A road section in Solukhumbu.
Location of Solukhumbu
Divisions of Solukhumbu District
|• Type||Coordination committee|
|• Body||DCC, Solukhumbu|
|• Head||Bir Kumar Rai (NCP)|
|• Parliamentary constituencies||1|
|• Provincial constituencies||2|
|• Total||3,312 km2 (1,279 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||8,848 m (29,029 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||600 m (2,000 ft)|
|• Ethnic Groups||Kirat Rai, Sherpa, Chetri, Tamang, Kulung|
|• Female ♀||52%|
|Human Development Index|
|• Income per capita (US dollars)||$1,841 per capita|
|• Poverty rate||25.7|
|• Life Expectancy||68.8|
|Time zone||UTC+5:45 (NPT)|
Solukhumbu District (Nepali: सोलुखुम्बु जिल्लाlisten (help·info), Sherpa: ཤར་ཁུམ་བུ་རྫོང་ཁ།, Kirat Rai language Wylie: shar khum bu dzong kha) is one of 14 districts of Kirat Province of eastern Nepal. As the name suggests, it consists of the subregions Solu and Khumbu.
Indigenous ethnic Kulung,Kirat Rai and hill caste Chhetri are the main groups living in the mid-hills, while Sherpas occupy the high mountains.
There is a notable hiking trail known as the Solukhumbu Trail.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Administrative divisions
- 4 Tourism
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Demographics
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Historically, Solukhumbu was part of Kirata Kingdoms. May be part of Majhkirat. Before unification of Nepal by king of Gorkha, the area of the Solukhumbu district were part of Chaudandi of Majhkirat. In 1773 AD King of Gorkha attacked and absorved it in Nepal.
The Solukhumbu district established in 1962 carving out the old East No. 3 district. Before 1962 present Solukhumbu, Okhaldhunga and some parts of Khotang previously were one district "East No. 3". Solu and Rawa thums carved out from East No. 3 to create Solukhumbu District.
Geography and climate
Solukhumbu is a Himalayan district of Province No. 1 of Nepal, situated on the north-west corner of province. It is one out of 3 Himalayan districts of Province No. 1. Total area of district is 3,312 square kilometres (1,279 sq mi). It is situated between Lat. 27°20'39" to 28°6'24" North and Long. 86°0'21" to 87°0'1" East. The highest elevation of district is 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) (Mt. Everest) and the lowest elevation is 600 metres (2,000 ft) (Tuintar) above sea level. The district is surrounded by Sankhuwasabha in east, Bhojpur in south-east, Khotang and Okhaldhunga in south, Province No. 3 in west and Tibet (China) in north.
Extremely diverse geography of Solukhumbu district can be categorized in three levels:
Khumbu Himal (Highland mountains)
Mahalangur and other Himalayan mountain ranges are located in this section. This section is located on the northern border with Tibet. Mount Everest (8,848m), Lhotse (8,516m), Makalu (8,485m), Cho Oyu (8,201m), Gyachung Kang (7,952m) etc are some of the world's highest mountains in this range.
Khumbu region (Highland valley)
Khumbu valley is the highland region which is worldwide famous for treking and hiking. Kulung and Sherpa are the main inhabitants in this region. Khumbu Pasanglhamu is the administrative division in this region. It includes the town of Namche Bazaar as well as the villages of Thame, Khumjung, Pangboche, Pheriche and Kunde. The famous Buddhist monastery at Tengboche is also located in the Khumbu.
Solu region (Mid-hills)
Lower Solukhumbu (lower parts of Solukhumbu District) is the part of Mid-hills region. It is less famous for treking. Sherpa also are main inhabitants with other cast in this region. Salleri, Chaulakharka, Salyan, Kangel, Sotang etc are the town in lower Solukhumbu.
|Climate Zone||Elevation Range||% of Area|
|Upper Tropical||300 to 1,000 meters
1,000 to 3,300 ft.
|Subtropical||1,000 to 2,000 meters
3,300 to 6,600 ft.
|Temperate||2,000 to 3,000 meters
6,400 to 9,800 ft.
|Subalpine||3,000 to 4,000 meters
9,800 to 13,100 ft.
|Alpine||4,000 to 5,000 meters
13,100 to 16,400 ft.
