Sombor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Sombor

Град Сомбор
City of Sombor
Sombor-Zupanija-20160404.jpg
Градска кућа у Сомбору3.jpg
Римокатоличка црква у Сомбору - Rome Catholic Church in Sombor.jpg
Zgrada Preparandije.jpg
Sombor 07.jpg
Sombor 2012-04-12 17-01-57.jpg
From top: Town hall, Old Town Hall, Rome Catholic Church, Preparandija building, Krušper's palace, Main pedestrian street
Coat of arms of Sombor
Coat of arms
Sombor is located in Serbia
Sombor
Sombor
Location of the city of Sombor in Serbia
Coordinates: 45°47′N 19°07′E / 45.783°N 19.117°E / 45.783; 19.117Coordinates: 45°47′N 19°07′E / 45.783°N 19.117°E / 45.783; 19.117
Country Serbia
Province Vojvodina
DistrictWest Bačka
City status17 February 1749
Settlements16
Government
 • MayorDušanka Golubović (SNS)
Area
Area rank7th in Serbia
 • Urban289.23 km2 (111.67 sq mi)
 • Administrative1,216.80 km2 (469.81 sq mi)
Elevation
90 m (300 ft)
Population
 (2011 census)[2]
 • Rank16th in Serbia
 • Urban
47,623
 • Urban density160/km2 (430/sq mi)
 • Administrative
85,903
 • Administrative density71/km2 (180/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
25000
Area code+381 25
Car platesSO
Websitewww.sombor.rs

Sombor (Serbian Cyrillic: Сомбор, pronounced [sɔ̂mbɔr]; Hungarian: Zombor; Rusyn: Зомбор / Zombor) is a city and the administrative center of the West Bačka District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The city has a total population of 47,623 (as of 2011), while its administrative area (including neighboring villages) has 85,903 inhabitants.

Name and etymology[edit]

In Serbian, the city is known as Sombor (Сомбор), in Hungarian and German as Zombor, in Croatian and Bunjevac as Sombor, in Rusyn as Zombor (Зомбор), and in Turkish as Sonbor.

The older Hungarian name for the city was Czoborszentmihály. The name originates from the Czobor family, who were the owners of this area in the 14th century (The family name came from the Slavic name Cibor). The Serbian name for the city (Sombor) also came from the family name Czobor, and was first recorded in 1543, although the city was mentioned in historical documents under several more names, such as Samobor, Sambor, Sambir, Sonbor, Sanbur, Zibor, and Zombar.

An unofficial Serbian name used for the city is Ravangrad (Раванград), which means "flat town" in English.

History[edit]

Serbian Orthodox church
Main pedestrian street

The first historical record relating to the city is from 1340. The city was administered by the Kingdom of Hungary until the 16th century, when it became part of the Ottoman Empire. During the establishment of Ottoman authority, the local Hungarian population left the region. As a result, the city became populated mostly by ethnic Serbs.[3] It was called "Sonbor" during Ottoman administration and was a kaza centre in the Sanjak of Segedin at first in Budin Province until 1596, and then in Eğri Province between 1596 and 1687.

In 1665, a well-known traveller, Evliya Celebi, visited Sombor and wrote: "All the folk (in the city) are not Hungarian, but Wallachian-Christian (Serb[3]). These places are something special; they do not belong to Hungary, but are a part of Bačka and Wallachia. Most of the inhabitants are traders, and all of them wear frontiersmen clothes; they are very polite and brave people." According to Celebi, the city had 200 shops, 14 mosques and about 2,000 houses.

Since 12 September 1687, the city was under Habsburg administration, and was included into the Habsburg Military Frontier. Ottomans attempted to recapture it during the Battle of Zenta on 11 September 1697. However their attack was repulsed. In 1717, the first Orthodox elementary school was opened. Five years later a Roman Catholic elementary school was opened as well. In 1745 Sombor was excluded from the Military Frontier and was included into Bacsensis County. In 1749 Sombor gained royal free city status. In 1786, the city became the seat of Bacsensis-Bodrogiensis County. According to 1786 data, the population of the city numbered 11,420 people, mostly Serbs.

According to the 1843 data, Sombor had 21,086 inhabitants, of whom 11,897 were Orthodox Christians, 9,082 Roman Catholics, 56 Jewish, and 51 Protestants. The main language spoken in the city at this time was Serbian, and the second largest language was German. In 1848/1849, Sombor was part of the Serbian Vojvodina, a Serb autonomous region within Austrian Empire, while between 1849 and 1860, it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat, a separate Austrian crown land. Sombor was a seat of the district within voivodship. After the abolishment of this crown land, Sombor again became the seat of the Bacsensis-Bodrogiensis (Bács-Bodrog, Bačka-Bodrog) County.

