Solidago altissima

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Solidago altissima
Solidago altissima2.jpg
Scientific classification
S. altissima
Binomial name
Solidago altissima
  • Solidago hirsutissima Mill.
  • Solidago lunellii Rydb.
  • Solidago scabra Muhl. ex Willd.
  • Doria gilvocanescens (Rydb.) Lunell, syn of subsp. gilvocanescens
  • Solidago gilvocanescens (Rydb.) Smyth, syn of subsp. gilvocanescens
  • Solidago pruinosa Greene, syn of subsp. gilvocanescens

Solidago altissima, the Canada goldenrod[2] or late goldenrod,[3] is a North American species of goldenrod widespread across much of Canada, the United States, and northern Mexico.[3] It is common in much of its range, and fairly tolerant of landscapes which have been disturbed by humans.[4] It has become naturalized in many parts of the world.[3][5][6]


Solidago altissima is one to two meters (40-80 inches) tall, with fine hairs on the stem. The leaves are located along the stem, not in a rosette near the ground. One plant can produce as many as 1500 small yellow flower heads in a large conical array.[3]

Solidago altissima is self-incompatible, meaning that the pollen from one plant cannot pollinate the female flower parts of the same plant.[4]


Solidago altissima has diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid populations and morphological variations which has generally led to classifying it into two subspecies, which roughly speaking can be identified as being from the eastern and western parts of the continent. At least in the midwest, it is common to have plants of different ploidy interspersed, with little apparent tendency for one type to dominate even a fairly local geographical area.[4]

Within Solidago, S. altissima is part of the Solidago canadensis species complex, which is classified in the subsection Triplinervae.[4] S. altissima has sometimes been classified as part of S. canadensis.[3]

  • Solidago altissima subsp. altissima - central + eastern Canada + USA, plus northeastern Mexico as far south as Veracruz; naturalized in western USA
  • Solidago altissima subsp. gilvocanescens (Rydb.) Semple - Canada from British Columbia to Ontario; Great Plains of USA; State of Chihuahua in Mexico


  1. ^ a b The Plant List, Solidago altissima L.
  2. ^ "Solidago altissima". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "57. Solidago altissima Linnaeus", Flora of North America
  4. ^ a b c d Kristy Halverson, Stephen B. Heard, John D. Nason and John O. Stireman, III (2008), "Origins, distribution, and local co-occurrence of polyploid cytotypes in Solidago altissima (Asteraceae)", American Journal of Botany, 95 (1): 50–58, doi:10.3732/ajb.95.1.50, PMID 21632314CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Flora of China, Solidago altissima Linnaeus, 1753. 高大一枝黄花 gao da yi zhi huang hua
  6. ^ Atlas of Living Australia