Coordinates: 28°59′24″N 77°01′19″E / 28.990°N 77.022°E / 28.990; 77.022
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Sonipat Junction railway station in Sonipat, Haryana
Sonipat is located in Haryana
Location in Haryana, India
Sonipat is located in India
Sonipat (India)
Coordinates: 28°59′24″N 77°01′19″E / 28.990°N 77.022°E / 28.990; 77.022
Country India
 • TypeMunicipal corporation
 • BodySonipat Municipal Corporation
 • M.P.Ramesh Chander Kaushik (BJP)
 • M.L.A.Surender Panwar (INC)
 • MayorNikhil Madan (INC)[1]
 • City181 km2 (70 sq mi)
224.15 m (735.40 ft)
 • City382,000
 • Urban402,000
 • OfficialHindi, Haryanvi
 • RegionalHaryanvi[7]
Time zoneUTC+5.30 (Indian Standard Time)
Telephone Code+91-130
ISO 3166 codeIN-HR
Vehicle registrationHR-10, HR-69(Commercial Vehicles), HR-99(Temporary), DL-14 Sonipat (Delhi NCR), HR-86
Sex Ratio1.19
Effective literacy85.48%

Sonipat is a planned industrial city & administrative headquarter in Sonipat district of Haryana state of India. It comes under the National Capital Region and is around 44 kilometres (27 mi) from New Delhi. It lies 214 km (128 miles) southwest of Chandigarh, the state capital. The Yamuna River runs along its eastern boundary.

On 22 December 1972, Sonipat designated a full-fledged district. Sonipat Junction railway station is the main railway junction on Delhi-Kalka line. It lies on Delhi Western Peripheral Expressway, Eastern Peripheral Expressway (NE II) and Grand Trunk Road (NH 44) as well as the planned Delhi–Sonipat–Panipat Regional Rapid Transit System.

Total No. of Villages 349[edit]

  • Inhabited 334
  • Uninhabited 15


According to legend, Sonipat was earlier known as Sonprastha, which later on became Swarnprastha (lit. 'Golden City').[8][9] Later, the name Swarnprastha changed into Swarnpath, and then to its current form, Sonipat.[10]


Reference to the city comes in the epic Mahabharata as Svarnaprastha. It was one of the five villages demanded by Pandavas as the price of peace from Duryodhan in lieu of the kingdom Hastinapur. The other four villages were Panduprastha (Panipat), Vyaghraprastha (Baghpat), Tilaprastha (Tilpat) and Indraprastha (Delhi).[11]

Sonipat is listed in the Ain-i-Akbari as a pargana under Delhi sarkar, producing a revenue of 7,727,323 dams for the imperial treasury and supplying a force of 1000 infantry and 70 cavalry. It had a brick fort at the time, which was also mentioned.[12]

Sonipat came under Islamic rule after the Second Battle of Tarain in 1193. The Sikhs under Banda Singh Bahadur fought the Battle of Sonipat against the Mughals in 1709. Khanda, Sonipat village witnessed the Battle of Sonipat and won the battle against Mughals under the military leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur[13]

Battle of Sonipat[edit]

The one and only battle fought in Sonipat was Battle of Sonipat. After taking blessings from Guru Gobind Singh, Baba Banda Singh Bahadur first camped at Khanda, Sonipat and assembled a fighting force with Dahiya Jats. Khanda, Sonipat village witnessed the Battle of Sonipat against Mughals, which was won under the military leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur.[14][15]

Geography and topography[edit]

Sonipat is located at 28°59′N 77°01′E / 28.98°N 77.02°E / 28.98; 77.02.[16]

The district headquarter is situated in Sonipat. Other smaller towns are Gohana, Ganaur, Mundlana, Kharkhoda and Rai. The total area of Sonipat district is 2,260 km2 and its population is 10,64,000. Sonipat is bordered by the states of Delhi and Uttar Pradesh as well as the districts of Rohtak, Jind and Panipat. The River Yamuna runs along the eastern boundary of the district

