Somma volcano

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Aerial view of Fogo Island, Cape Verde, an example of a somma volcano. The volcanic cone Pico do Fogo rises 100m above the walls of the caldera.

A somma volcano (also known as a sommian) is a volcanic caldera that has been partially filled by a new central cone. The name comes from Mount Somma, a stratovolcano in southern Italy with a summit caldera in which the upper cone of Mount Vesuvius has grown.

A number of the world's best examples of somma volcanoes are found on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kuril Islands that stretch south from Kamchatka to Hokkaidō (Japan).[citation needed]

Some examples of somma volcanoes are the following: