Son of man
"Son of man", "son of Adam", or "like a man", are phrases used in the Hebrew Bible, various apocalyptic works of the intertestamental period, and in the Greek New Testament. In the indefinite form ("son of Adam", "son of man", "like a man") used in the Hebrew Bible it is a form of address, or it contrasts human beings against God and the angels, or contrasts foreign nations (like Persia and Babylon), which are often represented as animals in apocalyptic writings (bear, goat, or ram), with Israel which is represented as human (a "son of man"), or it signifies an eschatological human figure.
In its indefinite form it is used in the Greek Old Testament, Biblical apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. The Greek New Testament uses the earlier indefinite form while introducing a novel definite form, "the son of man."
The Hebrew expression "son of man" (בן–אדם, ben-'adam) appears 107 times in the Hebrew Bible, the majority (93 times) in the Book of Ezekiel. It is used in three main ways: as a form of address (Ezekiel); to contrast the lowly status of humanity against the permanence and exalted dignity of God and the angels (Numbers 23:19, Psalm 8:4); and as a future eschatological figure whose coming will signal the end of history and the time of God's judgement (Daniel 7:13-14).
Daniel 7 tells of a vision given to Daniel in which four "beasts," representing pagan nations, oppress the people of Israel until judged by God. Daniel 7:13–14 describes how the "Ancient of Days" (God) gives dominion over the earth to "one like a son of man (כבר אנש [kibar 'anash])". The passage in Daniel 7:13 occurs in Biblical Aramaic.
Later in chapter 7 it is explained that "one like a man" certainly implies a "human being" and also stands for "the saints of the Most High" (7:18, 21–22) and "the people of the saints of the Most High" (7:27). The "saints" and "people of the saints" in turn probably stand for the people of Israel – the author is expressing the hope that God will take dominion over the world away from the beast-like pagan "nations" and give it to human-like Israel.
Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha
Daniel's 7:13 "like a son of man" probably did not stand for the Messiah, but that this interpretation was introduced by later apocryphal and deuterocanonical works such as the Similitudes (or Parables) of Enoch and 4 Ezra. Whether these messianic "Son of Man" references are genuinely Jewish or the result of Christian interpolation is disputed. An example of a disputed section is that of The Similitudes (1 Enoch 37–71) which uses Daniel 7 to produce an unparalleled messianic Son of Man, pre-existent and hidden yet ultimately revealed, functioning as judge, vindicator of righteousness, and universal ruler. The Enochic messianic figure is an individual representing a group, (the Righteous One who represents the righteous, the Elect One representing the elect), but in 4 Ezra 13 (also called 2 Esdras) he becomes an individual man.
The New Testament features the indefinite "a son of man" in Hebrews 2:6 (citing Psalm 8:4), and "one like the son of man" in Revelation 1:13, 14:14 (referencing Daniel 7:13's "one like a son of man"). The gospels introduce a new definite form, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, literally 'the son of the man,' an awkward and ambiguous expression in Greek. It functions as an emphatic equivalent of the first-person pronoun I/me/my, and in all four gospels it is used only by Jesus (except once in the Gospel of John, when the crowd asks what Jesus means by it). German theologian Rudolf Bultmann sees the phrase not as one genuinely used by Jesus but as one inserted by the early Church, but theologian C. F. D. Moule argues that the phrase, "so far from being a title evolved from current apocalyptic thought by the early Church and put by it onto the lips of Jesus, is among the most important symbols used by Jesus himself to describe his vocation and that of those whom he summoned to be with him."
The exact translation of "son of man" varies — depending on the source used.
- Hebrew: בן אדם, romanized: ben adám, lit. 'son of Adam'
- Old Aramaic: בר אנש, romanized: bar 'enash, lit. 'son of man'
- Old Aramaic: כבר אנש, romanized: kibar 'anash, lit. 'like a man' — see Son of man (Judaism)
- Koinē Greek: ὡς υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου, romanized: hōs huios anthrōpou, lit. 'like a son of man' – per the Septuagint in Dan. 7:13 [LXX].
- Koinē Greek: ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, romanized: ho huios tou anthrōpou, lit. 'the son of the man' – per the New Testament, see Son of man (Christianity)
- Bromiley 1995, p. 574.
- McGrath 2011, p. 270.
- Burkett 2002, p. 64.
- G. Nickelsburg, "Son of Man." in Anchor Bible Dictionary 6.138.
- Bromiley 1995, p. 575.
- Slater 1999, p. 71.
- The Expository Times 1900 - Volume 11 - Page 64 "Again, Schmiedel is quite prepared to admit the possibility that the Son of man passages in Enoch may be Christian interpolation, and so far as ability to deal with this part of the problem depends on a knowledge of Ethiopic (in which language ..."
- The Enoch-Metatron Tradition - Page 82 3161485440 Andrei A. Orlov - 2005 "The same interchangeability is observable in the titles "son of man" and "chosen one." Here ... 88 Some scholars believe that these chapters might represent later interpolation(s) and do not '83 G. Nickelsburg, "Son of Man." ABD 6.138."
- Hurtado 2005, p. 293 fn.83.
- Hurtado 2005, p. 290, 292, 293.
- Burkett 2000, p. 121,124.
- Moule, C. F. D. (1977). The Origin of Christology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 22. ISBN 0521212901.
- HALEY WILSON. "A SURVEY OF THE "SON OF MAN" (pdf)". BYU’s ScholarsArchive. Brigham Young University. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- Lee, Yongbom (1 July 2012). The Son of Man as the Last Adam: The Early Church Tradition as a Source of Paul's Adam Christology. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-61097-522-3.
- Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995). International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: vol. iv, Q-Z. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837844.
- Budd, Philip J. (2003). "Numbers". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William (eds.). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Burkett, Delbert (2002). An Introduction to the New Testament and the Origins of Christianity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521007207.
- Burkett, Delbert (2000). The Son of Man Debate: A History and Evaluation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139429801.
- Collins, John J. (1984). Daniel: With an Introduction to Apocalyptic Literature. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802800206.
- Higgins, A.J.B. (2002). Jesus and the Son of Man. James Clarke & Co. ISBN 9780227172216.
- Hurtado, Larry W. (2005). Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802831675.
- McGrath, Alister E. (2011). Christian Theology: An Introduction. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444397703.
- Slater, Thomas (1999). Christ and Community: A Socio-Historical Study of the Christology of Revelation. A&C Black. ISBN 9781850759393.