District Sonepat comprises four sub-divisions, namely Ganaur, Sonepat, Kharkhoda and Gohana and eight blocks (Ganaur, Sonipat, Rai, Kharkhoda, Gohana, Kathura, Murthal  and Mundlana) has been carved out of Rohtak and made a full-fledged district on 22 December 1972. Sonepat is the largest tehsil followed by Gohana. It has one Municipal Corporation Sonipat and three municipal committees Ganaur, Gohana and Kharkhoda.

the Haryana Main water system in the district consists of the River Yamuna and the irrigation canals flowing out of it. There is no perennial river in the district. The underground water resources differ from area to area. The depth of the water table is the lowest in the Khader area along the Yamuna, where it is below 10 ft. It increases to 30 to 40 ft. in some of the western and south eastern part of the district. The ground water in some areas is saline and brackish. The ground water conditions indicate that the district faces the problem of occurrence of brackish water and water logging in eastern parts of the district.

Broadly speaking, the district is a continuous part of the Haryana-Punjab plain, but the area is not leveled in some parts. Over most of the district, the soil is fine loam of rich color. However, some areas have sandy soil and others are composed of Kallar. The plain has a gradual slope to the south and east. The district may be roughly divided into three regions:

  1. The Khadar Along the River Yamuna is a narrow flood plain, three to six kilometres wide, and is formed by the river along its course. The Khader plain is 20 to 30 feet lower, adjoining upland plain. It is composed of fine clay loam left by the receding floods of the Yamuna. Currently, rice and sugar cane cultivation is undertaken by the farmers in the Khadar area. Recently, the farmers have started planting Banana, Pappaya and other fruits trees.
  2. The Upland Plain It consists of Sonepat tehsil lying to the west of the Khadar, and is the most extensive of the three regions: The Upland Plain is covered with old alluvium, which if properly irrigated, is highly productive. Extensive Farming of crops, oil seeds, horticultural plants, vegetables and flowers, is undertaken in this region. The ridges in Gohana tehsil represent the northern most extension of the Aravallis.
  3. The Sandy Region A very smaller part of the district is covered with soil consisting of sand or sandy loam. Parts of this region has high PH value leading to kallor land.

Soil Profile[edit]

District Sonepat, comprising Sonepat, Gohana and Ganaur sub divisions, has 343 villages and covers an area of 2,13,080 hectares. The irrigated area (both with the help of canal irrigation as well as through tubewells) is 2,86,504 acres and the un-irrigated rainfed area is 43,979 acres. Sonepat is an important saltpetre producing area. The saltpeter appears as efflorescence on the surface during the summer season, specially in the village of Sonepat sub-division.

Water logging is a serious problem effecting the productivity of land. The water logged area, which the water table is between 0 and 5 ft, faces a serious problem. Where the water table is between 5 and 10 ft., the problem of water logging is imminent. There has been an alarming rise in the water table during the last two decades, Specially in the areas adjoining the canals. This has led to appearance of Thur on the surface of soil, followed by sem in several parts of the district, specially the areas adjoining the Yamuna and minor canals running through the district.

The soil in Sonepat is rich and quite suitable for all types of agricultural crops as well as forest cover.

The types of soil may be classified according to textures as :

  1. Sandy (Raitali)
  2. Sandy loam (Bhuri)
  3. Loam (Rausli)
  4. Clay loam (Karti)
  5. Clay (Dakar)


Climate data for Sonipat
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 21
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 8
Average rainfall mm (inches) 19.7
Average relative humidity (%) 66 58 47 32 35 53 68 71 66 55 51 63 55

Climate of Sonipat is dry with hot summer and a cold winter. The weather becomes milder during the monsoon (period July to September). The post-monsoon months October and November constitute a transition period, prior to the onset of winter.

The winter starts in December when day and night temperatures fall rapidly. January is the coldest month when the mean daily minimum temperature is 6 to 7 Degree C. During cold waves, the minimum temperature may go down to the freezing point of water, and frosts can occur. During the summer months of May and June, the maximum temperature sometimes reaches 47 Degree Centigrade. Temperature drops considerably with the advancement of monsoon in June. However, the night temperature during this period continues to be high.

