Solomon Passy

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Solomon Isaac Passy
д-р Соломон Исак Паси
Solomon Isaac Passy 2.jpg
Archive of the Atlantic Club of Bulgaria
Personal details
Born (1956-12-22) 22 December 1956 (age 59)
Citizenship Bulgaria
Nationality Bulgarian
Political party UDF / NDSV
Religion Secular with Jewish, Orthodox and Arabic roots

Solomon Isaac Passy (Bulgarian: Соломон Исак Паси) (born December 22, 1956) is a Bulgarian politician, Founder & President of the Atlantic Club of Bulgaria (1990–present), foreign minister of Bulgaria in the Government of H.M. King Simeon II (2001-2005), and the Chairman-in-Office of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in 2004. He was representing Bulgaria at UN Security Council & was its Chairman (2002-2003), and was Bulgaria’s nomination for Secretary General of NATO (2009).

Solomon Passy became Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Parliamentary Committee (2005-2009) and Chairman of the Foreign Affairs, Defense and Security Parliamentary Committee (2001). He was a Member of Parliament in three legislations (1990-1991, 2001-2005, 2005–2009) and the first CEE Vice-President of the Atlantic Treaty Association, Paris (1996-1999).

He was an activist of opposition and freedom fighting movements (1980s) and Computer Scientist at Sofia University / Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1979-1994). Dr. Passy is a co-author of the EU Universal USB charger for GSM (2008-2014) and a traveler to Antarctica & the rest of the world.


Solomon Passy was born in Plovdiv. He is the son of famous Bulgarian philosopher Isaac Passy and Dr. Lily Passy - physician, inventor and endocrinologist. He is a mathematician and holds a Ph.D. in Mathematical Logic and Computer Science from Sofia University. He was involved in the dissident movement under the socialist regime. In 1990, Passy became the founding President and CEO of the Atlantic Club of Bulgaria (ACB), the unique NGO ever operating on Warsaw Pact territory vocally advocating its dissolution, and the accession of New Europe to NATO and the EU. Solomon is also the founder and spokesman of the Green Party of Bulgaria.

Atlantic & European Integration[edit]

In August 1990 Dr. Passy MP appealed to the Grand National Assembly and drafted the Parliamentary Bill for the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact and Bulgaria's accession to NATO.

This is apparently the first ever registered worldwide parliamentary motion in that regard which triggered the trans-Atlantic discussion on NATO’s enlargement eastwards. Solomon and his team founded the ACB, which was succeeded by dozens of other Atlantic NGO’s in Central and Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa. The logo of the Atlantic Club – the NATO compass rose combined with the 12 EU stars – became the symbol of unity of the Euro-Atlantic area adopted by number of the emerging Atlantic NGO’s.

In November 1990 the ACB Founders led by Dr. Passy made the first ever visit of East European delegation to NATO HQ by invitation of NATO SG Manfred Wörner and the US Permanent Representative to NATO William Taft IV.

The political weight of Solomon Passy was skyrocketed in June 1991 by NATO SG Manfred Wörner who agreed to be "kidnapped" by his friend Solomon in his East German car Trabant—a story well covered by CNN (Link1 and Link2) and the Bulgarian print media (Link, in Bulgarian). This Trabant is currently an exhibit at the National Museum of Military History (Sofia, Link). In April 1992 Manfred Wörner sent a congratulatory telegram to Dr. Passy about the first anniversary of the ACB (Link).

Solomon worked over Bulgaria's membership in NATO for 14 years. The happy ending of his Atlantic saga was on April 2, 2004 when Minister Passy raised the Bulgarian flag over NATO's HQ and his emotions shown on CNN became the symbol of NATO's Big Bang enlargement eastward (Link1 and Link2).

Dr. Passy MP is co-author of the bill for Bulgaria’s membership in the EU, adopted by the Grand National Assembly in December 1990. He worked over the EU project for 17 years and the crown of his efforts was the EU Accession Treaty of Bulgaria which Minister Passy negotiated and signed on April 25, 2005 (Link). As a side effect of his efforts the Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet became the third official EU alphabet and is currently available on the European € banknotes (Link).

In 1990–1991 Dr. Passy MP was driving force behind Bulgaria's participation in the US-led coalition that liberated Kuwait from Saddam Hussein's occupation. This was the first in series of US-Bulgarian defense alliances following the fall of the Berlin Wall, and Dr. Passy was in one way or another involved in the creation of all of them.

Following a 1999 vision of the ACB, Minister Passy proposed in 2003 the creation of joint US-Bulgarian defense facilities in Bulgaria – a project he ratified in 2006 as Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Parliamentary Committee.

Global Affairs[edit]

In 2001—after successful campaign led by Minister Passy—Bulgaria was elected for rotational member of the UN Security Council (2002-2003). Solomon represented his country on UNSC and chaired the latter twice (September 2002 and December 2003). This period, immediately after 9/11, was crucial for a new global definition of security and Bulgaria’s responsible performance on UNSC was among the factors for the 2002 invitation by President Bush to Bulgaria to join NATO.

In 2004—after the successful campaign led by him—Minister Passy became the OSCE Chairman-in-Office. At this position he launched a major vision for reforms in OSCE refocusing the activities of OSCE to the east of the Black Sea. This approach was proven visionary in 2008-2014 after the annexations of South Ossetia, Abkhazia and Crimea.

Among Solomon’s achievements at OSCE are the solution of the frozen conflict in Ajaria (Georgia) – the only one resolved frozen conflict ever in the history of OSCE, and the accession of Mongolia to OSCE which eventually led to Mongolia’s orbiting in NATO’s partnerships’ framework.

The OSCE Berlin Conference on Antisemitism (April 2004) hosted by Solomon Passy in partnership with Joschka Fischer and Colin Powell warned the world for upcoming global threats which the radical terrorism tragically proved true in the following decades. Ever since, the commitment to address and respond to anti-Semitism and other biases has been part of the OSCE’s work in the human dimension of security and strongly influenced the OSCE Human Dimension Implementation Meeting, which is Europe's largest annual human rights and democracy conference.

See also: Dr. Solomon Passy and China, Dr. Solomon Passy: Central Asia, Caucasus and Post-Soviet Space (as CiO of the OSCE – 2004) , and Memorandum about Relationships between the Holy See and the Atlantic Club of Bulgaria.

Mediation & Diplomatic Breakthroughs[edit]

Minister Passy masterminded the negotiation strategy and architected the EU-US-BG negotiating Troika with Libya’s dictator col. Gaddafi for the successful release (July 2007) of six Bulgarian medics taken by him as hostages in 1999.

Dr. Passy MP undertook on behalf of the Western Allies successful mediating missions in North Korea (July-August 2007) which eventually contributed to the destruction of the cooling tower for heavy water at the Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center (North Korea) on June 27, 2008 and to Summit meeting between North and South Korea.

Dr Passy successfully mediated with Iran for the release of US citizens collaborators of George Soros detained in Iran in May 2007.

In 2007 Solomon assumed one-year assignment as an advisor to the Macedonian Government on NATO accession. This duty was successfully fulfilled in 2008 when the Bucharest Summit of NATO conditionally agreed on Macedonia’s membership in NATO, pending on resolution of the bilateral dispute with Greece.

In 2008 the government of Bulgaria nominated Solomon for Secretary General of NATO. His name was on the final short two-name short list discussed at NATO Strasbourg-Kehl Summit (April 2009).

Globalization of Bulgaria[edit]

ACB is the first non-NATO NGO invited to join the Atlantic Treaty Association, back in 1992. Dr. Passy is the first non-NATO Vice-President of ATA (1996-1999). Bulgaria is the first non-NATO member state to host an ATA General Assembly (1997).

Dr. Passy and ACB were the driving forces initiating (November 1994, Rome) the first ever historic Papal visit to Bulgaria of His Holiness (currently St.) Pope John Paul II ( Link). The visit was materialized in 2002 under the lead of Minister Passy and the Pope announced in Sofia – contrary to wide spread allegations—that Bulgaria was innocent in the 1981 attempt for assassination of the Pope (Link1 and Link2).

