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The Solid image is a geomatic (Geomatics) product giving the possibility to mesures 3D coordinates from a simple 2D image. The solid image is an easy and complete way to describe 3D objects.
A photo image can be considered, from a photogrammetric (photogrammetry) point of view, a central perspective of the acquired object with good approximation. If the internal and external orientation of the camera are known, it is possible to establish the direction in the space of each object point represented by a pixel in the digital image. If only one image is available, it is impossible to determine the spatial X,Y,Z position of such object points, because the simple direction is insufficient: all the points along that direction would give the same image point.
By means of a DDEM (Dense Digital elevation model) of the acquired object, every pixel (and therefore every direction in the space)can be associated to the value of distance between the center of perspectivity and the object point represented by the pixel itself. In this way each pixel can be referred to the 3D position of the corresponding object point in an absolute reference system. The DDEM can be derived from an existing map, or by the use of surveying instruments and procedures. A series of instruments, based on the laser technology (3D scanner), have been introduced on the market, giving the possibility to obtain a DDEM in a quick and cheap way.
The idea, 2003
Definition, first results and applications of the solid image was presented in the ISPRS (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing - ) Comm.V, WG V/4 meeting in Ancona, July 2003 and in the CIPA 2003 XIXth Symposium – Antalya, Turkey 30 September - 04 October2003. The Solid Image have been ideated by Prof. Sergio Dequal, DITAG - Dipartimento di Ingegneria del Territorio, dell'Ambiente e delle Geotecnlogie del Politecnico di Torino (), and developed by a DITAG Politecnico di Torino research group (Prof. Fulvio Rinaudo, Prof. Andrea Lingua, Dott. Leandro Bornaz).
- BORNAZ L., S. DEQUAL. (2003). A new concept: the solid image. In: International Archives CIPA N°XIX-2003 Vol. 1 ---------------- ISPRS Vol. XXXVI-5/C34. CIPA 2003 XIXth International Symposium. Antalia (Turchia). 30 settembre – 04 ottobre 2003. (vol. 1, pp. 169–174). ISBN 975-561-245-9 / ISSN 0256-1840.
- BORNAZ L., S. DEQUAL. (2004). The solid image: An easy and complete way to describe 3D objects. In: Volume XXXV part B5. XXth ISPRS congress. Istanbul. 12 – 23 luglio 2004. (pp. 183–188). ISSN 1682-1777.
- BORNAZ L. (2005). LSR 2004 software. A solution to manage terrestrial laser scanner point clouds and solid images. In: International Workshop on Recording, Modeling and Visualization of Cultural Heritage. Centro S. Franscini Monte Verità Ascona (Suisse). 22 - 27 maggio 2005. (pp. 479–484). ISBN 041539208X.