L. 1753 not Wall. 1831
Sonchus oleraceus, with many common names including common sowthistle, sow thistle, smooth sow thistle, annual sow thistle, hare's colwort, hare's thistle, milky tassel, milk thistle, soft thistle, or swinies, is a plant in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family.
Sonchus oleraceus is native to Europe and western Asia.
The scientific name Sonchus refers to the hollow stem, while oleraceus refers to its good taste. The common name sow thistle refers to its attractiveness to swine, and the similarity of the leaf to younger thistle plants. The common name hare's thistle refers to its purported beneficial effects on hare and rabbits.
This plant is annual herb with a hollow, upright stem of up to 30–100 cm high. Prefers full sun, and can tolerate most soil conditions. The flowers are hermaphroditic, and common pollinators include bees and flies. It spreads by seeds being carried by wind or water.
This plant is considered an invasive species in many parts of the world, where it is found mostly in disturbed areas. In Australia it is a common and widespread invasive species, with large infestations a serious problem in crops.
Nutritional analysis reveals 30 – 40 mg of vitamin C per 100g, 1.2% protein, 0.3% fat, 2.4% carbohydrate. Leaf dry weight analysis per 100g (likely to vary with growing conditions) shows: 45g Carbohydrate, 28g protein, 22g ash, 5.9g fibre, 4.5g fat; in all, providing 265 calories.
Calcium: 1500 mg
Phosphorus: 500 mg
Iron: 45.6 mg
Magnesium: 0 mg
Sodium: 0 mg
Potassium: 0 mg
Zinc: 0 mg;
A: 35 mg
Thiamine (B1): 1.5 mg
Riboflavin (B2): 5 mg
Niacin: 5 mg
B6: 0 mg
C: 60 mg
Sonchus oleraceus has a variety of uses in herbalism. It also has been ascribed medicinal qualities similar to dandelion and succory. The early Māori people of New Zealand are likely to have gathered it for food and medical use.
This plant can often be controlled by mowing, because it does not regrow from root fragments. Attempts at weed control by herbicide, to the neglect of other methods, may have led to proliferation of this species in some environments.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sonchus oleraceus.|
- The Plant List, Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.
- "Sonchus oleraceus". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- Sonchus oleraceus at Plants For A Future
- International Environmental Weed Foundation, retrieved 24 December 2015
- Arthur Lee Jacobson, Seattle Tilth newsletter Weed of the Month in May 1992, Sow Thistle; Sonchus oleraceus L.
- "A Modern Herbal | Sow-Thistles". Botanical.com. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Van Ke, Nguyen (2007). Edible Wild Plants of Vietnam: The Bountiful Garden. Thailand: Orchid Press. p. 52. ISBN 9745240893.
- Sonchus oleraceus Archived 2007-04-28 at the Wayback Machine. at Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants Archived 2007-03-25 at the Wayback Machine.
- Sonchus oleraceus L., Asteraceae, Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
- "Common sowthistle Sonchus oleraceus". Weeds Australia. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "Kucai". Baidu Encyclopedia (苦菜_百度百科) (in Chinese). baike.baidu.com. Retrieved 2008-02-07.
- Cambie, Richard C; Ferguson, Lynnette R (2003). "Potential functional foods in the traditional Maori diet". Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 523-524: 109–117. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(02)00344-5. ISSN 0027-5107.
- "Management of common sowthistle | Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry | Queensland Government". Dpi.qld.gov.au. 2012-08-16. Retrieved 2013-01-16.
- Tropicos.org: photo of herbarium specimen at Missouri Botanical Garden
- Tropicos.org: line drawing from Flora of Panama
- Nature Manitoba: Annual Sow-thistle (Sonchus oleraceus) — photos, drawings, & text from Wild Plants of Winnipeg.