Solid earth

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Solid earth refers to "the earth beneath our feet" or terra firma, the planet's solid surface and its interior.[1]: v [2]: 1  It contrasts with the Earth's fluid envelopes, the atmosphere and hydrosphere (but includes the ocean basin), as well as the biosphere and interactions with the Sun. It includes the liquid core.[citation needed]

Solid-earth science refers to the corresponding methods of study, a subset of Earth sciences, predominantly geophysics and geology, excluding aeronomy, atmospheric sciences, oceanography, hydrology, and ecology.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on Solid Earth Problems (1964). Solid-earth Geophysics: Survey and Outlook. National Academies.
  2. ^ Council, National Research (1993). Solid-earth sciences and society. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. ISBN 9780309047395.

Further reading[edit]