Somali Armed Forces
|Somali Armed Forces
Ciidamada Qalabka Sida
القوات المسلحة الصومالية
Emblem of the Somali Armed Forces
|Service branches|| Somali National Army
Somali Air Force
Somali Police Force
National Intelligence and Security Agency
|Commander-in-Chief||Hassan Sheikh Mohamud|
|Minister of Defense||Abdulkadir Sheikh Dini|
|Chief of Army||Abdullahi Anod|
|2,260,175 (2010 est.; males)
2,159,293 (2010 est.; females), age 18–49
|1,331,894 (2010 est.; males)
1,357,051 (2010 est.; females), age 18–49
|101,634 (2010 est.; males)
101,072 (2010 est.; females)
|Percent of GDP||0.9% (2005)|
|Foreign suppliers|| European Union
The Somali Armed Forces (SAF), are the military forces of Somalia, officially known as the Federal Republic of Somalia. Headed by the President as Commander in Chief, they are constitutionally mandated to ensure the nation's sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity.
The SAF was initially made up of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Police Force. In the post-independence period, it grew to become among the larger militaries in Africa. Due to patrimonial and repressive state policies, the military had by 1988 begun to disintegrate. After the start of the civil war in 1991, the Somali National Army and all related military and security forces dissolved. In 2004, the gradual process of reconstituting the military was put in motion with the establishment of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG). As of January 2014, the security sector is overseen by the Federal Government of Somalia's Ministry of Defence, Ministry of National Security, and Ministry of Interior and Federalism. The Somaliland, Puntland and Khaatumo regional governments maintain their own security and police forces.
According to CQ Press' Worldwide Government Directory with Intergovernmental Organizations, Somalia's defense forces as of 2013 include the Somali National Army, Somali Air Force, Somali Navy, Somali Police Force and National Intelligence and Security Agency.
- 1 History
- 2 Somali National Army
- 3 Somali Air Force
- 4 Somali Navy
- 5 Somali Police Force
- 6 National Intelligence and Security Agency
- 7 Leadership
- 8 Military ranks
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Middle Ages to colonial period
Historically, Somali society conferred distinction upon warriors (waranle) and rewarded military acumen. All Somali males were regarded as potential soldiers, except for the odd religious cleric (wadaado). Somalia's many Sultanates each maintained regular troops. In the early Middle Ages, the conquest of Shewa by the Ifat Sultanate ignited a rivalry for supremacy with the Solomonic dynasty.
Many similar battles were fought between the succeeding Sultanate of Adal and the Solomonids, with both sides achieving victory and suffering defeat. During the protracted Ethiopian-Adal War (1529–1559), Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi defeated several Ethiopian Emperors and embarked on a conquest referred to as the Futuh Al-Habash ("Conquest of Abyssinia"), which brought three-quarters of Christian Abyssinia under the power of the Muslim Adal Sultanate. Al-Ghazi's forces and their Ottoman allies came close to extinguishing the ancient Ethiopian kingdom, but the Abyssinians managed to secure the assistance of Cristóvão da Gama's Portuguese troops and maintain their domain's autonomy. However, both polities in the process exhausted their resources and manpower, which resulted in the contraction of both powers and changed regional dynamics for centuries to come. Many historians trace the origins of hostility between Somalia and Ethiopia to this war. Some scholars also argue that this conflict proved, through their use on both sides, the value of firearms such as the matchlock musket, cannons and the arquebus over traditional weapons.
At the turn of the 20th century, the Majeerteen Sultanate, Sultanate of Hobyo, Warsangali Sultanate and Dervish State employed cavalry in their battles against the imperialist European powers during the Campaign of the Sultanates.
In Italian Somaliland, eight "Arab-Somali" infantry battalions, the Ascari, and several irregular units of Italian officered dubats were established. These units served as frontier guards and police. There were also Somali artillery and zaptié (carabinieri) units forming part of the Italian Royal Corps of Colonial Troops from 1889 to 1941. Between 1911 and 1912, over 1,000 Somalis from Mogadishu served as combat units along with Eritrean and Italian soldiers in the Italo-Turkish War. Most of the troops stationed never returned home until they were transferred back to Italian Somaliland in preparation for the invasion of Ethiopia in 1935.
1960 to 1991
Just prior to independence in 1960, the Trust Territory of Somalia established a national army to defend the nascent Somali Republic's borders. Thus the Somali Police Force's Mobile Group (Darawishta Poliska or Darawishta) was formed. April 12, 1960 has since been marked as Armed Forces Day. British Somaliland became independent on 26 June 1960 as the State of Somaliland, and the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somaliland) followed suit five days later. On July 1, 1960, the two territories united to form the Somali Republic.
After independence, the Darawishta merged with the Somaliland Scouts of the former British Somaliland protectorate to form the 5,000 strong Somali National Army (SNA). The new military's first commander was Colonel Daud Abdulle Hirsi, a former officer in the British military administration's police force, the Somalia Gendarmerie. Officers were trained in the United Kingdom, Egypt and Italy. Despite the social and economic benefits associated with military service, the armed forces began to suffer chronic manpower shortages only a few years after independence.
Merging British Somaliland Italian Somaliland caused political controversy. The distribution of power between the two regions and among the major clans in both areas was a bone of contention. In December 1961, a group of British-trained northern junior army officers revolted after southern officers of higher rank took command of their units. The rebellion was put down by other northern Noncommissioned officers (NCOs), although dissatisfaction in the north lingered.
The force was expanded and modernized after the rebellion with the assistance of Soviet and Cuban advisors. The Library of Congress writes that '[i]n 1962 the Soviet Union agreed to grant a US$32 million loan to modernise the Somali army, and expand it to 14,000 personnel. Moscow later increased the amount to US$55 million. The Soviet Union, seeking to counter United States influence in the Horn of Africa, made an unconditional loan and fixed a generous twenty-year repayment schedule.'
The army was tested in 1964 when the conflict with Ethiopia over the Somali-inhabited Ogaden erupted into warfare. On 16 June 1963, Somali guerrillas started an insurgency at Hodayo, in eastern Ethiopia, a watering place north of Werder, after Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie rejected their demand for self-government in the Ogaden. The Somali government initially refused to support the guerrilla forces, which eventually numbered about 3,000. However, in January 1964, after Ethiopia sent reinforcements to the Ogaden, Somali forces launched ground and air attacks across the border and started providing assistance to the guerrillas. The Ethiopian Air Force responded with punitive strikes across its southwestern frontier against Feerfeer, northeast of Beledweyne and Galkayo. On 6 March 1964, Somalia and Ethiopia agreed to a cease-fire. At the end of the month, the two sides signed an accord in Khartoum, Sudan, agreeing to withdraw their troops from the border, cease hostile propaganda, and start peace negotiations. Somalia also terminated its support of the guerrillas.
During the power vacuum that followed the assassination of Somalia's second president, Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, the military staged a coup d'état on 21 October 1969 (the day after Shermarke's funeral) and took over office. Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, who had succeeded Hersi as Chief of Army in 1965, was installed as President of the Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC), the new government of Somalia. The country was renamed the Somali Democratic Republic. In 1971, he announced the regime's intention to phase out military rule.
In 1972, the National Security Court, headed by admiral Mohamed Gelle Yusuf, ordered the execution of Siad Barre's fellow coup instigators, Major General Mohamed Aynanshe Guleid (who had become the Vice President), Brigadier General Salaad Gabeyre Kediye and Lieutenant Colonel Abdulkadir Dheel Abdulle.
In July 1976, the International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated the army consisted of 22,000 personnel, 6 tank battalions, 9 mechanised infantry battalions, 5 infantry battalions, 2 commando battalions, and 11 artillery battalions (5 anti-aircraft). Two hundred T-34 and 50 T-54/55 main battle tanks had been estimated to have been delivered. The IISS emphasised that 'spares are short and not all equipment is serviceable.' Three divisions (the 21st, 54th, and 60th) were formed, and later took part in the Ogaden War. While the IISS did not list them in July 1976, there is evidence that they were formed as early as 1970 or earlier: Mohamud Muse Hersi has been listed by somaliaonline.com as commander of the 21st Division from 1970 to 1972, and Muse Hassan Sheikh Sayid Abdulle as commander 26th Division in 1970–71.
Under the leadership of General Abdullah Mohamed Fadil, Abdullahi Ahmed Irro and other senior Somali military officials formulated a plan of attack for what was to become the Ogaden War in Ethiopia. This was part of a broader effort to unite all of the Somali-inhabited territories in the Horn region into a Greater Somalia (Soomaaliweyn). At the start of the offensive, the SNA consisted of 35,000 soldiers, and was vastly outnumbered by the Ethiopian forces. Somali national army troops seized the Godey Front on July 24, 1977, after the 60th Division defeated the 4th Infantry Division (Ethiopia). Godey's capture allowed the Somali side to consolidate its hold on the Ogaden, concentrate its forces, and advance further to other regions of Ethiopia. The invasion reached an abrupt end with the Soviet Union's sudden shift of support to Ethiopia, followed by almost the entire communist world siding with the latter. The Soviets halted supplies to Barre's regime and instead increased the distribution of aid, weapons, and training to Ethiopia's newly communist Derg regime. General Vasily Ivanovich Petrov was assigned to restructure the Ethiopian Army. The Soviets also brought in around 15,000 Cuban troops to assist the Ethiopian military. By 1978, the Somali forces were pushed out of most of the Ogaden, although it would take nearly three more years for the Ethiopian Army to gain full control of Godey.
Following the 1977–78 Ogaden campaign, Abudwak became the base for the SNA's 21st Division. The shift in support by the Soviet Union motivated the Barre regime to seek allies elsewhere. It eventually settled on Russia's Cold War arch-rival, the United States, which had been courting the Somali government for some time. The U.S. eventually gave extensive military support.
Following the unsuccessful Ogaden War, Barr's government began arresting government and military officials under suspicion of participation in the abortive 1978 coup d'état. Most of the people who had allegedly helped plot the putsch were summarily executed. However, several officials managed to escape abroad where they formed the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF), the first of various dissident groups dedicated to ousting Barre's regime by force. Among these opposition movements were the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) and Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA), a Gadabuursi group which had been formed in the northwest to counter the Somali National Movement (SNM) Isaaq militia.
In 1981 one of three corps headquarters for the ground forces was situated at Hargeisa in the northwestern Woqooyi Galbeed region. Others were believed to be garrisoned at Gaalkacyo in the north-central Mudug region and at Beled Weyne in the south-central Hiiraan region. The ground forces were tactically organized into seven divisions. Allocated among the divisions were three mechanized infantry brigades, ten anti-aircraft battalions, and thirteen artillery battalions.
In 1984, the government attempted to solve the manpower shortage problem by instituting obligatory military service. Men of eighteen to forty years of age were to be conscripted for two years. Opposition to conscription and to the campaigns against guerrilla groups resulted in widespread evasion of military service. As a result, during the late 1980s the government normally met manpower requirements by impressing men into military service. This practice alienated an increasing number of Somalis, who wanted the government to negotiate a peaceful resolution of the conflicts that were slowly destroying Somali society.
In an effort to hold on to power, Barre's ruling Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) became increasingly authoritarian and arbitrary. This caused opposition to his regime to grow. Barre in turn tried to quell the unrest by abandoning appeals to nationalism, relying more and more on his own inner circle. He thereafter filled key positions in the army and security forces with members of three Darood clans closely related to his own reer: the Marehan, Dulbahantes, and Ogaadeens. According to Compagnon (1992), generals and colonels were part of Barre's personal patronage network and had to remain loyal to him and his family, whether they temporarily held ministerial posts or were in military service. The critical posts of commander of the 2nd Tank Brigade and 2nd Artillery Brigade in Mogadishu were both held by Marehan officers, as were the posts of commander of the three reserve brigades in Hargeisa in the north.
By 1987 the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency estimated the army was 40,000 strong (with Ethiopian army strength estimated at the same time as 260,000). The President, Mohamed Siad Barre, held the rank of Major General and acted as Minister of Defence. There were three vice-ministers of national defence. From the SNA headquarters in Mogadishu four sectors were directed: 26th Sector at Hargeisa, 54th Sector at Garowe, 21st Sector at Dusa Mareb, and 60th Sector at Baidoa. Thirteen divisions, averaging 3,300 strong, were divided between the four sectors – four in the northernmost and three in each of the other sectors. The sectors were under the command of brigadiers (three) and a colonel (one).
By the mid-1980s, more resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country. Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerillas, especially in the northern regions. The clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative center of Hargeisa, a Somali National Movement (SNM) stronghold, among the targeted areas in 1988. According to Daniel Compagnon, after that year's summer, a period began that was characterized by political repression against targeted clans. Former soldiers and units in the disintegrating military also engaged in private violence, and the distinction with public coercion became blurred.
Military exercises between the United States and the Siad Barre regime continued during the 1980s. The 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit participated in Exercise Eastern Wind in August 1987 in the area of Geesalay.
As of 1 June 1989, the International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated that the Army comprised four corps and 12 division headquarters. At the time, the military had decreased considerably in size. The IISS noted that these formations 'were in name only; below establishment in units, men, and equipment. Brigades were of battalion size.' Units and formations listed in 1990 within six military sectors included the twelve divisions, four tank brigades, 45 mechanized and infantry brigades, 4 commando brigades, 1 surface-to-air missile brigade, 3 field artillery brigades, 30 field battalions, and one air defence artillery battalion.
In mid-November 1989, rebel forces briefly captured the Mudug province's capital Galkayo, Human Rights Watch reported in September 1990. They reportedly seized significant quantities of military equipment at the 4th Division Headquarters, including tanks, 30 mobile anti-aircraft guns and rocket launchers. However, the rebels were unable to take most of this equipment so they incinerated it. Government forces thereafter launched massive reprisals against civilians residing in the regions corresponding with the 21st, 54th, 60th and 77th military sectors. The impacted towns and villages included Gowlalo, Dagaari, Sadle-Higlo, Bandiir Adley, Galinsor, Wargalo, Do'ol, Halimo, Go'ondalay and Galkayo.
The various rebel movements eventually succeeded in ousting the government altogether in the ensuing civil war that broke out in 1991. The Somali National Army and all related military and security forces finally dissolved. In 1992, the 15-member Security Council imposed an arms embargo via United Nations Security Council Resolution 733 in order to stop the flow of weapons to feuding militia groups. Much equipment was left in situ, deteriorating, and was sometimes discovered and photographed by intervention forces in the early 1990s.
In 2004, Ismail Qasim Naji served as the military chief of the Transitional National Government (TNG). He was given the rank of Major General. During this time, the TNG was opposed militarily and politically by the rival Somalia Reconciliation and Restoration Council (SRRC), backed by Hussein Mohamed Farrah Aidid (son of the late faction leader Mohamed Farrah Aidid), Mohamed Dhere, and others. Eventually the leadership of the SRRC and the TNG reconciled.
After a two-year consultation process, the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was formed in 2004 by Somali politicians in Nairobi. The process concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed as President.
In the first half of 2005, disagreements arose between Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi and Parliament Speaker Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden over where to base the TFG. Ghedi preferred Jowhar while Adan favored Baidoa. The TFG later moved its temporary headquarters to Baidoa. President Yusuf requested that the African Union deploy military forces in Somalia. However, as the AU lacked the resources to do so over the short term, Yusuf brought in his own militia from Puntland. Along with the U.S. funding the ARPCT coalition, this alarmed many in south-central Somalia, and provided the ascendant Islamic Courts Union (ICU) with substantial recruitment opportunities.
A battle for Mogadishu followed in the first half of 2006 in which the ARPCT confronted the ICU. However, with local support, the ICU captured the city in June of the year. It then expanded its area of control in south-central Somalia over the following months, assisted militarily by Eritrea. In an effort at reconciliation, TFG and ICU representatives held several rounds of talks in Khartoum under the auspices of the Arab League. The meetings ended unsuccessfully due to uncompromising positions retained by both parties. Hardline Islamists subsequently gained power within the ICU, prompting fears of a Talibanization of the movement.
In December 2006, Ethiopian troops entered Somalia to assist the TFG against the advancing Islamic Courts Union, initially winning the Battle of Baidoa. On December 28, 2006, the allied forces recaptured the capital from the ICU. The offensive helped the TFG solidify its rule. Ethiopian and TFG forces forced the ICU from Ras Kamboni between January 7–12, 2007. They were assisted by at least two U.S. air strikes. On January 8, 2007, for the first time since taking office, President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed entered Mogadishu from Baidoa to engage in consultations with local business, religious and civil society representatives as the TFG moved its base to the national capital. The interim administration had just established control over much of the central and southern parts of the country.
On 20 January 2007, with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1744, the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) was formally authorised, which would provide much-needed backing for central government forces. On 10 February 2007, Abdullahi Ali Omar became Chief of Army for the Transitional Federal Government. He had previously been the Chief of Staff of the armed forces of Puntland. Seven hundred Ugandan troops, earmarked for AMISOM, were landed at Mogadishu airport on 7–8 March 2007.
In Mogadishu, residents belonging to the same Hawiye clan as the ousted ICU resented the Islamic Courts Union's defeat. They distrusted the TFG, which was at the time dominated by individuals from the Darod clan, believing that it was dedicated to the advancement of Darod interests in lieu of the Hawiye. Additionally, they feared reprisals for massacres committed in 1991 in Mogadishu by Hawiye militants against Darod civilians, and were dismayed by Ethiopian involvement. Critics of the TFG likewise charged that its federalist platform was part of a plot by the Ethiopian government to keep Somalia weak and divided. During its first few months in the capital, the TFG was initially restricted to key strategic points, with the large northwestern and western suburbs controlled by Hawiye rebels. In March 2007, President Ahmed announced plans to forcibly disarm militias in the city. According to the ISA, a coalition of local insurgents led by Al-Shabaab subsequently launched a wave of attacks against the TFG and Ethiopian troops. The allied forces in return mounted a heavy-handed response.
Human Rights Watch alleged that all of the warring parties were responsible for widespread violations of the laws of war, as civilians were caught in the ensuing crossfire. Insurgents reportedly deployed militants and established strongholds in heavily populated neighborhoods, launched mortar rounds from residential areas, and targeted public and private individuals for assassination and violence. TFG forces alleged to have failed to efficaciously warn civilians in combat zones, impeded relief efforts, plundered property, in some instances engaged in murder and violence, and mistreated detainees during mass arrests. According to HRW, the implicated TFG forces included military, police and intelligence personnel, as well as the private guards of senior TFG officials. Victims were often unable to identify TFG personnel, and confused militiamen aligned with TFG officials with TFG police officers and other state security personnel. However, where they were able to implicate TFG military forces, they suggested that these units had been trained by and were acting under the command of or in concert with Ethiopian National Defense Force officers. HRW also alleged that the TFG forces lacked formal command-and-control structures, with soldiers often alternately serving within the army, clan militias, and autonomous armed groups. Ethiopian forces were similarly reported to have indiscriminately fired mortars, rockets and artillery shells into densely populated areas, looted property, and in some instances shot and executed civilians.
Circa December 2008, officers belonging to the same Majerteen clan as President Ahmed had been appointed to strategic positions within the army in order to assure loyalty. Along with the National Security Agency led by General Mohamed Warsame ("Darwish"), these well-armed units were reported to comprise around 2,000 fighters. They reportedly carried out a number of counter-insurgency operations with minimal coordination with other security agencies, which alienated other units and resulted in high desertion rates. They carried out illegal detention and torture in the capital and other areas. Civilian felt the units to be arrogant and above the law.
Al-Shabaab and other radical elements of the ICU subsequently regrouped and continued their insurgency. As a truce in March 2009, Somalia's coalition government led by Sharif Sheikh Ahmed announced that it would re-implement shari'a as the nation's official judicial system. However, conflict continued in the southern and central parts of the country. Within months, the coalition government had gone from holding about 70% of south-central Somalia's conflict zones, territory which it had inherited from the previous Yusuf administration, to losing control of over 80% of the disputed territory to the Islamist insurgents.
In April 2009, donors at a UN-sponsored conference pledged over $250 million to help improve security in the country. The funds were earmarked for AMISOM and supporting Somalia's security, including the build-up of a security force of 6,000 members as well as an augmented police force of 10,000 men. In June 2009, the Somali military received 40 tonnes worth of arms and ammunition from the U.S. government to assist it in combating the insurgency.
In November 2010, a new technocratic government was elected to office, which enacted numerous reforms. In its first 50 days in office, the new administration completed its first monthly payment of stipends to government soldiers, and aimed to complete a full biometric register for the security forces within a window of four months. By August 2011, the new government and its AMISOM allies had managed to capture all of Mogadishu from the Al-Shabaab militants.
In October 2011, following a weekend preparatory meeting between Somali and Kenyan military officials in the town of Dhobley, a coordinated operation between the Somali Armed Forces and the Kenya Defence Forces began against the Al-Shabaab group of insurgents in southern Somalia. The mission was officially led by the Somali army, with the Kenyan forces providing a support role. In early June 2012, Kenyan troops were formally integrated into AMISOM. According to China Daily, regional analysts expected the additional AU troop reinforcements to help the Somali authorities gradually expand their territorial control.
In January 2012, Somali government forces and their AMISOM allies launched offensives on Al-Shabaab's last foothold on the northern outskirts of Mogadishu. The following month, Somali forces fighting alongside AMISOM seized Baidoa from the insurgent group. By June 2012, the allied forces had also captured El Bur, Afgooye, Afmadow, and Balad.
The Federal Government of Somalia was established in August/September 2012. By November of the year, the new administration had, according to UN Special Envoy to Somalia Augustine Mahiga, managed to secure control of around 85% of the country.
The United Nations Security Council later unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 2093 during its 6 March 2013 meeting to suspend the 21-year arms embargo on Somalia. The endorsement officially lifts the purchase ban on light weapons for a provisional period of one year, but retains certain restrictions on the procurement of heavy arms such as surface-to-air missiles, howitzers and cannons.
On 13 March 2013, Dahir Adan Elmi was appointed Chief of Army at a transfer ceremony in Mogadishu, where he replaced Abdulkadir Sheikh Dini. Abdirisaq Khalif Hussein was appointed as Elmi's new Deputy Chief of Army.
In early March 2014, Somali security forces and AMISOM troops launched an intensified military operation to remove Al-Shabaab from the remaining areas in southern Somalia under its control. According to Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed, the government subsequently launched stabilization efforts in the newly liberated areas, which included Rab Dhuure, Hudur, Wajid and Burdhubo. The Ministry of Defence was providing ongoing reassurance and security to the local residents, and supplying logistical and security support. Additionally, the Ministry of Interior was prepared to support and put into place programs to assist local administration and security. A Deputy Minister and several religious scholars were also dispatched to all four towns to coordinate and supervise the federal government's stabilization initiatives. By March 26, the allied forces had liberated ten towns within the month, including Qoryoley and El Buur. UN Special Representative for Somalia Nicholas Kay described the military advance as the most significant and geographically extensive offensive since AU troops began operations in 2007.
On 25 June 2014, Chief of Army Elmi's term ended, as he and his deputy General Hussein were transferred by presidential decree to other positions. The shuffle was part of a larger major national security reform. Elmi was succeeded as Chief of Army by General Abdullahi Anod, the former commander of the presidential guard unit, with General Abdullahi Osman Agey concurrently appointed as the new Deputy Chief of Army.