Holy Trinity Square in 1941

According to the 1910 census, the population of Sombor was 30,593 people, of whom 11,881 spoke the Serbian language, 10,078 spoke the Hungarian language, 6,289 spoke the Bunjevac language, 2,181 spoke the German language.

In 1918, Sombor became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). Between 1918 and 1922 it was part of Bačka County, between 1922 and 1929 part of Bačka Oblast, and between 1929 and 1941 part of Danube Banovina.

In 1941, the city was occupied by the Axis powers and annexed by Hungary. Many prominent citizens from the Serb community were interned and later executed. In 1944, the Yugoslav Partisans and Soviet Red Army expelled the Axis forces from the city. Since 1944, Sombor was part of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina of the new Socialist Yugoslavia and (since 1945) socialist Serbia. Today, Sombor is the seat of the West Bačka District in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[4]

Climate data for Sombor (1981–2010, extremes 1961–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.3
(66.7)
21.3
(70.3)
27.6
(81.7)
29.5
(85.1)
35.1
(95.2)
37.1
(98.8)
40.3
(104.5)
39.5
(103.1)
35.7
(96.3)
29.4
(84.9)
25.7
(78.3)
20.7
(69.3)
40.3
(104.5)
Average high °C (°F) 3.6
(38.5)
6.3
(43.3)
12.0
(53.6)
17.8
(64.0)
23.3
(73.9)
26.1
(79.0)
28.5
(83.3)
28.5
(83.3)
23.7
(74.7)
18.1
(64.6)
10.2
(50.4)
4.5
(40.1)
16.9
(62.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.1
(31.8)
1.4
(34.5)
6.2
(43.2)
11.6
(52.9)
17.1
(62.8)
20.2
(68.4)
21.9
(71.4)
21.3
(70.3)
16.5
(61.7)
11.3
(52.3)
5.4
(41.7)
1.1
(34.0)
11.2
(52.2)
Average low °C (°F) −3.4
(25.9)
−2.6
(27.3)
1.2
(34.2)
5.8
(42.4)
10.8
(51.4)
13.8
(56.8)
15.2
(59.4)
14.7
(58.5)
10.7
(51.3)
6.2
(43.2)
1.7
(35.1)
−1.8
(28.8)
6.0
(42.8)
Record low °C (°F) −27.2
(−17.0)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−20.3
(−4.5)
−5.6
(21.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
2.0
(35.6)
7.3
(45.1)
4.6
(40.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
−6.9
(19.6)
−18.4
(−1.1)
−23.7
(−10.7)
−27.2
(−17.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 37.3
(1.47)
29.9
(1.18)
36.4
(1.43)
45.2
(1.78)
60.0
(2.36)
81.5
(3.21)
66.2
(2.61)
53.1
(2.09)
54.4
(2.14)
47.3
(1.86)
53.7
(2.11)
47.4
(1.87)
612.4
(24.11)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11 10 10 12 12 13 10 9 10 9 11 13 128
Average snowy days 7 6 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 24
Average relative humidity (%) 84 78 70 66 64 65 64 66 71 75 82 86 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.2 97.5 147.6 191.8 244.1 259.5 290.3 274.3 197.1 152.5 80.4 53.0 2,050.4
Source: Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia[5]

Settlements[edit]

Neighborhoods of urban Sombor

The city administrative area of Sombor includes following villages:

Smaller and suburban settlements, "Salaši" include

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
194890,477—    
195392,583+0.46%
196196,191+0.48%
197198,080+0.19%
198199,168+0.11%
199196,105−0.31%
200297,263+0.11%
201185,903−1.37%
Source: [6]

According to the last official census done in 2011, the city of Sombor has 85,903 inhabitants.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Settlements with Serb ethnic majority (as of 2002) are: Sombor, Aleksa Šantić, Gakovo, Kljajićevo, Kolut, Rastina, Riđica, Stanišić, Stapar, and Čonoplja. Settlements with Croat/Šokac ethnic majority (as of 2002) are: Bački Breg and Bački Monoštor. Settlements with Hungarian ethnic majority (in 2002) are: Bezdan, Doroslovo, and Telečka. Ethnically mixed settlement with relative Hungarian majority is Svetozar Miletić.

