BMW partner to develop next-generation EV batteries". Reuters. 18 December 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  26. ^ Krok, Andrew (21 December 2017). "Honda hops on solid-state battery bandwagon". Roadshow by CNET. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  27. ^ Lambert, Fred (6 April 2017). "Hyundai reportedly started pilot production of next-gen solid-state batteries for electric vehicles". Electrek. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  28. ^ "Honda and Nissan said to be developing next-generation solid-state batteries for electric vehicles". The Japan Times. Kyodo News. 21 December 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  29. ^ Lambert, Fred (14 November 2017). "Fisker claims solid-state battery 'breakthrough' for electric cars with '500 miles range and 1 min charging'". Electrek. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  30. ^ Tajitsu, Naomi (21 December 2017). "Bracing for EV shift, NGK Spark Plug ignites all solid-state battery quest". Reuters. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  31. ^ China starts solid-state battery production, pushing energy density higher.
  32. ^ a b c Jones, Kevin S. "State of Solid-State Batteries" (PDF). Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  33. ^ "New hybrid electrolyte for solid-state lithium batteries". 21 December 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  34. ^ Wood, Kevin N.; Kazyak, Eric; Chadwick, Alexander F.; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Thornton, Katsuyo; Dasgupta, Neil P. (2016-10-14). "Dendrites and Pits: Untangling the Complex Behavior of Lithium Metal Anodes through Operando Video Microscopy". doi:10.1021/acscentsci.6b00260#citing. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
  35. ^ Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu; Henderson, Wesley A. (2016-10-07), "Application of Lithium Metal Anodes", Lithium Metal Anodes and Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries, Springer International Publishing, pp. 153–188, ISBN 9783319440538, retrieved 2019-03-12
  36. ^ Harry, Katherine Joann (2016-05-01). "Lithium dendrite growth through solid polymer electrolyte membranes".
  37. ^ Newman, John; Monroe, Charles (2003-10-01). "Dendrite Growth in Lithium/Polymer Systems A Propagation Model for Liquid Electrolytes under Galvanostatic Conditions". Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 150 (10): A1377–A1384. doi:10.1149/1.1606686. ISSN 0013-4651.
  38. ^ a b Jiang, Hanqing; Tang, Ming; Duan, Huigao; Wang, Fan; Yang, Haokai; Xu, Wenwen; Hong, Liang; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Xu (March 2018). "Stress-driven lithium dendrite growth mechanism and dendrite mitigation by electroplating on soft substrates". Nature Energy. 3 (3): 227–235. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0104-5. ISSN 2058-7546.
  39. ^ a b Cheng, Xin-Bing; Zhang (17 November 2015). "A Review of Solid Electrolyte Interphases on Lithium Metal Anode". Advanced Science. 3: 1 – via Wiley Online Library.
  40. ^ Bazant, Martin Z.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Li, Ju; Su, Liang; Kushima, Akihiro; Wang, Miao; Guo, Jinzhao; Bai, Peng (2018-11-21). "Interactions between Lithium Growths and Nanoporous Ceramic Separators". Joule. 2 (11): 2434–2449. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2018.08.018. ISSN 2542-4785.
  41. ^ Dudney, Nancy J; West, William C; Nanda, Jagjit, eds. (2015). Handbook of Solid State Batteries. Materials and Energy. 6 (2nd ed.). doi:10.1142/9487. ISBN 978-981-4651-89-9.
  42. ^ a b c Bullis, Kevin (19 April 2011). "Solid-State Batteries - High-energy cells for cheaper electric cars". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  43. ^ Eisenstein, Paul A. (1 January 2018). "From cellphones to cars, these batteries could cut the cord forever". NBC News. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  44. ^ Limer, Eric (25 July 2017). "Toyota Working on Electric Cars That Charge in Minutes for 2022". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  45. ^ Bullis, Kevin (2 February 2015). "A Battery for Electronics That Lasts Twice as Long". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  46. ^ Ji-hye, Shin (30 June 2017). "Solid-state battery for Samsung Galaxy likely in years". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 7 January 2018. Samsung SDI and LG Chem are likely to unveil “solid-like” batteries for electric cars, instead of directly mass producing solid-state batteries. Solid-like batteries, which have some liquid electrolytes, are safer than lithium-ion batteries and easier to produce than solid-state batteries, experts said.

Further reading[edit]