In August 2014, the Somali government-led Operation Indian Ocean was launched to cleanup the remaining insurgent-held pockets in the countryside. On 1 September 2014, a U.S. drone strike carried out as part of the broader mission killed Al-Shabaab leader Moktar Ali Zubeyr. U.S. authorities hailed the raid as a major symbolic and operational loss for Al-Shabaab, and the Somali government offered a 45-day amnesty to all moderate members of the militant group. Political analysts also suggested that the insurgent commander's death will likely lead to Al-Shabaab's fragmentation and eventual dissolution.
Somali National Army
Rebuilding the Army
Somalia is a member of the League of Arab States, its Joint Defence and Economic Co-operation Treaty, and its Joint Defence Council. Somalia was also a signatory to the Memorandum of Understanding on the Establishment of the Eastern Africa Standby Force in April 2005.
Somalia has signed several military cooperation agreements with Turkey. A military training agreement was signed in May 2010, which would entail training, technical and scientific cooperation. Two followup agreements were signed in February 2014, and January 2015.
In February 2012, Somali Prime Minister Abdiweli Mohamed Ali and Italian Defence Minister Gianpaolo Di Paola agreed that Italy would assist the Somali military as part of the National Security and Stabilization Plan (NSSP), an initiative designed to strengthen and professionalize the national security forces. The agreement would include training soldiers and rebuilding the Somali army. In November 2014, the Federal Parliament approved a new defense and cooperation treaty with Italy, which the Ministry of Defence had signed earlier in the year. The agreement includes training and equipping of the army by Italy.
In August 2013, Federal Government of Somalia officials and Jubaland regional representatives signed an agreement in Addis Ababa brokered by the Government of Ethiopia, which in part stipulates that all Jubaland security elements will be integrated into the central command of the Somali National Army. Additionally, under the terms of the accord, the Juba Interim Administration will command the regional police.
In October 2014, Federal Government officials signed an agreement in Garowe with Puntland, which said that the Federal and Puntland authorities will work to form an integrated national army. In April 2015, another bilateral treaty stipulated that Puntland would contribute 3,000 troops to the Somali National Army. In May 2015, President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud and the heads of the Puntland, Jubaland and South West State regional administrations signed a seven-point agreement in Garowe authorizing the immediate deployment of the 3,000 troops from Puntland toward the Somali National Army. The leaders also agreed to integrate soldiers from the other regional states into the SNA.
Training and facilities
In November 2009, the European Union announced its intention to train two Somali battalions (around 2,000 troops), which would complement other training missions and bring the total number of better-trained Somalian soldiers to 6,000. The two battalions were expected to be ready by August 2011. In April 2011, 1,000 recruits completed training in Uganda as a part of the agreement with the EU.
According to the International Crisis Group, powerful vested interests and corrupt commanders were as of February 2011 the largest obstacles in the way of reforming the army. Attempts to improve the military's equipment were impeded by allegations that some of those arms were sold by officers. The ICG also suggested that AMISOM's efforts at assisting in formalizing the military's structure and providing training to the estimated 8,000 SNA soldiers were problematic. Resistance reportedly continued to the establishment of an effective chain of command, logical military formations and a credible troop roster. Although General Mohamed Gelle Kahiye, the respected former army chief, attempted to instill reforms, he was marginalized and eventually dimissed.
In August 2011, as part of the European Union Training Mission Somalia (EUTM Somalia), 900 Somali soldiers graduated from the Bihanga Military Training School in the Ibanda District of Uganda. 150 personnel from the EU took part in the training process, which trained around 2,000 Somali troops per year. In May 2012, 603 Somali army personnel completed training at the facility. They were the third batch of Somali nationals to be trained there under the auspices of EUTM Somalia. In total, the EU mission had trained 3,600 Somali soldiers, before permanently transferring all of its advisory, mentoring and training activities to Mogadishu in December 2013.
In September 2011, President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed laid down the foundation for a new military camp for the army in the Jazeera District of Mogadishu. The $3.2 million construction project was funded by the EU and was expected to take six months to complete.
In June 2013, Egyptian engineers arrived to build new headquarters for the Somalia Ministry of Defence.
In February 2014, EUTM Somalia began its first "Train the Trainers" programme at the Jazeera Training Camp in Mogadishu. 60 Somali National Army soldiers that had been previously trained by EUTM in Uganda would take part in a four-week refresher course on infantry techniques and procedures, including international humanitarian law and military ethics. The training would be conducted by 16 EU trainers. Following the course's completion, the Somali soldiers would be qualified as instructors to then train SNA recruits, with mentoring provided by EUTM Somalia personnel. A team of EUTM Somalia advisors also started offering strategic advice to the Somali Ministry of Defence and General Staff. Additionally, capacity building, advice and specific mentoring with regard to security sector development and training are envisioned for 2014.
In February 2014, Chief of Staff Brigadier General Dahir Adan Elmi announced that Somalia's Ministry of Defence began holding military training inside the country for the first time, with Somali instructors now teaching courses to units that joined the armed forces. He also indicated that SNA leaders had created new numbered units for the army, and that the soldiers were slated to have their respective name and unit placed on their uniform. Additionally, Elmi stated that the military had implemented a new biometric registration system, wherein each recently trained and armed soldier is photographed and fingerprinted. By the end of 2014, 17,000 national army soldiers and police officers had registered for the new biometric remuneration system. 13,829 SNA soldiers and 5,134 Somali Police Force officials were biometrically registered in the system as of May 2015.
In July 2014, the governments of the United States and France announced that they would start providing training to the Somali National Army. The decision was reportedly reached to help the Somali authorities guard against potential threats to the country's security. According to U.S. Defense Department officials, American military advisers are also stationed in Somalia.
In September 2014, 20 Somalian federal soldiers began training courses in Djibouti, which were organized by the government of Djibouti.
In September 2014, a Somali government delegation led by Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed attended an international conference in London hosted by the British government, which centered on rebuilding the Somali National Army and strengthening the security sector in Somalia. Ahmed presented to the participants his administration's plan for the development of Somalia's military, as well as fiscal planning, human rights protection, arms embargo compliance, and ways to integrate regional militias. According to the Premier, the summit also aimed to optimize financial support for the Somali military. British Prime Minister David Cameron in turn indicated that the meeting sought to outline a long-term security plan to strengthen Somalia's army, police and judiciary.
In March 2015, the Federal Cabinet agreed to establish a new commission tasked with overseeing the nationalization and integration of security forces in the country. In April 2015, the Commission on Regional Militia Integration presented its plan for the formal integration of regional forces, with UNSOM providing support and strategic advice.
In April 2015, the federal Ministry of Defence launched its new Guulwade Plan (Victory Plan), which provides a roadmap for long-term development of the military. It was formulated with technical support from UNSOM. The framework stipulates that international partners are slated to provide capacity-building as well as assistance for joint operations to 10,900 Somali national army troops, with these units drawn from various regions in the country.
As of April 2015, UNSOM coordinates international security sector assistance for the SNA in accordance with the Somali federal government's priority areas. It also provides advice on recruitment of female officers, strictures on age appropriate military personnel, legal frameworks vis-a-vis the defence institutions, and a development strategy for the Ministry of Defence. Beginning in the month, the US government also funded the payment of 9,495 army allowances.
In May 2015, President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud officially opened a new military training camp in Mogadishu. Construction of the center began in 2014 in conjunction with the government of the United Arab Emirates. Situated in the Hodan district, it is one of several new military academies in the country.
As of May 2015, the federal government in conjunction with UNSOM was working toward establishing a comprehensive, international standards and obligations-compliant ammunition and weapons management system. To this end, capacity-building for the physical management of arms and bookkeeping was being developed, and new storage facilities and armouries for weapons and explosives were being constructed.
