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Songjiang, Shanghai

Coordinates: 31°00′21″N 121°14′00″E / 31.00583°N 121.23333°E / 31.00583; 121.23333
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(Redirected from Songjiang District)
Songjiang Guangfulin Relics Park, a Neolithic Liangzhu archaeological site
Songjiang in Shanghai
Songjiang in Shanghai
CountryPeople's Republic of China
 • Total605.64 km2 (233.84 sq mi)
 • Total1,909,713
 • Density3,200/km2 (8,200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Songjiang, Shanghai
Songjiang Square Pagoda, first built between 1068 and 1077 and restored in 1980 as Fangta Park, one of the first reassertions of traditional Chinese architecture after the Cultural Revolution
Songjiang District
Traditional Chinese松江
Simplified Chinese松江
Literal meaningPine River District
Songjiang County
Traditional Chinese松江
Simplified Chinese松江
Literal meaningPine River County
Songjiang Prefecture
Sungkiang Foo
Literal meaningPine River Prefecture
Huating County
Traditional Chinese華亭
Simplified Chinese华亭
Literal meaningOrnate Pavilian County

Songjiang is a suburban district (formerly a county) of Shanghai. It has a land area of 605.64 km2 (233.84 sq mi) and a population of 1,909,713 (2020).[1][2] Owing to a long history, Songjiang is known as the cultural root of Shanghai.

Songjiang Town, the urban center of the district, was formerly the major city in the area. It is now connected to downtown Shanghai by Line 9 of the Shanghai Metro.


The prehistoric coastline of the East China Sea was much farther inland, at Xinzhuang near Songjiang's current eastern border with Minhang District. It was only gradually that silt from the Yangtze River filled in downtown Shanghai about 2000 years ago and then Pudong and Chongming Island over the last 1000 years.

Modern archaeology has established a chronology of the main cultural groups who lived in the present area of Songjiang District in Neolithic China: the Majiabang in the 5th millennium BC), the Songze in the 4th millennium BC), and the Liangzhu in the 3rd millennium BC. The Majiabang were among the first harvesters of rice and kept domesticated pigs while still frequently hunting deer. The Liangzhu possessed a high stratified society that almost certainly represented one of the earliest states in East Asia. The Liangzhu site at Guangfulin in Songjiang has been developed into Guangfulin Relics Park, an expansive museum and tourist attraction.

Traditional Chinese historiography only recorded these people as among the Baiyue—the "Numerous Southern Barbarians"—until the growth of the siniticized Wu Kingdom at Suzhou in the 1st millennium BC. During the Spring and Autumn period at the end of the Zhou and under the Warring States, the area of present-day Songjiang passed from Wu to Yue to Chu before the unification of China under Shi Huangdi of Qin in the 3rd century BC.

In the Three Kingdoms period that followed the end of the Han in the 3rd century AD, Sun Quan's Wu Kingdom helped develop and further sinify the area. Another boost came from the completion of the Grand Canal under the Sui, linking Songjiang with Hangzhou, Shaoxing, and Ningbo in the south and Suzhou, Luoyang, Xi'an, and Beijing in the north. By the mid-Tang, the region had developed enough that it was organized in 751 into Huating County, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai.

In the 1250s at the end of the Southern Song, the 10-year-old Songjiangese girl Huang Daopo fled her hometown and an arranged marriage to live with the Hlai on Hainan. She returned around 1295 with new strains of cotton, an early cotton gin, and other advances to cotton cultivation and processing that made the sandy lands of eastern Huating County so much more prosperous that Huang was later deified out of gratitude. By the mid-Qing, as much as ¾ of Songjiang's farmland was devoted to cotton.[3] Under the Yuan, this new wealth saw Huating elevated to prefectural status and renamed Songjiangfu. This is sometimes considered the origin of China's modern textile industry. It was also under the Yuan that the city first had enough Hui to establish Shanghai's first mosque.

In 1404, headwaters previously emptying into the Wusong were rerouted by local officials, diminishing the size of Suzhou Creek and expanding the Huangpu River to its modern importance. Songjiang was better fortified under the Ming in response to attacks by the Japanese "Wokou" pirates, who sometimes raided and sometimes occupied to the town. The Ming also saw the Jesuits—who counted the influential Shanghainese official Xu Guangqi among their converts—establish the town's first known church. Owing to the importance of Portuguese and Latin at the time, the town's name was romanized Sumkiam.

Following Dorgon's 21 July 1645 edict mandating the queue, the people of Songjiang rose up against the Qing to protect their hair, viewed as a symbol of virility and filial piety. Li Chengdong (李成東, d. 1649) retook the city and massacred its population on 22 September 1645. Nonetheless, Songjiang remained the primary metropolis of the area of present-day Shanghai as late as the mid-19th century, when its name was typically romanized as Sungkiang. It continued to serve as the prefectural capital under the "Right" Governor of Jiangnan based in Suzhou and then later under the governor of Jiangsu at Jiangning (now Nanjing). Unlike the foreign-held area of Shanghai, however, it fell to rebels during the Taiping Rebellion's Eastern Expedition. About a hundred Europeans under Frederick Townsend Ward failed to retake the town in June 1860. After gathering more Westerners, over 80 Philippine "Manilamen", and several pieces of artillery, a second assault in July 1860 retook the town with heavy losses. Out of about 250 men, 62 were killed and about 100 wounded, including Ward. Songjiang was then used by Ward, Henry Andres Burgevine, their Ever-Victorious Army, and Cheng Xueqi's division of the Huai Army as a base for raids and attacks on other Taiping positions under Li Xiucheng throughout the "Battle of Shanghai".

Despite Shanghai's greater importance by the beginning of the 20th century, its international settlement meant Songjiang was still used as the formal center of Chinese government for the region. Under the Republic of China, the Zhili clique leader Sun Chuanfang's Songhu (淞滬市) or Songjiang Special Administrative District covered most of what is now Shanghai Municipality, extending as far north as Chongming Island.[4]

During World War II, Japan occupied Songjiang from 9 November 1937 until 1945. Afterwards, both the Nationalist and Communist regional government was moved to Shanghai proper, leaving Songjiang a comparatively rural county. The city's many ancient religious structures and examples of traditional architecture were seriously damaged during the 1960s and 1970s amid the Cultural Revolution. Following the PRC's Opening Up Policy, Songjiang restored its more important religious buildings and developed into a college town hosting several large universities. In 1998, it was elevated to its current status as an urban district.

Significant Features[edit]

Some of the notable features in Songjiang District include:

  • Songjiang New City is a major new-town development located within Songjiang District. It was developed as part of Shanghai's "One City, Nine Towns" plan. The New City will encompass an area of 60 square kilometers (23 sq mi) when completed, and will have a total population of 500,000 residents.[5] The New City reflects Garden City design principles, with a large proportion of land allocated to green-space and parks.
  • Thames Town is a residential and commercial development located within the Songjiang New City that both imitates and is influenced by classic English market town styles. Some of the architecture has been directly copied from buildings found in England.
  • Songjiang University Town is a major higher education sector located in the district. It is the largest higher education sector in mainland China.
  • Shanghai First People's Hospital has a campus located within the Songjiang New City.
  • Shanghai Film Studios are located in Songjiang District.
  • InterContinental Hotel Shanghai Wonderland is built against the walls of a former quarry, and partly underwater: it claims to be the world's first underground five-star resort.[6]

Cultural sights in Songjiang include:

Government and infrastructure[edit]

The Shanghai Women's Prison is in Songjiang District.[7]


Songjiang District is located approximately 25 kilometers (16 mi) from Hongqiao International Airport and 70 kilometers (43 mi) from Pudong International Airport. Songjiang is currently served by one metro line operated by Shanghai Metro, one suburban line operated by China Railway, and two tram lines.


Suburban Rail[edit]

China Railway[edit]

Songjiang Tram[edit]

Subdistricts and towns[edit]

Songjiang District has six subdistricts, eleven towns and three special township-level divisions.

Name[8] Chinese (S) Hanyu Pinyin Shanghainese Romanization Population (2010)[9] Area (km2)
Yueyang Subdistrict 岳阳街道 Yuèyáng Jiēdào ngoq yan ka do 112,671 5.65
Yongfeng Subdistrict 永丰街道 Yǒngfēng Jiēdào ion fon ka do 93,330 24.53
Zhongshan Subdistrict 中山街道 Zhōngshān Jiēdào tzon se ka do 98,888 26.34
Fangsong Subdistrict 方松街道 Fāngsōng Jiēdào faon son ka do 414,548 14.76
Guangfulin Subdistrict 广富林街道 Guǎngfùlín Jiēdào kuaon fu lin ka do 19.05
Jiuliting Subdistrict 九里亭街道 Jiǔlǐtíng Jiēdào cioe lij din ka do 6.79
Chedun town 车墩镇 Chēdūn Zhèn tsau ten tzen 167,687 45.30
Dongjing town 洞泾镇 Dòngjīng Zhèn don cin tzen 57,861 24.51
Jiuting town 九亭镇 Jiǔtíng Zhèn cioe din tzen 147,398 26.13
Maogang town 泖港镇 Mǎogǎng Zhèn mo kaon tzen 41,626 57.62
Sheshan town 佘山镇 Shéshān Zhèn sau se tzen 32,295 55.70
Shihudang town 石湖荡镇 Shíhúdàng Zhèn zaq wu daon tzen 44,011 44.28
Sijing town 泗泾镇 Sìjīng Zhèn sy cin tzen 94,279 23.98
Xiaokunshan town 小昆山镇 Xiǎokūnshān Zhèn sio khuen se tzen 51,606 30.52
Xinbang town 新浜镇 Xīnbāng Zhèn sin pan tzen 33,627 44.75
Xinqiao town 新桥镇 Xīnqiáo Zhèn sin djio tzen 155,856 31.43
Yexie town 叶榭镇 Yèxiè Zhèn yiq zia tzen 80,104 72.49
Sheshan Resort 佘山度假区 Shéshān Dùjiàqū sau se du ka chiu 42,583 64.08
Shanghai Songjiang Export Processing Zone 上海松江出口加工区 Shànghǎi Sōngjiāng Chūkǒu Jiāgōngqū zaon he son kaon tseq khoe ka kon chiu 60,797 2.98
Songjiang Industrial Zone 松江工业区 Sōngjiāng Gōngyèqū son kaon kon gniq chiu 43.69


