Relations between the modern-day territories of Somalia and Yemen stretch back to antiquity. A number of both Yemeni and Somali clans trace descent to the latter region. The 1st century CE Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, among other documents, also reports early commercial exchanges between traders inhabiting city-states on the northern Somalia littoral with Himyarite and Sabaean merchants. Numerous artefacts dating from this period have been uncovered in Somalia, such as at the Damo site in the northeastern Puntland region. In the Middle Ages, the Somali Sultanates often recruited troops from Yemen's Hadhramaut region. During the medieval period, disgruntled Yemenis from the Hadhrami wars additionally sought and received asylum in Somali Kingdoms like Ajuran Empire and Adal Sultanate. Yemen was colonized by the Portuguese Empire and the powerful Somalis from Ajuran Empire liberated Aden and other provinces in Yemen occupied by the Portuguese colonizers.
Over the ensuing interim period, the Yemeni authorities maintained relations with Somalia's newly established Transitional National Government and its successor the Transitional Federal Government. In September 2012, at a mini-summit on Somalia held during the 67th session of the UN General Assembly, Yemeni Foreign Minister Abu Bakr al-Qirbi, on behalf of President of Yemen Abd Rabbo Mansour Hadi, welcomed the Somali government's completion of its scheduled shift from a transitional administration to a permanent one and urged the international community to continue its support for the ongoing post-conflict reconstruction efforts in Somalia.
The Federal Government of Somalia was later established on August 20, 2012, representing the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the conflict. The following month, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud was elected as the new government's first President. The election was welcomed by the Yemeni authorities, who re-affirmed Yemen's continued support for Somalia's government, its territorial integrity and sovereignty. During the Houthi insurgency in 2015 in Yemen, Foreign Minister of Somalia Abdisalam Omer likewise reiterated his administration's support for the legitimacy of Yemen's incumbent government led by President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi.
Trade and agreements
In May 2014, the Somali State Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Bur’i Mohamed Hamza met with the Yemeni Ambassador to Somalia Fu'ad Mohamed Al Zorqah to discuss bilateral cooperation. The conference was held at the Foreign Affairs Ministry compound in Mogadishu and touched on a number of issues, including the launching of a direct flight between Mogadishu and Sana'a. Operated by Al Saeda Airlines, it is the first air route directly linking both capitals since the collapse of Somalia's former central government in 1991.
In June 2014, the Fisheries Minister of the Puntland State of Somalia Hasan Mahmoud announced that the Somali and Yemeni governments are slated to sign a Memorandum of Understanding to regulate fishing within Somalia's territorial waters by Yemeni fishermen. The Puntland and Yemeni Fisheries ministries are also scheduled to hold talks on bilateral cooperation, with the aim of preserving and effectively exploiting marine resources.
- Lewis, I. M.; Said Samatar (1999). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. pp. 11–13. ISBN 3-8258-3084-5.
- Schoff (tr. & ed.), W.H. (1912). The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century. London, Bombay & Calcutta.
- Neville Chittick, An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Horn: The British-Somali Expedition, (1975), pp.117-133.
- Metz, Helen Chapin (1993). Somalia: a country study. The Division. p. 10.
- R. J. Gavin (1975). Aden under British rule, 1839–1967. Hurst. p. 198.
- Lee V. Cassanelli (1973). The Benaadir past: essays in southern Somali history. University of Wisconsin. p. 24.
- Welch (1950), p. 25.
- World Refugee Survey. United States Committee for Refugees. 1997. p. 169.
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