Strength and units
In August 2011, the TFG announced the creation of a new Special Force. Consisting of 300 trained soldiers, the unit was initially mandated with protecting relief shipments and distribution centers in Mogadishu. Besides helping to stabilize the city, the protection force is also tasked with combating banditry and other vices.
In March 2013 there were six trained brigades around Mogadishu, two of which were deployed at the time. Each brigade includes three to six battalions of around 1000 soldiers apiece, or 18,000 to 36,000 troops in total. Of these, an estimated 6,000 to 12,000 soldiers are currently in service.
According to the UN Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea, the six SNA brigades around Mogadishu were as of July 2013 largely composed of officers from various Hawiye sub-clans, with some Marehan-Darod and minorities also present in certain units. Of the brigades, five primarily consisted of Abgaal, Murosade and Hawadle soldiers. In February 2013 the 2nd Brigade was under the command of Brigadier General Abdullahi Osman Agey. The 3rd Brigade over the same period comprised 840 fighters, most of whom belong to the Hawiye-Habar Gidir/Ayr clan. The unit was around 30% to 50% smaller in size than the other five brigades that are garrisoned in the larger Banaadir region. Led by General Mohamed Roble Jimale 'Gobale', it occupied an area outside of Mogadishu and Merka and along the Afgoye corridor. The Monitoring Group reported that many 3rd Brigade fighters had been drawn from around 300-strong militias controlled by Yusuf Mohamed Siyaad 'Indha Adde', a close associate of Jimale and the former Eritrean-backed chief of defence for the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia-Asmara. However, Siyaad was by then no longer part of the SNA's official military structures.
As of May–June 2014, the army reportedly consists of an estimated 20,000 soldiers. Of these, the majority are men, with around 1,500 female SNA officials.
The 5th and 6th Brigades have played a pivotal role in the battle against Al-Shabaab, including in Mogadishu and Afgoye. With a post-training drop-out rate of around 10%, the vast majority of the EUTM-trained soldiers have continued to serve in the Somalia national security forces after their initial period of training abroad, and their units have remained intact. The standard of the EUTM-trained troops is regarded as being high relative to the brigades around Mogadishu. Overall, the Somali armed forces' combat capability has strengthened due in part to having both more combat experience and international support, including training, leadership and planning facilitation.
In February 2014, the Federal Government concluded a six-month training course for the first Commandos, Danab ("Lightning"), since 1991. The unit is modeled after the U.S. Rangers. Training had been jointly carried out by Somali military experts and U.S. government personnel. The Army Chief of Staff Brigadier General Dahir Adan Elmi said that the new Commandos hail from different parts of the county. The Commandos will have full military equipment and will be headquartered at the former Balli Dogle air base (Walaweyn District, Lower Shebelle). The training of the first Danab unit had begun in October 2013, and included 150 soldiers. As of July 2014, training of the second unit was underway. According to General Elmi, the special training is geared toward both urban and rural environments, and is aimed at preparing the soldiers for guerrilla warfare and all other types of modern military operations. Former Minister of Defence Abdihakim Mohamoud Haji-Faqi also indicated that the soldiers were receiving training for intelligence gathering and rescue operations. Additionally, Elmi said that a total of 570 Commandos are expected to have completed training by U.S. security personnel by the end of 2014.
Army equipment, 1981
The following were the Somali National Army's major weapons in 1981:
Army equipment, 1989
Previous arms acquisitions included the following equipment, much of which was unserviceable ca. June 1989: 293 main battle tanks (30 Centurion from Kuwait 123 M47 Patton, 30 T-34, 110 T-54/55 from various sources). Other armoured fighting vehicles included 10 M41 Walker Bulldog light tanks, 30 BRDM-2 and 15 Panhard AML-90 armored cars (formerly owned by Saudi Arabia). The IISS estimated in 1989 that there were 474 armoured personnel carriers, including 64 BTR-40/BTR-50/BTR-60, 100 BTR-152 wheeled armored personnel carriers, 310 Fiat 6614 and 6616s, and that BMR-600s had been reported. The IISS estimated that there were 210 towed artillery pieces (8 M-1944 100mm, 100 M-56 105mm, 84 M-1938 122mm, and 18 M198 155 mm towed howitzers). Other equipment reported by the IISS included 82mm and 120mm mortars, 100 Milan and BGM-71 TOW anti-tank guided missiles, rocket launchers, recoilless rifles, and a variety of Soviet air defence guns of 20mm, 23mm, 37mm, 40mm, 57mm, and 100mm calibre. As of 1 June 1989, the IISS also estimated that Somali army surface-to-air defense equipment included 40 SA-2 Guideline missiles (operational status uncertain), 10 SA-3 Goa, and 20 SA-7 surface-to-air missiles.
Army equipment, 2012-2015
In May 2012, over thirty-three vehicles were donated by the U.S. government to the SNA. The vehicles include 16 Magirus Trucks, 4 Hilux Pickups, 6 Land Cruiser Pickups, 1 Water Tanker, and 6 Water Trailers. On April 9, 2013, the U.S. government approved the provision of defense articles and services by the American authorities to the Somali Federal Government. It handed over 15 vehicles to the new Commandos in March 2014.
In April 2013, Djibouti presented the SNA with 15 armoured military vehicles. The equipment was part of a larger consignment of 25 military trucks and 25 armoured military vehicles.
The same month, the Italian government handed over 54 armored and personnel carrier vehicles to the army at a ceremony in Mogadishu.
As of April 2015, the Ministry of Defence's Guulwade Plan identifies the equipment and weaponry requirements of the army.
Somali Air Force
The Somali Air Force (SAF) was originally named the Somali Air Corps (SAC), and was established with Italian aid in the early 1960s. It emerged from the Italian "Corpo di Sicurezza della Somalia" that existed between 1950 and 1960, during the trusteeship period just prior to independence. The SAF's original equipment included eight North American F-51D Mustangs, Douglas C-47s and MiG 23s, which remained in service until 1968. The air force operated most of its aircraft from bases near Mogadishu, Hargeisa and Galkayo. An air defence force equipped with Soviet surface-to-air missiles and anti-aircraft guns was in existence by 1992.
According to CQ Press' Worldwide Government Directory with Intergovernmental Organizations, Somalia's reconstituted air force as of 2013 is led by Maj. Gen. Nur Ilmi Adawe.
The Somali Navy was formed after independence in 1960. Prior to 1991, it participated in several joint exercises with the United States, Great Britain and Canada. It subsequently disbanded following the outbreak of the civil war in Somalia during that year. In the 2000s, the central government began the process of re-establishing the Somali Navy.
On June 30, 2012, UAE Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Anwar Mohammed Gargash announced that his administration would contribute $1 million toward enhancing Somalia's naval security capacity. The funds would enable the Somali authorities in collaboration with international partners to acquire the boats, equipment and communication gear necessary for the rebuilding of the coast guard. A central operations naval command was also slated to be set up in Mogadishu.
In January 2013, Somalia's reconstituted Cabinet began a formal assessment and recovery process of its assets, which include ships and planes that are believed to be held in Italy, Germany, Russia, Israel and Yemen.
Somali Police Force
In 1960, the British Somaliland Scouts joined with the Police Corps of Somalia to form a new Somali Police Force, which consisted of about 3,700 men. The authorities also organized approximately 1,000 of the force as the Darawishta Poliska, a mobile group used to keep peace between warring clans in the interior. Since then, the government has considered the SPF a part of the armed forces. It was not a branch of the SNA, however, and did not operate under the army's command structure. Until its dissolution in 1976, the Ministry of Interior oversaw the force's national commandant and his central command. After that date, the SPF came under the control of the presidential adviser on security affairs.
The first police academy to be built in Somalia for several years opened on 20 December 2005 at Armo, 100 kilometres south of Bosaso. The Somali police also has a criminal investigations department in Mogadishu.
