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Republic of Nicaragua
República de Nicaragua
|President of Nicaragua|
|Legislature||National Congress of Nicaragua|
|Historical era||Interbellum, World War II, Cold War|
|January 1 1936|
|July 17 1979|
|ISO 3166 code||NI|
Anastasio Somoza García assumed the presidency after luring rebel leader Augusto César Sandino to peace talks, and murdering Sandino soon afterwards. Anastacio amended the Nicaraguan Constitution, concentrating power in his hands and installed his relatives and cronies in top government positions. Although the Somoza family only held the presidency for 30 of those 43 years, they were the power behind the other presidents of the time through their control of the National Guard. The differences in the Somoza's ruling style only reflected their adaptation to the U.S.-Latin American policy. Their regime was overthrown by the Sandinista National Liberation Front during the Nicaraguan Revolution.
For more than four decades in power, the Somoza family accumulated wealth through corporate bribes, industrial monopolies, land grabbing, and foreign aid siphoning. By the 1970s, the family owned 23 percent of land in Nicaragua while the family wealth reached $533 million, which already amounted to half of Nicaragua's debt and 33 percent of the country's 1979 GDP.
Three of the Somozas served as President of Nicaragua. They were:
- Anastasio Somoza García (1896–1956; President 1937–1947, 1950–1956), the father.
- Luis Somoza Debayle (1922–1967, President 1956–1963), his legitimate eldest son.
- Anastasio Somoza Debayle (1925–1980, President 1967–1972, 1974–1979), his second legitimate son.
Other members of the Somoza family include:
- José R. Somoza, half-brother of Anastasio Somoza Debayle
- Lillian Somoza de Sevilla Sacasa, daughter of Anastasio Somoza García
- Hope Portocarrero, wife of Anastasio Somoza Debayle
- Anastasio Somoza Portocarrero, son of Anastasio Somoza Debayle
- Martha Debayle, niece of Anastasio Somoza Debayle, Nicaraguan-Mexican radio hostess and entrepreneur
- Newton, Michael (2014). Famous Assassinations in World History: An Encyclopedia [2 volumes]. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 539. ISBN 9781610692854.
- Keen, Benjamin; Haynes, Keith (2009). A History of Latin America, Eight Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. p. 450. ISBN 9780618783182.
- Birdsall, Nancy; Williamson, John; Deese, Brian (2002). Delivering on Debt Relief: From IMF Gold to a New Aid Architecture. Washington, D.C.: Peterson Institute. pp. 134. ISBN 0881323314.
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