||This article is written like a travel guide rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. (May 2015)|
Map of Thailand highlighting Songkhla Province
|• Governor||Kritsada Bunrat|
|• Total||7,393.9 km2 (2,854.8 sq mi)|
|Area rank||Ranked 26th|
|• Rank||Ranked 11th|
|• Density||179.2/km2 (464/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||Ranked 14th|
|Time zone||ICT (UTC+7)|
|ISO 3166 code||TH-90|
Songkhla (Thai: สงขลา, pronounced [sǒŋ.kʰlǎː]; Malay: Singgora) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from east clockwise) Satun, Phatthalung, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Pattani, and Yala. To the south it borders Kedah and Perlis of Malaysia.
In contrast to most other provinces, the capital Songkhla is not the largest city in the province. The much newer city of Hat Yai, with a population of 359,813, is considerably larger, with twice the population of Songkhla (163,072). This often leads to the misconception that Hat Yai is the provincial capital.
In the north of the province is Songkhla Lake, the largest natural lake in Thailand. This shallow lake covers an area of 1,040 km², and has a south-north extent of 78 kilometers. At its mouth on the Gulf of Thailand, near the city of Songkhla, the water becomes brackish. A small population of Irrawaddy Dolphins live in the lake, but are in danger of extinction due to accidental capture by the nets of the local fishing industry.
Songkhla Province hosts two national parks. San Kala Khiri covers 214 km² of mountain highlands on the Thai-Malay border. Khao Nam Khang, is also in the boundary mountains. Chinese Communist guerrillas inhabited this region until the 1980s.
Within the boundaries of the city of Songkhla is Cape Samila Beach, the most popular beach in the province. The famous mermaid statue can be found here. The two islands Ko Nu and Ko Maew (Mouse and Cat Islands), not far from the beach, are also popular landmarks, and a preferred fishing ground. According a local folk tale, a cat, mouse and dog were traveling on a Chinese ship, when they attempted to steal a crystal from a merchant. While trying to swimming ashore, both the cat and the mouse drowned and became the two islands; the dog reached the beach, then died and become the hill Khao Tang Kuan. The crystal turned into the white sandy beach.
|Climate data for Songkhla (1981–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||29.6
|Average low °C (°F)||24.7
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||74.8
|Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm)||9||4||5||7||14||12||12||13||14||21||22||20||153|
|Average relative humidity (%)||78||77||78||78||78||77||77||76||79||82||84||82||78.8|
|Source: Thai Meteorological Department (Normal 1981-2010), (Avg. rainy days 1961-1990)|
The name Songkhla is actually the Thai corruption of Singgora (Jawi: سيڠڬورا); its original name means "the city of lions" in Malay (not to be confused with Singapura). This refers to a lion-shaped mountain near the city of Songkhla.
Songkhla was the seat of an old Malay Kingdom with heavy Srivijayan influence. In ancient times (200–1400 CE), Songkhla formed the northern extremity of the Malay Kingdom of Langkasuka. The city-state then succeeded as the Sultanate of Singgora, it later became a tributary of Nakhon Si Thammarat, suffering damage during several attempts to gain independence.
Archaeological excavations on the isthmus between Lake Songkhla and the sea reveal that in the 10th through the 14th century this was a major urbanized area, and a center of international maritime trade, in particular with Quanzhou in China. The long Sanskrit name of the state that existed there has been lost; its short Sanskrit name was Singhapura ("Lion City") (not to be confused with Singapura), a city state. The short vernacular name was Satingpra, coming from the Mon-Khmer sting/steng/stang (meaning "river") and the Sanskrit pura ("city").:320-321
Since the 18th century, Songkla has been firmly under Thai suzerainty. In 1909, Songkhla was formally annexed by Siam as part of Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909, negotiated with the British Empire, in which Siam gave up its claim to Kelantan in return for Britain recognizing Siam's right to the provinces north of that.
In the 18th century many Chinese immigrants, especially from Guangdong and Fujian, came to the province. Quickly rising to economic wealth, one of them won the bidding for the major tax farm of the province in 1769, establishing the Na Songkhla (from Songkhla) family as the most wealthy and influential. In 1777 the family also gained political power, when the old governor was dismissed and Luang Inthakhiri (Yiang, Chinese name Wu Rang (呉譲)) became the new governor. In 1786 the old governor started an uprising, which was put down after four months. The position was thereafter inherited in the family and was held by eight of his descendants until 1901, when Phraya Wichiankhiri (Chom) was honorably retired as part of the administrative reforms of Prince Damrong Rajanubhab. The family's former home was converted into the Songkhla National Museum in 1953.