The United Nations continued to support the activities of the Somali Police Force, including the formulation of a strategic development plan. UNPOS facilitated the procurement of equipment and furniture for 10 police stations in Mogadishu and police headquarters and provided training to 38 Somali Police Force drivers and 5 fleet managers. UNDP continued to pay police stipends to 5,388 Somali Police Force officers on duty in Mogadishu, Baidoa and Galmudug, courtesy of the Government of Japan and the European Union. A total of 4,463 Somali Police Force officers were registered in Mogadishu using the biometric registration system, completing the registration for the capital.
In February 2014, a visiting delegation from Somalia led by Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed met in Addis Ababa with Prime Minister of Ethiopia Hailemariam Desalegn to discuss strengthening bilateral relations between the two countries. Hailemariam Desalegn pledged his administration's continued support for the peace and stabilization efforts in Somalia, as well as its preparedness to assist in initiatives aiming to build up the Somali security forces through experience-sharing and training. The meeting concluded with a tripartite Memorandum of Understanding agreeing to promote partnership and cooperation, including a cooperative agreement to develop the police force.
In August 2014, the Somali and U.S. governments reached an agreement in Washington, D.C. stipulating that the United States would, via the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL), contribute $1.9 million toward security sector reform, development and capacity-building efforts in Somalia. INL support would focus on the Somali Criminal Investigative Division (CID), with an emphasis on implementing policies, practices and procedures that buttress citizen services and human rights. The treaty is the second of its kind between the Somalian government and INL.
In January 2015, Foreign Affairs Minister of Somalia Abdirahman Duale Beyle and a Turkish delegation signed a bilateral treaty in Mogadishu pertaining to police support.
National Intelligence and Security Agency
The National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA) is the national intelligence agency of the Federal Republic of Somalia. It was officially established in January 2013 by the new Somali federal government in place of the defunct National Security Service (NSS). Headquartered in Mogadishu, NISA is mandated with firming up on security. It is assisted in this capacity by AMISOM. According to the former Minister of State for the Presidency Abdulkadir Moallin Noor, the CIA also provided training to NISA officials during the latter agency's formative stages. Among other deployments, NISA agents have conducted security operations against Al-Shabaab elements in the capital.
According to the Provisional Constitution, the President of Somalia serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Following the counsel of the Cabinet, he or she has the power to appoint and dismiss the federal-level military commanders. He or she may also declare a state of emergency and war where necessary, in conformance with the law.
Minister of Defence
|No.||Name||Took command||Left command|
|1||Mohamed Abdi Gandhi||21 February 2009|
|2||Yusuf Mohammed Siad||9 June 2010|
|3||Abdihakim Mohamoud Haji-Faqi||12 November 2010||20 July 2011|
|4||Hussein Arab Isse||20 July 2011||4 November 2012|
|5||Abdihakim Mohamoud Haji-Faqi||4 November 2012||17 January 2014|
|6||Mohamed Sheikh Hassan||17 January 2014||27 January 2015|
|7||Abdulkadir Sheikh Dini||27 January 2015||Present|
Chief of Army
|No.||Name||Took command||Left command|
|1||Maj. Gen Ismail Qasim Naji||14 April 2005||10 February 2007|
|2||Maj. Gen Abdullahi Ali Omar||10 February 2007||21 July 2007|
|3||Brig. Gen Salah Hassan Jama||21 July 2007||11 June 2008|
|4||Maj. Gen Said Dheere Mohamed||11 June 2008||15 May 2009|
|5||Maj. Gen Yusuf Osman Dhumal||15 May 2009||10 December 2009|
|6||Brig. Gen Mohamed Gelle Kahiye||6 December 2009||18 September 2010|
|7||Brig. Gen Ahmed Jimale Gedi||18 September 2010||28 March 2011|
|8||Maj. Gen Abdulkadir Sheikh Dini||28 March 2011||13 March 2013|
|9||Brig. Gen Dahir Adan Elmi||13 March 2013||25 June 2014|
|10||Maj. Gen Abdullahi Anod||25 June 2014||Present|
Chief of Military Court
|No.||Name||Took command||Left command|
|1||Brigadier General Hassan Mohamed Hussein||2011||18 February 2014|
|2||Col. Liban Ali Yarrow||18 February 2014||18 May 2014|
|3||Maj. Gen Abdurahman Mohamud Turyare||18 May 2014||22 September 2014|
|4||Col. Liban Ali Yarrow||24 September 2014||Present|
In July 2014, General Dahir Adan Elmi announced the completion of a review of the Somali National Army ranks. The SNA in conjunction with the federal Ministry of Defense is also slated to standardize the martial ranking system and eliminate any unauthorized military ranks as part of a broader reform.
As of 1977, Somalia's army ranks were as follows:
|1||Lieutenant General||Officer||Muhammad Ali Samatar|
|2||Major General||Officer||Daud Abdulle Hirsi, Siad Barre, Abdullah Mohamed Fadil, Mohamud Muse Hersi|
|3||Brigadier General||Officer||Ali Matan Hashi, Abdullahi Ahmed Irro, Mohamed Farah Aidid, Muse Hassan Sheikh Sayid Abdulle, Dahir Adan Elmi, Abdulkadir Sheikh Dini|
|4||Colonel||Officer||Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, Mohamed Osman Irro, Jibrell Ali Salad|
|5||Lieutenant colonel||Officer||Salaad Gabeyre Kediye|
|10||Chief Warrant Officer||NCO|
|11||Warrant Officer III||NCO|
|12||Warrant Officer II||NCO|
|13||Warrant Officer I||NCO|
|16||Private First Class||NCO|
- Martino, John (2013). Worldwide Government Directory with Intergovernmental Organizations 2013. CQ Press. p. 1462. ISBN 1452299374.
- Guled, Abdi (30 May 2014). "Female soldiers increasingly joining military ranks in Somalia". The Daily Star. AP. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- "The Federal Republic of Somalia – Provisional Constitution" (PDF). Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "The Federal Republic of Somalia – Provisional Constitution". Retrieved 13 March 2013. Chapter 14, Article 126(3).
- "Somalia: A Country Study – Army Ranks and Insignia" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- See discussion in Abdullah A. Mohamoud, State collapse and post-conflict development in Africa : the case of Somalia (1960–2001). West Lafayette, Ind. : Purdue University Press, c2006
- Daniel Compagnon, 'Political decay in Somalia: From Personal Rule to Warlordism,' Refuge, Vol 12, No. 5, November–December 1992, 9.
- Nina J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: issues, history, and bibliography, (Nova Publishers: 2002), p.19.
- "SOMALIA PM Said "Cabinet will work tirelessly for the people of Somalia"". Midnimo. 17 January 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- Library of Congress Country Study, Somalia, The Warrior Tradition and Development of a Modern Army, research complete May 1992.
- Saheed A. Adejumobi, The History of Ethiopia, (Greenwood Press: 2006), p.178
- Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc, Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume 1, (Encyclopaedia Britannica: 2005), p.163
- David D. Laitin and Said S. Samatar, Somalia: Nation in Search of a State (Boulder: Westview Press, 1987).
- Cambridge illustrated atlas, warfare: Renaissance to revolution, 1492–1792 By Jeremy Black pg 9
- W. Mitchell. Journal of the Royal United Service Institution, Whitehall Yard, Volume 57, Issue 2. p. 997.
- William James Makin. War Over Ethiopia. p. 227.
- "Puntland Forces mark 50th anniversary of Somali Armed". Garowe Online. 12 April 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, (Encyclopaedia Britannica: 2002), p. 835
- "The dawn of the Somali nation-state in 1960". Buluugleey.com. Retrieved 2009-02-25.
- Library of Congress Country Study, Somalia, Manpower, Training, and Conditions of Service (Thomas Ofcansky), research complete May 1992.
- Library of Congress Country Studies Somalia, Problems of National Integration, Library of Congress, research completed May 1992.