|Nival||above 5,000 meters||24.4%|
|Climate data for Salleri|
|Average high °C (°F)||23.1
|Average low °C (°F)||9.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||1
|Climate data for Syangboche|
|Average high °C (°F)||3.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−8.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||13
Solukhumbu is dived into 8 local level units, 1 unit is urban and 7 are rural. They are further divided into wards. Solukhumbu is single seat constituency for parliamentary constituency and double seat for provincial constituency. Solukhumbu district coordination committee coordinates between local and provincial governments. Solukhumbu district administration office co-operates with Solukhumbu DCC to maintain peace, order and security in the district. The officer of District Administration office called CDO.
|Local units||Nepali||Type||Population (2011)||Area KM2||Website|
|Necha Salyan||नेचा सल्यान||rural||16,129||94.49||nechasalyanmun|
|Likhu Pike||लिखु पीके||rural||5,534||124.38||likhupikemun|
|Khumbu Pasanglhamu||खुम्बु पासाङल्हामु||rural||8,989||1539.11||khumbupasanglhamumun|
|Solukhumbu 1||Parliamentary||Hem Kumar Rai||Nepal Communist Party|
|Solukhumbu 1(A)||Provincial||Uttam Kumar Basnet||Nepal Communist Party|
|Solukhumbu 1(B)||Provincial||Buddhi Kumar Rajbhandari||Nepal Communist Party|
Former divisions (1990–2016)
Formerly, Solukhumbu district was divided into many Village development committees. In 2014 Dudhkunda municipality was established merging some Village development committees. In 2016 all other Village development committee nullified and introduced rural municipality thus all former Village development committees grouped into 7 units and announced 7 rural municipality.
There were 35 Village Development Committees in Solukhumbu District:
Solukhumbu District is a familiar name in mountain tourism. The main attraction is Mount Everest (8,848m). UNESCO has listed the Sagarmatha National Park as a World Heritage site. Sherpa culture and Tengboche Monastery are unique to this district. The Khumjung village is famous for Sherpa culture. Gokyo valley and Khumbu valley are the major Himalayan valleys famous among the adventure and nature seekers. Gokyo Lake trek, Island peak climbing, solukhumbu, Mera Peak climbing, Mount Everest Exepedition, Amadablam expedition, and Lobuche peak climbing are the popular adventure trips in Solukhumbu district. This district is well known for adventure holidays.
Some Interesting places for tourism, treking and hiking.
Salleri, the headquarter of Solukhumbu is connected by road. One can travel to Solukhumbu by road from national capital Kathmandu. Salleri is situated at distance of 270 KM from Kathmandu. B.P. Koirala Highway (H-06) connects Kathmandu to Bhimeshwar at distance of 116 KM. At Bhimeshwar B.P. Koirala Highway joins Mid-Hills Highway and Mid-hills highway runs 60 KM through the hills to the junction of Ghurmi, (Katari Municipality). At Ghurmi the road (F52) moves north and runs 94 KM to reach Salleri. At many places roads are not pitched and conditions are not good. There are bus services available from Kathmandu to Salleri. Jeep and cars also can be find.
There are four regional airports available in Solukhumbu district. There are many flights and air-services are available.
|Location served||ICAO||IATA||Airport name||Coordinates|
|Solu Dudhkunda||VNPL||PPL||Phaplu Airport|
20% of people of the whole population of the district is Rai, which is the largest ethnic group of Solukhumbu district. Sherpas are second largest ethnic group of the district. They are 17% of whole population. Continually Chhetri-15%, Tamang-10%, Kulung-9% and 30% others.
- Tenzing Norgay- First ascent of Mount Everest
- Pasang Lhamu Sherpa - First Nepalese female ascent
- Babu Chiri Sherpa - 10 times ascent Mount Everest
- Ang Dorje Sherpa - 19 times ascent Mount Everest
- Apa Sherpa - 21 times ascent Mount Everest
- Nawang Sherpa - First person to climb Mount Everest with a prosthetic leg
- "Districts of Nepal". Statoids.
- Bonington, Chris; Everest, The Hard Way; (1977); pp 72-75; Arrow Books editions; ISBN 0-09-915940-6.
- The Map of Potential Vegetation of Nepal - a forestry/agroecological/biodiversity classification system (PDF), Forest & Landscape Development and Environment Series 2-2005 and CFC-TIS Document Series No.110., 2005, ISBN 87-7903-210-9, retrieved Nov 22, 2013
- "Climatological Data for Selected Trekking Towns". www.yr.no. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "Climatological Data for Selected Trekking Towns". www.en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "हेर्नुस तपाई कुन गाउँपालिका वा नगरपालिकामा पर्नुभयो ?". nepalipatra.com. Retrieved Jun 11, 2017.
- "Digital Himalaya: Nepal Census 2001". digitalhimalaya.com. Retrieved Jun 11, 2017.
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