Songkhla was the scene of heavy fighting when the Imperial Japanese Army invaded Thailand on 8 December 1941 and parts of the city were destroyed.
Songkhla was not initially affected by the recent outbreak of Pattani Separatism, which began in 2004. However, bombs planted in 2005 and 2007 created fear the insurgency might spread into Songkhla Province. The districts Chana and Thepha bordering Pattani have been under martial law since 2005.
Buddhists make up about three-quarters of the population, most of whom are of native Thai or Thai Chinese descent. About a quarter of the population are Muslim, most of them belong to a Thai-speaking Muslim group, called Sam-Sam. People claiming to be of Malay ethnicity make up a minority among the Muslim populace. The Songkhla Malays are very similar in ethnicity and culture to the Malays of Kelantan, Malaysia. They speak the Patani Malay language, which differs from Bahasa Malay in vocabulary and pronunciation.
Phetkasem Road, running all the way from Bangkok, ends at the border crossing to Malaysia in Sadao. Asian highway 2 and 18 also run through the province. Of note is the Tinsulanond Bridge, which crosses Songkhla Lake to connect the narrow land east of the lake at the coast with the main southern part of the province. With a length of 2.6 km it is the longest concrete bridge in Thailand. Built in 1986, the bridge consists of two parts. The southern 1,140 m connects Mueang district with the island Ko Yo, and the northern part of 1,800 m to Ban Khao Khiao.
The southern railway runs through the province, and continues on into Malaysia, with Hat Yai being the main and southernmost station. In the past, a railway line connected the town of Songkhla with Hat Yai, but it was closed in 1978 and is now partly dismantled and partly overgrown.
Kanchanawanit Road, which runs from Songkhla town, though Hat Yai, and all the way to the Malaysian border at Sadao District, is considered the unofficial dividing line separating the Thai south from its deep south, Muslim-majority region.
The most important Buddhist temple of the province is Wat Matchimawat (also named Wat Klang), on Saiburi road in the city of Songkhla itself.
On the island Ko Yo within Songkhla lake, since being easily accessible via the Tinsulanond Bridge, the residents have started to sell the hand-woven fabric named Phathor Ko Yo. Also famous for the island is the local jackfruit variant named Jampada.
Held in the first night of October, the Chak Phra tradition is a Buddhist festival specific to the south of Thailand. It is celebrated with Buddha boat processions or sports events like a run up Khao Tang Kuan hill.
In September or October at the Chinese Lunar festival the Thai-Chinese present their offerings to the moon or Queen of the heavens in gratitude for past and future fortunes.
The provincial seal shows a conch shell on a Phan (tray) with glass decorations. The origin of the conch shell is unclear, but the most widely adopted interpretation is that it was a decoration on the jacket of the Prince of Songkhla.
The provincial tree is the Sa-dao-thiam (Azadirachta excelsa).
Songkhla Province is an energy hub. It earns 100 billion baht each year from a gas separation plant, power generation, and oil. The gas separation plant sells 35 billion baht worth of gas per year to EGAT. Power generation accounts for 45 billion baht. Offshore oil rigs in the vicinity of Ko Nu produce 20,000 barrels of oil per day worth 30 billion baht per year. If a proposed coal-fired electrical generation plan in Thepha District goes ahead, yearly energy earnings could rise to 300 billion baht per year.
Songkhla's City Pillar (ศาลหลักเมืองสงขลา) The Chinese-style building was constructed together with the city itself. The Chinese immigrants who came to settle there at the beginning of the 24th Buddhist Century had a major role in the establishment of Songkhla, hence, the distinctive Chinese lifestyle of the area.
The Institute for Southern Thai Studies, Thaksin university (สถาบันทักษิณคดีศึกษา มหาวิทยาลัยทักษิณ) It was established in BE 2521 for the studies of southern art and culture. Its museum has comprehensive exhibits on local art and culture, and southern lives as well as artefacts echoing local wisdom accumulated through several generations.
Laem Sai Estuary Fortress (ป้อมปืนปากน้ำแหลมทราย) This fortress is behind Songkhla Provincial Police Headquarters.
Wat Matchimawat or Wat Khlang (วัดมัชฌิมาวาสหรือวัดกลาง) A large temple and the most important in Songkhla. It is about 400 years old. This temple also has the Phattharasin Museum that houses various artefacts gathered from Songkhla, Sathing Phra, Ranot, and elsewhere.