Climate data for Songjiang District (2003–2020 normals, extremes 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.7
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 8.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.9
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 2.0
Record low °C (°F) −8.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 70.4
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11.1 10.5 13.2 11.9 11.8 14.5 11.4 12.3 10.2 7.4 9.1 8.5 131.9
Average snowy days 2.1 1.7 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.7 5.3
Average relative humidity (%) 76 75 74 73 75 81 79 79 78 75 76 73 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 109.3 112.8 138.6 162.5 168.6 123.0 204.8 200.7 159.7 154.7 127.2 123.6 1,785.5
Percent possible sunshine 34 36 37 42 40 29 48 49 43 44 40 39 40
Source: China Meteorological Administration[10][11]


Xilin Chan Temple is a Buddhist temple in Yueyang Subdistrict, which is also a famous tourist attraction.

Zuibaichi is one of the five ancient Chinese gardens in Shanghai that dates back to the Song dynasty.

The Songjiang Mosque is the oldest mosque in Shanghai with its latest rebuild in 1391.

Songjiang's emblematic tower is the 9-story Fangta Pagoda, or Songjiang Square Pagoda.

Dacang Bridge is a historic stone arch bridge over the Old City River in the district.

Songjiang Tangjing Building is located in the Zhongshan Primary School, Songjiang District and it is the oldest surviving above-ground relic in Shanghai built in 859 AD.

Notable people[edit]


Heroes: Hou Shaoqiu, Jiang Huilin, Xia Yunyi, Chen Zilong, Xia Wanchun;

Statesmen: Gu Yong, Lu Xun, Xu Jie;

Litterateurs: Lu Ji, Lu Yun, Chen Jiru, Qian Fu, Gu Qing;

Chinese Painting and Calligraphy (Songjiang was listed among "cities of Calligraphy" in 2013[13]) Artists: Shen Du, Dong Qichang, Zhang Nanheng, Zhang Zhao, Shi Zhecun, Cheng Shifa;

Craftsmen: Zhu Kerou, Huang Daopo, Ding Niangzi;

Experts: Tao Zongyi, Zhu Shunshui, Chen Yongkang;

Educators: He Dong, Ping Hailan, Ma Xiangru;

Intelligent woman: Ye Gu.


  1. ^ "China: Shànghăi (Districts) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2024-02-09.
  2. ^ Shanghai 2010 Census Data Archived 2014-04-03 at the Wayback Machine Shanghai Statistics Bureau
  3. ^ Zelin, Madeleine (2016), "The Structure of the Chinese Economy during the Qing Period: Some Thoughts on the 150th Anniversary of the Opium War", Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries, Routledge, p. 60, ISBN 9781315288758.
  4. ^ "Chongming County" in the Encyclopedia of Shanghai, pp. 50 ff. Archived 2013-03-02 at the Wayback Machine Shanghai Scientific & Technical Publishers (Shanghai), 2010. Hosted by the Municipality of Shanghai.
  5. ^ Shanghai Agriculture - The construction of Shanghai's experimental city, Songjiang "Welcome to Shanghai Agriculture!". Archived from the original on 2012-03-28. Retrieved 2011-08-06.
  6. ^ Travel, Telegraph (24 February 2017). "50 of the world's most unusual hotels". Telegraph.
  7. ^ Zhao, Wen. "Women behind bars meet their mothers" (Archive). Shanghai Daily. Saturday March 8, 2014. Retrieved on December 21, 2015.
  8. ^ 2010年松江区行政区划_松江区_行政区划网 www.xzqh.org (in Simplified Chinese). XZQH. Archived from the original on 2012-11-15. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
  9. ^ Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
  10. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  11. ^ 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  12. ^ Wang, David Der-wei. "Foreword." In: Han Bangqing (2005). The Sing-song Girls of Shanghai. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231122689. Google Books PT9.
  13. ^ "Culture old and new in focus". mobile.shanghaidaily.com. Retrieved 2017-05-16.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

31°00′21″N 121°14′00″E / 31.00583°N 121.23333°E / 31.00583; 121.23333