- Metz, Helen C. (ed.) (1992), "Coup d'Etat", Somalia: A Country Study, Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, retrieved 21 October 2009.
- Mohamed Haji (Ingiriis), http://www.hiiraan.com/op4/2010/dec/17095/somalia_from_finest_to_failed_state_part_iii.aspx. See also Abdirashid A. Ismail, Somali State Failure, PLAYERS, INCENTIVES AND INSTITUTIONS, Helsinki.
- IISS Military Balance 1976–77, p.44
- Abdullahi Yusuf Irro once commanded the 60th.
- Ahmed III, Abdul. "Brothers in Arms Part I" (PDF). WardheerNews. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- Lewis, I.M.; The Royal African Society (October 1989). "The Ogaden and the Fragility of Somali Segmentary Nationalism". African Affairs 88 (353). doi:10.2307/723037. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- Gebru Tareke, "The Ethiopia-Somalia War", p. 638.
- Urban, Mark (1983). "Soviet intervention and the Ogaden counter-offensive of 1978". The RUSI Journal 128 (2): 42–46. doi:10.1080/03071848308523524.
- Gebru Tareke, "From Lash to Red Star: The Pitfalls of Counter-Insurgency in Ethiopia, 1980–82", Journal of Modern African Studies, 40 (2002), p. 471
- Lockyer, Adam. "Opposing Foreign Intervention’s Impact on the Course of Civil Wars: The Ethiopian-Ogaden Civil War, 1976–1980" (PDF). Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- IRIN Special Report on Central Somalia, 13 May 1999.
- ARR: Arab report and record, (Economic Features, ltd.: 1978), p.602.
- New People Media Centre, New people, Issues 94–105, (New People Media Centre: Comboni Missionaries, 2005).
- Nina J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: issues, history, and bibliography, (Nova Publishers: 2002), p.25.
- Ciisa-Salwe, Cabdisalaam M. (1996). The collapse of the Somali state: the impact of the colonial legacy. HAAN Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 187420991X.
- "Somalia — Government". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- 'Somalia: Military Politics,' Africa Confidential, 27, No. 22, October 26, 1986, 1–2.
- Defense Intelligence Agency, 'Military Intelligence Summary, Vol IV, Part III, Africa South of the Sahara', November 1987, 12
- United States Marine Corps, REstoring Hope in Somalia with the Unified Task Force, 63.
- IISS Military Balance 1989–90, Brassey's for the IISS, 1989, 113.
- History and Development of the Armed Forces
- Helen Chapin Metz, Library of Congress Country Study, Somalia, Army Mission, Organization, and Strength, research complete May 1992.
- Human Rights Watch
- "UN eases oldest arms embargo for Somalia". AAP. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "The Lives of 18 American Soldiers Are Not Better Than Thousands of Somali Lives They Killed, Somalia's TNG Prime Minister Col. Hassan Abshir Farah says". Somalia Watch. 2002-01-22. Retrieved 2007-01-17.
- "Background and Political Developments". AMISOM. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Wezeman, Pieter D. "Arms flows and conflict in Somalia" (PDF). SIPRI. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
- "Somalis Support Museveni On 'African Solution'". Somaliweyn. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Interpeace, 'The search for peace: A history of mediation in Somalia since 1988,' Interpeace, May 2009, 60–61.
- "Ethiopian Invasion of Somalia". Globalpolicy.org. August 14, 2007. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
- Ken Menkhaus, 'Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa,' in Andersen/Moller/Stepputat (eds.) , Fragile States and Insecure People,' Palgrave, 2007, 67.
- Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Somalia". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- "Profile: Somali's newly resigned President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed". News.xinhuanet.com. December 29, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- International Crisis Group, Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State, Africa Report N°147 – December 23, 2008, 26.
- Majtenyi, Cathy (8 January 2007). "Somali President in Capital for Consultations". VOA. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Williams, Paul D. "Into the Mogadishu maelstrom: the African Union mission in Somalia." International Peacekeeping 16.4 (2009): 516.
- "Somalia’s army commander sacked as new ambassadors are appointed". Shabelle Media Network. 2007-04-10. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
- More Ugandan troops arrive in Mogadishu, Xinhua via People's Daily Online, March 8, 2007.
- "Power vacuum in Somalia as factions fight". Garowe Online. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- McGregor, Andrew (April 26, 2007). "The Leading Factions Behind the Somali Insurgency" (PDF). Terrorism Monitor V (8): 1–4. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Menkhaus, Ken. "Somalia: What Went Wrong?". The Rusi Journal. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Cedric Barnes, and Harun Hassan, "The rise and fall of Mogadishu's Islamic Courts." Journal of Eastern African Studies 1, no. 2 (2007), 158.
- "Somalia comes full circle". ISA. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Leggiere, Phil. "Somalia: The Next Challenge – Homeland Security Today". Center for American Progress. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- ""So Much to Fear" – Human Rights Abuses by Transitional Federal Government Forces". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State" (PDF). International Crisis Group. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- Shariah in Somalia – Arab News
- Online, Garowe (2011-01-12). "Somalia President, Parliament Speaker dispute over TFG term". Garoweonline.com. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
- Donors pledge over $250 million for Somalia
- Reuters, US gives Somalia about 40 tons of arms, ammunition
- "Security Council Meeting on Somalia". Somaliweyn.org.
- Independent Newspapers Online (2011-08-10). "Al-Shabaab ‘dug in like rats’". Iol.co.za.
- Kenya launches offensive in Somalia
- "Somalia government supports Kenyan forces' mission". Standardmedia.co.ke.
- Joint Communique – Operation Linda Nchi
- "Kenya: Defense Minister appointed as acting Internal Security Minister". Garowe Online. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Kenya agrees to join AMISOM". China Daily. 2011-12-07.
- "Al-Shabaab Evicted from Mogadishu". Somalia Report. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- "Ethiopian forces capture key Somali rebel stronghold". Reuters. 22 February 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
- Ethiopian troops seize main rebel town in central Somalia
- "Somali al-Shabab militant stronghold Afgoye 'captured'". BBC. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Somalia forces capture key al-Shabab town of Afmadow". BBC. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Somali forces capture rebel stronghold". Google News. Agence France-Presse. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- Sethi, Aman (2 November 2012). "Call to bolster Somalia mission". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Shabelle.net, Somalia changes its top military commanders
- "Somalia: Federal Govt, AMISOM troops clash with Al Shabaab". Garowe Online. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- "SOMALIA: PM hosts meeting with International Community diplomats on stabilisation efforts". Raxanreeb. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "SOMALIA: The capture of Qoryooley is critical for the operations to liberate Barawe, Amisom head says". Raxanreeb. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- "SOMALIA: Elbur town falls for Somali Army and Amisom". Raxanreeb. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Somalia, AU troops close in on key Shebab base". AFP. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- "SOMALIA: President Mohamud fires senior military commanders". Raxanreeb. 25 June 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "SOMALIA: President says Godane is dead, now is the chance for the members of al-Shabaab to embrace peace". Raxanreeb. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "Pentagon Confirms Death of Somalia Terror Leader". Associated Press. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "US confirms death of Somalia terror group leader". Associated Press. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "Arab-Israeli Wars: 60 Years of Conflict". ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
- "The Arab League includes most countries from the Arab world, including Saudi Arabia, Egypt and the Palestinian Authority". Sputnik International. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- "About EASF". Eastern Africa Standby Force. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "Turkey-Somalia military agreement approved". Today's Zaman. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "SOMALIA: Ministry of Defense signs an agreement of military support with Turkish Defense ministry". Raxanreeb. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Press Release: Erdogan’s Somalia Visit". Goobjoog. 25 January 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "PM meets Italian Defence minister, IFAD director and addressed Rome 3 students". Laanta. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- "Press Release: AMISOM offers IHL training to senior officials of the Somali National Forces". AMISOM. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- "SOMALIA: Parliament approves Somalia’s military treaty with Italy". Raxanreeb. 4 November 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- "Somalia: Jubaland gains recognition after intense bilateral talks in Ethiopia". Garowe Online. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- "Somalia: Puntland clinches deal with Federal Govt". Garowe Online. 14 October 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- "Somalia: Puntland to contribute 3000 soldiers to Nat’l Army, another deal signed". Garowe Online. 12 April 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
- "Somalia leaders call for Brussels pledges review at Garowe Conference". Garowe Online. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "Communiqué on FGS and regional states meeting in Garowe". Goobjoog. 2 May 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "UAE, Somalia sign military cooperation agreement". Kuwait News Agency. 7 November 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- Donors pledge over $250 million for Somalia
- 1000 Somali Recruits Complete training in Uganda
- International Crisis Group, Somalia: The Transitional Government on Life Support, Africa Report 170, 20 February 2011, p.16
- "900 newly trained Somali soldiers dispatched from Ugandan military school". Bar-Kulan. 2 September 2011.
