Solidago rugosa

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Solidago rugosa
Solidago rugosa var aspera.jpg
variety aspera
Scientific classification
S. rugosa
Binomial name
Solidago rugosa
Mill. 1768
  • Aster archerianus Kuntze
  • Aster rugosus (Mill.) Kuntze
  • Solidago aestivalis E. P. Bicknell, syn of var. sphagnophila
  • Solidago aspera Aiton, syn of var. aspera
  • Solidago celtidifolia Small, syn of var. celtidifolia

Solidago rugosa, commonly called the wrinkleleaf goldenrod[2] or rough-stemmed goldenrod,[3] is a species of flowering plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is native to North America, where it is widespread across eastern and central Canada (from Newfoundland to Ontario) and the eastern and central United States (Maine west as far as Wisconsin and Iowa, south to Florida and Texas).[4] It is usually found in wet to mesic habitats.[5]


Solidago rugosa is a rough-leaved herbaceous perennial up to 2 m (6.6 ft) tall. Its leaves are primarily cauline. One plant can produce as many as 50 stems, each with 50–1500 yellow flower heads.[5] It flowers in late summer through fall.[6] It can be distinguished from the similar-looking Solidago ulmifolia by the presence of creeping rhizomes, and by its more abrupt leaf bases.[7]


Solidago rugosa is a variable plant throughout its range. Five varieties are currently recognized, although their relationships are complex and poorly understood.[7] The varieties are:[5][6]

  • Solidago rugosa var. aspera (Aiton) Fernald - common throughout the east
  • Solidago rugosa var. celtidifolia (Small) Fernald - coastal plain from Texas to Virginia
  • Solidago rugosa var. cronquistiana Semple - high elevations in Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina
  • Solidago rugosa var. rugosa - common, generally more northern and Appalachian
  • Solidago rugosa var. sphagnophila C. Graves - cedar swamps from Nova Scotia to coastal Virginia


Solidago rugosa is common throughout most of its range, and is not tracked at the species level in any state or province it is native to.[9] However, in Connecticut the variety sphagnophila is listed as a special concern and believed to be extirpated from the state.[10]


Solidago rugosa is grown as an ornamental garden plant. The cultivar ‘Fireworks’ has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.[11]

Native American ethnobotany[edit]

The Iroquois use the whole plant for biliousness and as liver medicine, and take a decoction of flowers and leaves for dizziness, weakness or sunstroke.[12]


  1. ^ The Plant List, Solidago rugosa Mill.
  2. ^ "Solidago rugosa". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  3. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  4. ^ "Solidago rugosa". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  5. ^ a b c Flora of North America, Solidago rugosa Miller, 1768. Rough-stemmed or wrinkle-leaf goldenrod, verge d’or rugueuse
  6. ^ a b Alan Weakley (2015). "Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States".
  7. ^ a b Yatskievych, George (2006). Flora of Missouri, Volume 2. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. p. 274.
  8. ^ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 3: 390.
  9. ^ Solidago rugosa NatureServe
  10. ^ "Connecticut's Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Species 2015". State of Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Bureau of Natural Resources. Retrieved 31 December 2017.(Note: This list is newer than the one used by and is more up-to-date.)
  11. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Solidago rugossa 'Fireworks'". Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  12. ^ Herrick, James William, 1977, Iroquois Medical Botany, State University of New York, Albany, PhD Thesis, page 461

External links[edit]