The ethnic composition of the city:[7]

Ethnic group Population
Serbs 54,370
Hungarians 9,874
Croats 7,070
Bunjevci 2,058
Roma 1,015
Yugoslavs 852
Montenegrins 541
Germans 494
Macedonians 171
Albanians 118
Slovaks 117
Others 9,223
Total 85,903

Culture[edit]

Building of former Sombor Norma where first civil school in Serbian language was established.
Carmelite monastery and church in the centre of the town.

Sombor is famous for its greenery, cultural life and beautiful 18th and 19th century center. The most important cultural institutions are the National Theater, the Regional Museum, the Modern Art Gallery, the Milan Konjović Art Gallery,[8] the Teacher's College, the Serbian Reading House, and the Grammar School. Teacher's College, founded in 1778, is the oldest college in Serbia and the region.

Sombor's rich history includes the oldest institution for higher education in the Serbian language. The town is also home of numerous minority organisations, including the Hungarian Pocket Theater Berta Ferenc, the Croatian Society Vladimir Nazor, the Jewish Municipality and several other smaller organisations including German and Romani clubs.

There are two monasteries in this city:

Buildings and architecture[edit]

Economy[edit]

The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2017):[9]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 948
Mining -
Processing industry 4,274
Distribution of power, gas and water 221
Distribution of water and water waste management 300
Construction 600
Wholesale and retail, repair 3,038
Traffic, storage and communication 1,027
Hotels and restaurants 708
Media and telecommunications 212
Finance and insurance 369
Property stock and charter 72
Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities 574
Administrative and other services 885
Administration and social assurance 1,414
Education 1,639
Healthcare and social work 2,131
Art, leisure and recreation 269
Other services 341
Total 19,023

Sports[edit]

Radnički Sombor is the main football club from the city competing in Vojvodina League North.

Local media[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

  • Somborske novine[10]

TV stations[edit]

Radio stations[edit]

  • Radio Marija (95,7)
  • Radio Sombor (97.5)[13]
  • Radio Fortuna (106.6)

Internet media[edit]

Twin cities[edit]

Twin cities:

Regional cooperation:

Transportation[edit]

Buses[edit]

Buses offer direct connections to major Serbian cities including Belgrade, Novi Sad and Subotica, as well as many regional towns. Among the companies operating in the area is Severtrans.

Rail[edit]

Sombor is linked by direct rail links to Novi Sad and Subotica, among others.

Air[edit]

The city houses Sombor Airport.

Notable residents[edit]

  • Lazar "Laza" Kostić (1841, Kovilj – 27 November 1910, Vienna), Serbian poet, prose writer, lawyer, philosopher, polyglot, publicist, and politician, considered to be one of the greatest minds of Serbian literature
  • Ernest Bošnjak (Sombor, 1 January 1876 — Sombor, 9 August 1963), cameraman, film director and printer. One of the founders of the filmography in the area
  • Sándor Gombos (1895–1968), Olympic champion fencer
  • Milan Konjović (28 January 1898 – 20 October 1993), prominent Serbian painter
  • Sava Stojkov ( 29 March 1925 - 20 August 2014), Serbian naive art painter
  • Filip Krajinović (b. 1992), professional tennis player
  • Nikola Jokić (b. 1995), professional NBA player, Olympic silver medalist and All-NBA Team member
  • Gustav Mezey (1899-1981), artist

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  2. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  3. ^ a b "Историја". 23 January 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  4. ^ "Obziri, Serbia Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  5. ^ "Monthly and annual means, maximum and minimum values of meteorological elements for the period 1981–2010" (in Serbian). Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  6. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  7. ^ "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  8. ^ "Ovo su NAJLEPŠI MUZEJI van Beograda i evo zašto NE SMETE da ih zaobiđete". blic.rs (in Serbian). 11 December 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  9. ^ "ОПШТИНЕ И РЕГИОНИ У РЕПУБЛИЦИ СРБИЈИ, 2018" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  10. ^ "Somborske novine - Početna". www.somborskenovine.co.rs. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 November 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "РТВ СРЕЋЕ СОМБОР & TV SREĆE SOMBOR & Radio Televizija Srece Sombor "TV SOMBOR" UŽIVO". rtvsrece.com. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  13. ^ http://www.somborski.net, Agencija za marketing SOinfo - Zoran Hajtl -. "Radio Sombor- Somborske vesti". www.radiosombor.co.rs. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  14. ^ "SOinfo.org – Sombor 24/7". www.soinfo.org. Retrieved 22 December 2017.

External links[edit]