Sonchus arvensis

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Sonchus arvensis
Sonchus arvensis.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Sonchus
S. arvensis
Binomial name
Sonchus arvensis
L. 1753

Sonchus arvensis, the field milk thistle,[2] field sowthistle,[3] perennial sow-thistle,[4] corn sow thistle, dindle, gutweed, swine thistle, or tree sow thistle, is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae. S. arvensis often occurs in annual crop fields and may cause substantial yield losses.

Sonchus arvensis is native to Europe, where it is widespread across most of the continent.[5] It has also become naturalized in many other regions, and is considered an invasive noxious weed in some places.[6][7][8][9]

The plant produces conspicuous yellow flowerheads that are visited by various types of insects, especially hoverflies of the genus Eristalis.[10]


  1. ^ The Plant List, Sonchus arvensis L.
  2. ^ Sonchus arvensis at Plants For A Future
  3. ^ "Sonchus arvensis". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  4. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  5. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Sonchus arvensis L. includes photos, European distribution map
  6. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  7. ^ Flora of North America, Sonchus arvensis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 793. 1753. Field sow-thistle, laiteron des champs
  8. ^ Davidse, G., M. Sousa-Peña, S. Knapp & F. Chiang Cabrera. 2015. Asteraceae. 5(2): ined. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez, S. Knapp & F. Chiang Cabrera (eds.) Flora Mesoamericana. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F..
  9. ^ Atlas of Living Australia
  10. ^ Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Pen, I.; Staal, M.; Stavenga, D. G.; Elzenga, J. T. M. (2015). "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers" (PDF). Plant Biology. doi:10.1111/plb.12328.

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