Dr Passy co-chaired the host committee of ACB-Tibetan Friendship Society for the historic visit to Bulgaria of His Holiness the XIV Dalai Lama of Tibet in October 1991 (Link).

Promoting religious tolerance worldwide, Dr. Passy’s ACB hosted His Holiness Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew in 1993 (Link) which was an opportunity to facilitate dialogue between the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and the Vatican which eventually made the Bulgarian visit of Pope John Paul II possible.

In 1999 Solomon became co-chair of the Host Committee for the President Bill Clinton's visit to Bulgaria -- the first ever US Presidential visit to Bulgaria (Link1, Link2, and Link3).

In 1993 Solomon and ACB become among the main driving forces, which established the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute and the annual Antarctic Expedition as part of the national Antarctic Program. These efforts led to the Bulgarian accession as the 28th Consultative Party to the Antarctic Treaty in 1998.

Dr. Passy is strong supporter of the Bulgarian accession to OECD, the Euro Zone of the EU, the European Space Agency, and the globalization of Bulgaria in general.

Futuristic Visions[edit]

In April 2008, during his visit to Cuba, Dr Passy launches the idea for Cuba's membership in NATO, which came closer to being in 2016 after President Obama restored the US-Cuban relations.

In 2007 Solomon visited China by invitation of the Chinese Parliament and launched the creation of NATO-China Council and membership of China in OSCE. The latter Solomon perceived as a natural continuation of his efforts which brought Mongolia to OSCE and thus transformed the entire Northern border of China into OSCE border. Nowadays the China-OSCE frontier (including with Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Mongolia) is maybe the largest contact line worldwide between two geopolitical realms.

In 2004 Minster Passy launched the idea for OSCE summit in Moscow, which to yield a visit of Pope John Paul II to Moscow and boost ecumenism in the Christian world, perceived by Solomon as a step of unification of religions. The first meeting between a Pope and a Russian Patriarch was materialized twelve years later, in 2016 in Cuba.

After his visit to North Korea Dr. Passy launched a project for EU engagement with democratization of North Korea as a complimentary effort to 6-Party Talks for North Korea, as well as NATO’s involvement to guarantee peace with South Korea. NATO and the EU are still evolving for these.

Innovations: EU & Global[edit]

In 2008-2014 Solomon and Gergana Passy (Bulgarian EU Minister, Deputy Foreign Minister & MP 2001–2009) (Link), led small Bulgarian team which spearheaded the EU legislation, standardizing the GSM mobile chargers to a USB format on the entire EU territory. This new EU policy annually saves dozens of millions of tons of CO2 emissions and electronic waste and the USB plugs are available today even on the airplanes. (More at: Link1, Link2, Link3, Link4, Link5, and Link6).

Currently the Passys promote global access to Wi-Fi and Internet as a universal human right.

Under Dr. Passy's leadership ACB drafted the first bill for Bulgaria's Space Law (Link, in Bulgarian) and currently works on a telemedicine project.

Dr Passy—starting in 1993—contributed to the establishment of the Bulgarian Antarctic program; he visited Antarctica four times and Peak Passy on Livingstone Island, South Shetland Islands, was named after him. This is a continuation of the family tradition:

  • An Eliezer Kalev (1815 -1889) Street in Plovdiv is named after the great-grandfather of Solomon’s father, who saved the lives of Bulgarian independence rebels in the April Uprising (1876) against the Ottoman Empire.
  • An Auditorium in Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski” is named after Solomon's father Prof. Isaac Passy (1928-2010) in recognition of his historical contribution to introduce (1950s – 1989) West European philosophy & culture thus breaking the iron walls, which entrenched communist Bulgaria.

In 2004 following the suggestion of Dr. Passy President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan blessed a pilot project replacing some poppy crops fields with Bulgarian roses. The first drops of Bulgarian Rose oil "Made in Afghanistan" appeared at the Berlin Green Week Trade Fair 2011 (Link)

Solomon has two flights as a co-pilot of F-16 (Link), experiencing the excellence of Nine-G environment.


