Somalis in Norway

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Somalis in Norway
Total population
28,696[1]
Regions with significant populations
Oslo
Languages
Somali, Norwegian
Religion
Islam

Somalis in Norway are citizens and residents of Norway who are of Somali descent.

In 1999, the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration (Norwegian: Udlendingsdirektoratet, UDI) started to use blood testing on Somalis who applied for family reunification with parents, the tests showed that 1 out of 4 lied about the family ties. The tests were later changed to DNA tests to verify family ties.[2] The leader of a Somali community organization in Norway and the Norwegian Medical Association protested the tests and wished they would be discontinued.[3] In 2010, UDI started DNA-tests on Somali childless couples who applied for family reunification where one spouse already resided in Norway. The results showed that 40% of such pairs were siblings. As the tests became widely known, the ratio dropped to 25% and the tests were widended to migrants from other regions.[4]

Demographics[edit]

In 2004, Somali women had the highest nativity rate in Norway with 4.4 children per female, in contrast to 1.73 for Norwegian women.[5]

According to Statistics Norway, as of 2017, there are a total 28,696 persons of Somali origin living in Norway. Of those, 12,767 individuals were born in Norway to immigrant parents.[1]

According to the Oslo Municipality, as of 2014, a total of 8,758 Somalia-born immigrants reside in Oslo. Of those individuals, many arrived during the 2000-2004 period (2,811 persons).[6]

Socioeconomics[edit]

According to Statistics Norway, as of 2012-2014, the percentage of Somalia-born immigrants in Norway with a persistently low income averaged out at 70.7%. This was a higher proportion than the native population and other immigrant groups, largely because most Somali individuals arrived as asylum immigrants, who tend to have lower incomes. The percentage of Somalia-born immigrants with a persistently low income has also steadily declined the longer that the individuals have resided in Norway, with proportions of 94.2% among 3 year Somalia-born residents, 74.7% among 4-9 year residents, and 61.6% among residents of 10 years or longer. This was relative to immigrant averages of 26.3% overall, 50.3% among 3 year residents, 28.5% among 4-9 year residents, and 20.2% among residents of 10 years or more. As of 2014, around 72% of Somalia-born immigrants have a persistently low income, with individuals born in Norway to Somali immigrants having a smaller low income percentage of approximately 65%.[7]

According to Oslo municipality, about 50-70% of Somali males in Oslo are habitual users of khat, a narcotic banned in Norway. The narcotic is expensive on the black market which is a contributing factor to destroying household economics.[8]

Crime[edit]

According to Statistics Norway, in the 2001 to 2010-2013 period, the estimated proportion of Somalia-born perpetrators of criminal offences aged 15 and older in Norway decreased from 227 to 124 per 1000 residents.[9] This was compared to averages of 44.9 among native Norwegians and 112.9 among Norway-born residents with parents of foreign origin.[10]

According to a Statistics Norway report in 2017 investigating crime among immigrants in the 2010-2013 period, it was found Somalis, together with Iraqis, Iranians and Afghans had the highest over-represented as perpetrators of crime.[11] With 125 perpetrators out of 1000, Somalis were over-represented when compared to the Norwegian population (45 out of 1000). Over-representation of Somali perpetrators remained at 90 out of 1000 after gender balance, age distribution, city of residence and employment was adjusted for.[12]

Education[edit]

According to Statistics Norway, as of 2016, among a total 24,651 Somalia-born immigrants aged 16 and older, 15,944 individuals had attained a below upper secondary education level, 3,709 had attained an upper secondary education level, 122 had attained a tertiary vocational education level, 1,793 had attained a higher education level of up to four years in duration, 378 had attained a higher education level of more than four years in duration, and 2,705 had no education.[13]

Employment[edit]

According to Statistics Norway, as of 2016, Somalia-born immigrants aged 15-74 in Norway have an employment rate of approximately 32.4%.[14] As of 2017, their unemployment rate was also about 7.5%.[15]