Wat Chai Mongkhon (วัดชัยมงคล) Has a chedi that was built to house the Buddhist relics brought back from Langka by a monk named "Na Issaro" who was teaching Pali there in BE 2435.
The Songkhla National Museum (พิพิธภัณฑสถานแห่งชาติสงขลา) It became the domicile of Songkhla's upper administrative officers and finally the city hall. Today it is the source of local archaeology, history, folk art, and culture. It has a notable collection of the artefacts of the Na Songkhla Family who used to rule the city.
Phathammarong Museum (พิพิธภัณฑ์พะธำมะรง) It was constructed in a Thai style to resemble the birthplace of H.E. Prem Tinsulanond, the former prime minister and statesman who is a Songkhla native.
Ban Sattha (บ้านศรัทธา) It is surrounded by coconut plantations. The city people had it built for H.E. Prem Tinsulanond, the privy councillor and statesman, when he was the prime minister. When construction was completed in BE 2539, H.E. Prem gave the house back to the people of Songkhla.
Laem (Cape) Samila (แหลมสมิหลา) This peninsula is well known for its white sandy beach, shady pine groves, and the statue of a mermaid that is Songkhla's symbol.
Ko Nu and Ko Maeo (เกาะหนู – เกาะแมว) A legend says that a dog, a cat, and a mouse, on a Chinese sampan stole the merchant’s magic crystal and tried to swim ashore but drowned and lost their lives. The mice and cats became the islands in the Songkhla Lake while the dog died on shore and became the hill called Hin Khao Tang Kuan near the bay. The crystal was totally destroyed and became the white sandy beach called Hat Sai Kaeo.
Khao Tang Kuan (เขาตังกวน) At Laem Samila has the Sala Vihan Daeng, the royal pavilion built during the reign of King Rama V. On the hilltop is a Dvaravati chedi housing Buddha relics that was built during the Nakhon Si Thammarat Empire. A tram provides ascent from street level to the hilltop.
Laem Son On (แหลมสนอ่อน) At the end of the peninsula stands the statue of Prince Chumphon Khet Udomsak. This peninsula is the best spot to view Ko Nu and Songkhla Lake.
Khao Noi (เขาน้อย) The hilltop is the site of the statue of Prince Lop Buri Ramet, the southern viceroy. On the northeast is Suan Seri, a topiary.
Songkhla Zoo (สวนสัตว์สงขลา) It was established for the preservation of Thai wildlife and to return them to the wild. The zoo covers a hilly area with an asphalt ring road. The various animals have been grouped separately, such camels, birds, red gaur, tigers, crocodiles, and others.
Songkhla Lake (ทะเลสาบสงขลา) The only natural lake in Thailand is about 80 kilometres long and 20–25 kilometres wide. It is a freshwater lake with brackish water near the mouth.
Tinsulanond Bridge (สะพานติณสูลานนท์) It is the longest concrete bridge in Thailand, with two parts: the first part connects the coast of Amphoe Mueang Songkhla to the south coast of Ko Yo; the second part connects the north shore of Ko Yo to the coast of Ban Khao Khiao.
Ko Yo (เกาะยอ) is a small island in the Songkhla Lake but is the important attraction of Songkhla. The island has an area of 9,275 rai (14.84 square kilometres (5.73 sq mi)).
Hat Yai (ตัวเมืองหาดใหญ่) The gateway to the neighboring countries of Malaysia and Singapore. It is only 60 kilometres from the port of entry at Sadao. Hat Yai has grown significantly into the commercial, transportation, communication, educational, and tourism centre of the south.
Hat Yai Municipal Park (สวนสาธารณะเทศบาลเมืองหาดใหญ่) The park is full of flowering plants with a pavilion in the middle of the pond and aviarium. At the foot of the hill near the aviarium stands a statue of King Rama V. At the southern foothill near the boy scout camp stands the jade statue of Guan-yin, the Chinese goddess.
Wat Hat Yai Nai (วัดหาดใหญ่ใน) The site of a large reclining Buddha measuring 35 metres long, 15 metres tall, and 10 metres wide, named Phra Phuttha Hattha Mongkhon, believed to be the third largest reclining Buddha in the world.
Namtok Ton Nga Chang (น้ำตกโตนงาช้าง) One of the more beautiful waterfalls of the south, about 26 kilometres from the city. This waterfall has seven levels. The third level is the most beautiful and is named after the waterfall.