Solomon holds a PhD (1985) and M.Sc. (1979) in Mathematical Logic & Computer Sciences from Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”.

He is the author of dozens of publications in international journals on mathematical logic and computer sciences. The Combinatory Dynamic Logic (Modal Logic with Nominals) was developed in Bulgaria by Dr. Solomon Passy and Prof. Tinko Tinchev in cooperation with Prof. George Gargov, Prof. Valentin Goranko, and Prof. Dimitar Vakarelov. It provides the enriched modal language with names (nominals), which accommodates the correct environment to study the necessary truths in the universe of possible worlds and thus offers an ultimate solution to the problem of studying the modalities (necessity, possibility, obligation), raised by Aristotle 25 centuries ago and formalized by Saul Kripke in the 1950s. This language serves also the logic of knowledge and reasoning about action.

According to Dr. Anton Zinoviev “Today this is one of those Bulgarian mathematical achievements that are cited most often in the international scientific publications”. (Link) Solomon’s scientific publications in leading world ICT journals from 1980-90s are still highly influential in their field and widely cited (Google Scholar profile).

In 2007 during an enlightening visit to Lhasa (Tibet) Dr. Passy launched the visionary Theory of e-Democracy(Link): a computerized simulator replacing elections and manned governments by optimizational algorithms guaranteeing sustainable increase of quality of life.

Today Solomon is a frequent commentator on international affairs, defence and security, and innovations for national and world media.

The Berlin Wall Era[edit]

In the 1980's Solomon was an activist of various opposition, underground and ecological movements fighting against communist regime for freedom & human rights, including in defence of the oppressed Turkish minority in Bulgaria. In act of solidarity with them he assumed the Turkish pseudonym Syuleyman Tehlikeli, which he used in mathematical papers and graphics art that was practiced by Solomon in the 1980s.

His first public manifestation of political interest was perhaps his attendance of the Solidarity Tradeunion Congress in Gdansk in 1981. In May 1987 Dr. Passy was the co-host-organizer of the first ever public opposition happening in Sofia University, which is described by Google as "A cornerstone of the manifestation of youth subcultures in Bulgaria – hippies, metalheads, rockers" and that "Students facilitated the beginning of open public resistance against totalitarianism in Bulgaria“. His efforts and vision in communist Bulgaria were crowned in 1990-1991 when—as MP in the Grand National Assembly—he co-authored the first ever democratic Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria and tabled the bill for abolishment of death penalty in Bulgaria.


International State Awards[edit]

Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity (Grand Cross), Italy, 2006
Royal Order of Isabella the Catholic (Grand Cross), Spain, 2006
Order of Leopold II (Grand Cross), Belgium, 2004
Order of Civil Merit (Grand Cross), Spain, 2003
Order of Prince Henry (Grand Cross), Portugal, 2002

Precious Awards[edit]

  • Badge of Honor “Bulgaria-NATO” 1st Degree (2014), awarded by the Minister of Defense of Bulgaria Angel Naydenov
  • Doctor Honoris Causa of the South-West University "Neofit Rilski" in Blagoevgrad (2005)
  • Honorary citizen of the State of Texas (2004)
  • Honorary citizen of the town of Nedelino (2003)


  • Member of the American Chamber of Commerce in Bulgaria Board of Directors (2011-present)
  • Member of the American University in Bulgaria Board of Trustees (2006-2015)

Personal life[edit]

Solomon and Gergana Passy have four children. The Passy's own a consulting business, serving governmental and corporate clients from various sectors of business: pharmaceuticals, agriculture, nuclear energy, defence. Solomon is a partner in a start-up company developing iSOSu mobile application for the Indian market and other innovations. Solomon is on the Board of AmCham Bulgaria.


External links[edit]

For personal and family details:

For business and public activities:

Preceded by
Nadezhda Mihaylova
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria
2001 - 2005
Succeeded by
Ivaylo Kalfin