Statistics Norway has been criticized for misrepresenting employment levels for African migrants due to employment was counted from 1 weekly hour of work. Counting full-time employment as 30 hours of work per week, 11% of women from Somalia were in full-time employment with another 10% having 1-19 hours of work.[16] According to Nettavisen, Somali females differ strongly in employment patterns to Polish women, where the latter are joining the workforce more rapidly, have twice as high an employment level and they stay in the workforce much longer.[17]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Population by immigrant category and country background". Statistics Norway. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  2. ^ "UDI fortsetter med omstridt DNA-test". Dagbladet.no (in Norwegian). 2001-10-02. Retrieved 2018-08-27.
  3. ^ "UDI fortsetter med omstridt DNA-test". Dagbladet.no (in Norwegian). 2001-10-02. Retrieved 2018-08-27.
  4. ^ "DNA-tester avdekket juks med familiegjenforening". Aftenposten (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2018-08-27.
  5. ^ "Fakta om fruktbarhet, fødealder og helse". Folkehelseinstituttet (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  6. ^ "Statistisk årbok for Oslo 2014 - Kapittel 1 Folkemengdens størrelse og sammensetning". Oslo Municipality. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  7. ^ "Økonomi og levekår for ulike lavinntektsgrupper 2016". Statistics Norway. pp. 57, 117, 118. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  8. ^ "Annenhver somalier tygger khat". Aftenposten (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2017-12-03.
  9. ^ Synøve N. Andersen, Bjart Holtsmark & Sigmund B. Mohn (2017). Kriminalitet blant innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre En analyse av registerdata for perioden 1992-2015. Statistics Norway. pp. 27 (Tabell 3.3), 28. ISBN 978-82-537-9643-7. Det er verdt å merke seg at de fleste tallene er betydelig lavereher enn i analysen fra 2001, og særlig blant landgruppene som den gang var mestoverrepresentert. For eksempel har andelen gjerningspersoner fra Irak sunket fra249 til 125 per 1000 og for innvandrere fra Somalia fra 227 til 124 per 1000
  10. ^ Synøve N. Andersen, Bjart Holtsmark & Sigmund B. Mohn. Kriminalitet blant innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre En analyse av registerdata for perioden 1992-2015. p. 38 (Tabell 3.6). Tabell 3.6 viser oss det totale antallet gjerningspersoner blant norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre, brutt ned etter foreldrenes landbakgrunn og innvandringsgrunn. Tallet i den øverste raden i tabellen kjenner vi igjen fra tidligere; det er 44,9 gjerningspersoner per 1000 bosatt i den øvrige befolkningen. Blant norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre er tallet 112,9.
  11. ^ Synøve N. Andersen, Bjart Holtsmark & Sigmund B. Mohn (2017). Kriminalitet blant innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre En analyse av registerdata for perioden 1992-2015. Statistics Norway. pp. 42, Figure 3.2. ISBN 978-82-537-9643-7.
  12. ^ Synøve N. Andersen, Bjart Holtsmark & Sigmund B. Mohn (2017). Kriminalitet blant innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre En analyse av registerdata for perioden 1992-2015. Statistics Norway. pp. 29–30, Figure 3.2. ISBN 978-82-537-9643-7.
  13. ^ "Level of education for immigrants 16 years and older. Country background. Numbers". Statistics Norway. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  14. ^ "Employed immigrants (15-74 years) by country of birth and sex. 4th quarter". Statistics Norway. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  15. ^ "Registered unemployed immigrants and persons participating in labour market schemes 15-74 years, by country background, years of residence, sex, contents and time". Statistics Norway. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  16. ^ Stavrum, Gunnar. "Nye innvandrertall: Under halvparten er i full jobb". Nettavisen (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2018-10-27.
  17. ^ Stavrum, Gunnar. "Nye innvandrertall: Under halvparten er i full jobb". Nettavisen (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2018-10-27.