Humidity is considerably low during the greater part of the year. The district experiences high humidity only during the monsoon period. The period of minimum humidity (less than 20%) is between April and May.

The annual rainfall varies considerably from year to year. However, the maximum rainfall is experienced during the monsoon season, which reaches it is peak in the month of July. In fact, the monsoon period accounts for 75% of the annual rainfall in the district. On an average there are 24 days in a year with rainfall of 2.5 mm (or more) per day in district Sonepat.

During the monsoon, the sky is heavily clouded, and winds are strong in this period. Winds are generally light during the post-monsoon and winter months.

Sonepat experiences a high incidence of thunder storms and dust storms, often accompanied by violent squalls (andhis) during the period April to June. Sometimes the thunder storm are being accompanied by heavy rain and occasionally by hail storms. In the winter months, fogs sometimes appear in the district.


Sonipat city is governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Sonipat Metropolitan Region. The Sonipat city is located in Haryana state of India.

Title Count Details
District Sonipat
Area 2260 km2
Division Rohtak
Subdivisions 4 Gohana, Kharkhoda, Sonipat, Ganaur
Tehsils 4 Gohana, Kharkhoda, Sonipat, Ganaur
Subtehsils 2 Khanpur Kalan,Rai
Blocks 8 Sonipat, Gohana, Ganaur, Kharkhoda, Kathura, Mundlana, Rai, Murthal
Revenue Villages 349
Municipal Council/Committees/Co 4 Gohana, Kharkhoda, Sonipat, Ganaur
No. Of parliamentary Constituency 1 Sonipat
No. Of Assembly Constituencies 6 Rai, Kharkhoda, Sonipat, Gohana, Ganaur, Baroda

According to the 2021 Indian Census, the current estimate population of Sonipat city in 2023 is 382,000, while Sonipat metro population is estimated at 402,000 . The last census was conducted in 2011 and the schedule census for Sonipat city in 2021 was postponed due to Covid. The current estimates of Sonipat city are based on past growth rate. Once govt conducts census for Sonipat city, we will update the same here in 2023. As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Sonipat in 2011 is 278,149. Although Sonipat city has population of 278,149; its urban / metropolitan population is 293,025.

Sonipat Literacy Rate and Sex Ratio[edit]

In education section, total literates in Sonipat city are 210,112 of which 118,281 are males while 91,831 are females. Average literacy rate of Sonipat city is 85.48 percent of which male and female literacy was 90.82 and 79.45 percent. The sex ratio of Sonipat city is 875 per 1000 males. Child sex ratio of girls is 784 per 1000 boys.

Sonipat Slum Population[edit]

Total no. of Slums in Sonipat city & its Out Growth numbers 19,033 in which population of 98,508 resides. This is around 34.05% of total population of Sonipat city & its outgrowth which is 289,333.



Religion in Sonipat City
Religion Population (1911)[17] Percentage (1911) Population (1941)[18]: 30  Percentage (1941) Population (2023) Percentage (2023)
Hinduism [a] 4,794 39.9% 7,706 43.34% 270,837 93.61 %
Islam 6,510 54.19% 8,933 50.24% 11,394 3.94%
Jain Not known Not known Not known Not known 3,532 1.22 %
Sikhism 6 0.05% 226 1.27% 1,903 0.66 %
Christianity 56 0.47% 13 0.07% 484 0.17 %
Others [b] 648 5.39% 903 5.08% 1,008 0.35 %
Total Population 12,014 100% 17,781 100% 382,000 100%

Tehsil (District)[edit]

Religion in Sonipat Tehsil (District)
Religion Population (1941)[18]: 58  Percentage (1941) Population (2023) Percentage (2023)
Hinduism [a] 176,709 81.81% 1,584,770 95.87%
Islam 35,275 16.33% 51,414 3.11%
Jain Not Known Not known 6,878 0.41%
Sikhism 613 0.28% 5,112 0.30%
Christianity 724 0.34% 1,602 0.09%
Others [c] 2,687 1.24% 3226 0.19%
Total Population 216,008 100% 1,653,001 100%

Places of interest[edit]

Mughal architecture[edit]

There are several Mughal buildings on the outskirts of the city, including the Mosque of Abdullah Nasir-ud-din, who was a descendant from Mushid of Iran.