- "Special Forces In Mogadishu". Hiiraan Online. 7 September 2011.
- IRIN News, 14 May 2012, via Africa Research Bulletin-PSC, May 1–31, 2012, p.19287C.
- "EU military training programme launches in Somalia". Sabahi. 26 February 2014.
- "President Sharif Opens Military Camp in Capital". SomaliaReport. 16 September 2011.
- "Egypt to help re-build Somali Ministry of Defence". Sabahi. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- "EUTM Somalia starts its training activities in Mogadishu". EUTM Somalia. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- "Mission description". EUTM Somalia. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- "Somali National Army commander: Reviving army will take time". Sabahi. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- "Somalia's Year of Delivery". Goobjoog. 31 January 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Report of the Secretary - General on Somalia - S /2015/331". United Nations Security Council. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
- "US and France agrees to train Somali National army". Buraan News. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- Dan Joseph, Harun Maruf (31 July 2014). "US-Trained Somali Commandos Fight Al-Shabab". VOA. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "Djibouti to train federal government forces". Goobjoog. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- "An international conference in London on Somali security". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ethiopia. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- "Somali Cabinet Ministers agree financial management committee to work temporarily". Goobjoog. 19 March 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "Somali president officially opens new military training centre in Mogadishu". Goobjoog. 12 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- Khalif, Abdulkadir (14 August 2011). "Somalia to set up aid protection force". Africa Review. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Kwayera, Juma (9 March 2013). "Hope alive in Somalia as UN partially lifts arms embargo". Standard Digital. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Report S/2013/440 of the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea pursuant to Security Council resolution 2060 (2012): Eritrea" (PDF). UN Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea. Retrieved 26 June 2014., page 19, para. 50–51 & footnote 44.
- Claes Nilsson, Johan Norberg. "European Union Training Mission Somalia – A Mission Assessment" (PDF). European Union Training Mission Somalia. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- Mohyaddin, Shafi’i (8 February 2014). "Somalia trains its first commandos after the collapse of the central government". Hiiraan Online. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- "Arms Trade Register". SIPRI. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- "PRESS RELEASE: AMISOM hands over military vehicles to the Somali National Army". AMISOM. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "U.S. eases arms restrictions for Somalia". UPI. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "SOMALIA: U.S donates military vehicles to newly trained Somali Commandos". Raxanreeb. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- "Djibouti donates armoured vehicles to Somalia". Sabahi. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
- "Italy Hands over Military Consignment to Somali Government". Goobjoog. 5 March 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Somalia, A Country Study, 1992/3, 205.
- "Somalia to Make Task Marine Forces to Secure Its Coast". Shabelle Media Network. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "UAE committed to contribute US$1 million to support Somali naval security capabilities, says Gargash". UAE Interact. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Somali government looking to recover foreign assets". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ethiopia. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Nina J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: issues, history, and bibliography, (Nova Publishers: 2002), p.68.
- New Police Academy Opens in Somalia
- United Nations Security Council, Report of the Secretary-GEneral on Somalia, 31 JAnuary 2013, S/2013/69, para 28 p.6
- "Ethiopia: The Prime Minister of Somalia On a Visit to Ethiopia". Government of Ethiopia. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- "Somalia and US signs agreement to support Somali police reforms". Goobjoog. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Department of State and the Government of the Federal Republic of Somalia Sign Agreement to Support Police Reform Efforts". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- "Somalia Re-Opens its National Intelligence & Security Agency". Walta Info. 10 January 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- "PRESS RELEASE: AU Special Representative reaffirms AMISOM's continued support to the Somali National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA)" (PDF). African Union. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "CIA using secret Somalia facility, prison: report". AFP. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Somalia: Mogadishu security operation nets 27 Al Shabaab members". Garowe Online. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Somalia's new government dominated by former opposition members" garoweonline.com
- "Somalia's defence minister Yusuf Mohammed Siad resigns". BBC News. 0 June 2010. Check date values in:
- "Somali PM names new cabinet". Xinhua. November 13, 2010. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
- Rulers – July 2011 – Somalia
- Rulers – November 2012 – Somalia
- "Nominated Ministers and Their Clans". Goobjoog. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "Somali cabinet fills key posts". Al-Jazeera. 14 April 2005. Retrieved 2007-01-17.
- "Peaceful day for Somalia reconciliation conference" garoweonline.com
- "Somalia's Interim President Appoints New Chief of Staff for the Armed Forces" hiiraan.com
- "Somali president names new military chief amid insurgent push" topnews.in
- "Somalia fires heads of police force and military" reuters.com
- "Somali president fires top commanders" hiiraan.com
- "Salad Gabeyre Kediye Was a Brigadier General In The Somali Military And A Revolutionary". Banaadir Weyne. 2 April 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- "Somalia changes its top military commanders". Shabelle Media Network. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Somalia: President Hassan names new Mogadishu mayor". Garowe Online. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "New Somali military court chief appointed". Hiiraan Online. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "SOMALIA: President appoints Supreme Military Court chief". Raxanreeb. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Somali cabinet appoints Turyare as the director of Somali intelligence". Goobjoog. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "President Hassan appoints the chief of Somali military court". Goobjoog. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Somalia: Military Chief warns counterfeit military ranks". Raxanreeb. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
Cite error: Invalid
<ref> tag; name "Ahmed" defined multiple times with different content
- Defense Intelligence Agency, 'Military Intelligence Summary, Vol IV, Part III, Africa South of the Sahara', November 1987
- International Crisis Group, Somalia: The Transitional Government on Life Support, Africa Report 170, 20 February 2011.
- Human Rights Watch, Human Rights Abuses by Transitional Federal Government Forces in 'So Much to Fear: War Crimes and Devastation in Somalia', December 2008
- Library of Congress Somalia Country Study 1992
- Abdullah A. Mohamoud, State collapse and post-conflict development in Africa : the case of Somalia (1960–2001). West Lafayette, Ind. : Purdue University Press, c2006 (DT407 M697 S).
- Williams, Paul D. "Into the Mogadishu maelstrom: the African Union mission in Somalia." International Peacekeeping 16.4 (2009): 514–530.
- Brian Crozier, The Soviet Presence in Somalia, Institute for the Study of Conflict, London, 1975
- Irving Kaplan, Area Handbook for Somalia, American University, 1969 and 1977.
- Nilsson, Claes, and Johan Norberg, "European Union Training Mission Somalia: A Mission Assessment", Swedish National Defence Research Institute, 2014.
- Anderson, Jon Lee (14 December 2009). "The Most Failed State". The New Yorker. Retrieved 18 May 2015. - includes notes on state of Somali Navy
- Air Combat Information Group, Somalia, 1980–1996
- Somalia: Foreign Military Assistance SomaliNet
- "Weapons at War", a World Policy Institute Issue Brief by William D. Hartung, , May 1995, chapter III: Strengthening Potential Adversaries (12th paragraph), Somalia.