Solidago canadensis

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Canada goldenrod
Solidago canadensis 20050815 248.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Astereae
Genus: Solidago
Species: S. canadensis
Binomial name
Solidago canadensis
  • Aster canadensis (L.) Kuntze
  • Doria canadensis (L.) Lunell
  • Solidago altissima L.
  • Solidago anthropogena (invalid)
  • Solidago canadensis subsp. altissima (L.) O.Bolòs & Vigo
  • Solidago canadensis var. arizonica A.Gray
  • Solidago canadensis var. bartramiana Beaudry
  • Solidago canadensis var. canescens A.Gray
  • Solidago canadensis subsp. elongata (Nutt.) D.D.Keck
  • Solidago canadensis var. elongata (Nutt.) M.Peck
  • Solidago canadensis var. fallax (Fernald) Beaudry
  • Solidago canadensis var. gilvocanescens Rydb.
  • Solidago canadensis subsp. gilvocanescens (Rydb.) Á.Löve & D.Löve
  • Solidago canadensis var. rupestris (Raf.) Porter
  • Solidago canadensis subsp. salebrosa (Piper) D.D.Keck
  • Solidago canadensis var. salebrosa (Piper) M.E.Jones
  • Solidago canadensis var. scabriuscula Porter (Illegitimate)
  • Solidago canadensis var. subserrata (DC.) Cronquist

Solidago canadensis (known as Canada golden-rod or Canadian goldenrod) is an herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae native to northeastern North America but established as an invasive plant in many other regions.[2] It is often grown as an ornamental in flower gardens

The plant is erect, often forming colonies. Flowers are small yellow heads held above the foliage on a branching inflorescence.

Solidago canadensis in Kerala

Ecology and distribution[edit]

S. canadensis is sometimes browsed by deer and is good to fair as food for domestic livestock such as cattle or horses.[3]

It occurs throughout North America, in most US states and Canadian provinces.[3] It is found in a variety of habitats, although it is not shade tolerant. It typically is one of the first plants to colonize an area after disturbance (such as fire) and rarely persists once shrubs and trees become established. It is found neither in very dry locations nor in waterlogged ones.[3]

Invasive species[edit]

In many parts of Europe, Japan and China, it is established as an invasive weed.

In eastern and southeastern China, particularly the provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Jiangxi and Shanghai, its invasion has reached pandemic levels and has caused widespread concern. It has been reported that the invasion of the Canada Golden-rod along with other invasive plants, has caused the extinction of 30 native plants in Shanghai.[4]{dead link} In the city of Ningbo, Zhejiang, it has reduced local orange harvests.[5] It is still spreading across China, and sightings have been reported in as far as Yunnan province. Various national and provincial authorities have been on high alert.

In Fukushima it has taken over the rice fields that have been temporarily abandoned because of the nuclear power plant disaster.


  1. ^ The Plant List, Solidago canadensis
  2. ^ Flora of North America, Solidago canadensis, vol 20
  3. ^ a b c "Fire Effects Information System: species reviews of fire and other ecology". 1993. Retrieved 2009-08-24.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  4. ^ Jiangsu's battle with Canada Goldenrod (Chinese)
  5. ^ Jiaodianfangtan (Chinese)

External links[edit]