British Time Tehsil[edit]

This district was carved out of the erstwhile Rohtak district on 22 December 1972. The district is named after its administrative headquarters, Sonipat. Sonipat was earlier known as Sonprastha, which later became Svarnaprastha (Golden City), which is derived from two Sanskrit words, Svarna (Gold) and Prastha (Place). Over a period of time, the classical name Svarnprastha's pronunciation degraded into Svarnpat, and then to its current form, Sonipat. The earliest reference of this city comes in the epic Mahabharata, and at that time, it was one of the five villages demanded by the Pandavas in lieu of the kingdom of Hastinapur.

Yamuna River[edit]

The main water system in the district is the Yamuna River and its irrigation canals. The river flows besides the rural belt in the eastern side of district. It also acts as a natural boundary between the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.


Industrial estates[edit]

There are six HSIIDC industrial estates namely Sonepat city, Barhi, Kundli, Murthal and Rai. The development of Sonepat Industrial area in the city started in the 1950s with Atlas Cycle.[19] Since then, many small and big industries have been established here. Atlas, E.C.E.[20] or the Birla Factory, OSRAM India (formerly part of E.C.E., but in October 1998 it was acquired by OSRAM[21]).

Rail Coach Naveenikaran Karkhana, Sonipat is a railway coach factory under RVNL which was successfully commissioned in October 2021.The Rail Coach Naveenikaran Karkhana at Sonipat is the first of its kind facility being set up to cater to the mid-life rehabilitation and refurbishment of coaches. The Rolling Stock Complex is designed for sustainable development with Industry 4.0 compliant assembly line.[22]




Primary and secondary schools[edit]

  • G3school
  • Swarnprastha Public School
  • Rishikul Vidya Peeth
  • Jankidas Kapur Public School
  • Hindu Sr. Sec. School
  • S.M. Hindu Sr. Sec. School
  • J.P. Jain Sr. Sec. School
  • Hindu Girls Sr. Sec. School
  • D.A.V Public School
  • Ontogeny Sec. School
  • Bright Scholar Sr. Sec. School
  • Shiva Siksha Sadan
  • Little Angels Sr. Sec. School
  • Rai Sports School
  • Holy Child Sr. Sec. School


In July 1973 the government established the Motilal Nehru School of Sports, Rai, Sonipat[23] to provide education facilities with extra emphasis on sports. It trains athletes in field hockey, basketball, lawn tennis, equestrianism, gymnastics, swimming, shooting sports, volleyball, boxing, cricket, and football.

Bus Port[edit]

Ministry of Road Transport and Highways proposed the first bus port in the pattern of Airport on GT Road in Sector 7, Sonipat.[24][25][26] It will be a joint venture between the Government of Haryana and NHAI.[27][24]

  • In a first-of-its-kind initiative, the Union Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has decided to set up a bus port on the pattern of an airport in Sonipat.
  • The proposed bus stand will be an ultra-modern 'bus port', with infrastructure at par with an international airport.[28]
  • To be constructed under design, built, finance, operate and transfer model, new bus ports will have digital displays, variable message signboards, CCTVs, surveillance system, deluxe waiting room, tourist information center, clock room, restaurant, food court, plaza, budget hotel, multiplex, administrative office, parcel room, maintenance workshop, fuel station, etc.[29][26]

Municipal corporation[edit]

Sonipat Municipal Corporation is the governing civic body of the Urban Area in Sonipat. The Municipal Committee Sonipat was established in the year 1933.[30]

Sonipat Lok Sabha[edit]

