Solo Man

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Solo Man
Temporal range: Late Pleistocene 0.1 Ma
Ngandong 7-Homo erectus.jpg
Cast of Ngandong 13 from the National Museum of Natural History
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Homininae
Tribe: Hominini
Genus: Homo
H. e. soloensis
Trinomial name
Homo erectus soloensis
Oppenoorth, 1932

Solo Man (Homo erectus soloensis) is a subspecies of Homo erectus, identified based on fossil evidence of 18 specimens discovered between 1931 and 1933 by Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald[1] from sites along the Solo River, on the Indonesian island of Java, dated to between 116,000 and 108,000 years old.[2][3] The remains are also commonly referred to as Ngandong (now at Kradenan district, Blora Regency), after the village near where they were first recovered, and older remains located at Bapang.

It is a late variant of H. erectus, dated to after 120,000 years ago, overlapping with Homo heidelbergensis and possibly with early Homo sapiens. Though its morphology was, for the most part, typical of Homo erectus, its cranial capacity of 1,013–1,251 cm³ places it amongst the larger-brained representatives of its species (compared to 900 cm³ for the older Java Man),[4] and its culture was also unusually advanced.[5][6]

Due to the tools found with the fossils and many of their more gracile anatomical features, Solo Man was first classified as a subspecies of Homo sapiens (dubbed Homo sapiens soloensis) and long thought to be the ancestor of modern Australo-Melanesians. More rigorous studies in the 1990s have concluded that this is not the case.[6] Analysis of 18 crania from Sangiran, Trinil, Sambungmacan, and Ngandong show chronological development from the Bapang-AG to Ngandong periods.[4]

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  1. ^ Schwartz, Jeffrey H.; Tattersall, Ian (2005). The Human Fossil Record, Craniodental Morphology of Genus Homo (Africa and Asia). John Wiley & Sons. p. 450. ISBN 9780471326441.
  2. ^ "Researchers determine age for last known settlement by a direct ancestor to modern humans". Nature.
  3. ^ Rizal, Yan; Westaway, Kira E.; Zaim, Yahdi; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Morwood, Michael J.; Huffman, O. Frank; Grün, Rainer; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bailey, Richard M.; Sidarto (January 2020). "Last appearance of Homo erectus at Ngandong, Java, 117,000–108,000 years ago". Nature. 577 (7790): 381–385. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1863-2. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 31853068.
  4. ^ a b Kaifu, Y; Aziz, F; Indriati, E; Jacob, T; Kurniawan, I; Baba, H (Oct 2008). "Cranial morphology of Javanese Homo erectus: new evidence for continuous evolution, specialization, and terminal extinction". Journal of Human Evolution. 55 (4): 551–80. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.05.002. ISSN 0047-2484. PMID 18635247.
  5. ^ Ngandong Archived 2007-02-08 at the Wayback Machine (Emuseum@Minnesota State University, Mankato)
  6. ^ a b Brown, Peter (1992). "Recent human evolution in East Asia and Australasia". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences. 337 (1280): 235–242. doi:10.1098/rstb.1992.0101. PMID 1357698.

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