Sonipat (Lok Sabha constituency) is one of the 10 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Haryana state in northern India.*Ramesh Chander Kaushik is Member of Parliament from Sonipat Seat

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b 1941 census: Including Ad-Dharmis
  2. ^ Including Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, or not stated
  3. ^ Including Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, or not stated


  1. ^ "जानिये- कौन हैं सोनीपत नगर निगम के नए मेयर निखिल मदान, भाजपा-JJP प्रत्याशी को चटाई धूल". Dainik Jagran (in Hindi). 30 December 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  2. ^ "About Sonepat". Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  3. ^ "Census of India: Sonipat". Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  4. ^ "Census of India: Sonipat". Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  5. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 52nd report (July 2014 to June 2015)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. p. 24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  6. ^ IANS (28 January 2010). "Haryana grants second language status to Punjabi". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  7. ^ "Haryanvi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  8. ^ Gupta, Ramesh Chandra (1985). Urban geography of Delhi-Shahadra. Bhavna Prakashan.
  9. ^ Kauśika, Rs̥hi Jaiminī; Baruā, Jaiminī Kauśika (1967). Maiṃ apane Māravāṛī samāja ko pyāra karatā hūm̐ (in Hindi). Jaiminī-Prakāśana.
  10. ^ Sharma, Chandrapal (1 September 2017). भारतीय संस्कृति और मूल अंकों के स्वर : अंक चक्र : Bhartiya Sanskriti aur Mool Anko ke Swar Ank Chakra (in Hindi). Diamond Pocket Books Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789352784875.
  11. ^ Gupta, Ramesh Chandra (1985). Urban geography of Delhi-Shahadra. Bhavna Prakashan. p. 29.
  12. ^ Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak; Jarrett, Henry Sullivan (translator) (1891). The Ain-i-Akbari. Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal. p. 287. Retrieved 21 January 2021. {{cite book}}: |first2= has generic name (help)
  13. ^ Sikhs In The Eighteenth Century. p. 28.
  14. ^ Sagoo, Harbans Kaur (2001). Banda Singh Bahadur and Sikh Sovereignty. Deep & Deep Publications. ISBN 978-81-7629-300-6.
  15. ^ "Guts and Glory: The Man Who Vowed to Avenge Guru Gobind Singh's Death, Took on Mughals". News18. 21 November 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2022.
  16. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Sonipat, India".
  17. ^ "Census of India 1911. Vol. 14, Punjab. Pt. 1, Report". Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  18. ^ a b "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME VI PUNJAB PROVINCE". Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  19. ^ "Atlas Cycles (Haryana) Ltd., Sonepat (India)".
  20. ^ "ECE Industries Ltd".
  21. ^ Osram Sylvania. "OSRAM Americas | OSRAM SYLVANIA Homepage". Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  22. ^ "Hon'ble MP Lok Sabha, Ramesh Chander inspected Naveenikaran Karkhana, Sonipat project".
  23. ^ "Motilal Nehru School of SportsRai". Motilal Nehru School of SportsRai.
  24. ^ a b "सेक्टर-7 में बस पोर्ट काे सीएम की मंजूरी". Dainik Bhaskar (in Hindi). 20 July 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  25. ^ "World-class bus port to come up in Sonipat - Times of India". The Times of India. 2 June 2018. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  26. ^ a b "बसपोर्ट के लिए दस एकड़ जमीन सेंट्रल ट्रांसपोर्ट के नाम होगी". Dainik Bhaskar (in Hindi). 31 August 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  27. ^ "सोनीपत में बनेगा प्रदेश का पहला बस पोर्ट". दैनिक ट्रिब्यून (in Hindi). 16 March 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  28. ^ "बसपोर्ट के लिए कार्रवाई तेज, एनएच-44 पर फ्लाईओवर या अंडरपास का प्रस्ताव". Dainik Bhaskar (in Hindi). 24 August 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  29. ^ "Haryana".
  30. ^ "About Us". Retrieved 11 January 2021.

External links[edit]