Namtok Boriphat Forestry Park (วนอุทยานน้ำตกบริพัตร) About 52 kilometres from Amphoe Mueang Songkhla. It is a small all-season waterfall.
Wat Tham Khao Rup Chang (วัดถ้ำเขารูปช้าง) The temple uses the cave as religious ground. The cave has been partitioned into several rooms with delicate stalactites and stalagmites.
Khao Nam Khang National Park (อุทยานแห่งชาติเขาน้ำค้าง) There are two waterfalls within this park, Ton Dat Fa and Ton Lat Fa.
Khao Nam Khang Historic Tunnel (อุโมงค์ประวัติศาสตร์เขาน้ำค้าง) This tunnel was once known as "Piyamit Village 5", run by the Communist insurgents. It is the largest and longest man-made tunnel in Thailand, completed in two years with three separate corridors and three levels deep.
Chedi Phi Nong Yot Khao Daeng (เจดีย์พี่น้องยอดเขาแดง) Consists of two stupas: Chedi Ong Dam ("black chedi"), and Chedi Ong Khao ("white chedi").
Khu Khut Waterfowl Park (Tha-le Sap Songkhla Wildlife Refuge) (อุทยานนกน้ำคูขุด-เขตห้ามล่าสัตว์ป่าทะเลสาปสงขลา) This waterfowl park is part of Tha-le Sap Songkhla or Songkhla Lake. A survey by the Royal Forestry Department recorded 44 families, 137 genera, and 219 species of avian. The best time to view the birds are from December to March.
Wat Cha Thing Phra (วัดจะทิ้งพระ) This temple has several ancient ruins from the Srivijaya Period such as Chedi Phra Maha That, Wihan Phra Phutthasaiyat (reclining Buddha), and the bell tower.
Wat Pha Kho or Wat Ratchapraditsathan (วัดพะโคะหรือวัดราชประดิษฐาน) This temple was the seat of Somdet Pha Kho or Luang Pho Thuat Yiap Nam Tha-le Chuet, the most revered monk in the south.
Wat Ek Choeng Sae (วัดเอกเชิงแส) It has a revered coral Buddha image that had been covered with plaster. The image is 70 centimetres wide at the lap and 120 centimetres tall.
Sacred Pond at Wat Laem Bo Tho (บ่อน้ำศักดิ์สิทธิ์วัดแหลมบ่อท่อ) It was said that a monk named Phra Sin Narai and a layman named Khun Wichai Phromsat built this pond on their way from India to Ayutthaya. This sacred pond has clean freshwater all year round.
Bull Fights (กีฬาชนโค) The local favourite sport since the time of Phraya Mueang, in the Srivijaya Period. After the harvest, owners bring their bulls to fight as a gesture of solidarity and festivity. Two bulls fight each other in each round lasting between 15 to 30 minutes.
Khao Java Birds (นกเขาชวา) The favourite domesticated bird in the south. The famous bird-culture area is Amphoe Chana, about 40 kilometres from Amphoe Hat Yai, on Highway 408. Bird singing contests are usually held annually from January to July. Singing birds are judged by their tone, voice, beat, loudness, and continuation.
Shrimp and fish crackers There are also nam budu, cashew nuts, and dried crystal shrimp.
Nang Talung (shadow puppet) A southern folk art that can be viewed in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phatthalung, Trang, and Songkhla. A temporary platform is usually built for the performance. The puppets, cut from animal hide, are placed against the rear of a white screen in front of a bright light so the audience can see their shadows. The story is told by narrators.
Ko Yo hand-woven fabric A folk product of Songkhla, produced mainly from Ko Yo, Amphoe Mueang Songkhla. The sturdy hand-woven fabric has intricate designs such as Lai Rat Chawat and Lai Luk Kaeo.
Songkran Festival (ประเพณีสงกรานต์) is held on 13 April. In Hat Yai the festival is held around Niphat Uthit 1, 2, and 3 Roads, from morning till evening.
Thai Goods and Produce Promotion Fair (เทศกาลส่งเสริมสินค้าและผลไม้ไทย) Usually held in the middle of July when fruits are at their peak. The fair boasts large selection of the best agricultural products from all southern provinces both for display and for sale.
Tham Bun Duean Sip (งานเทศกาลทำบุญเดือนสิบ) Held on the full moon of the tenth lunar month. This festival grew from the belief that during the new moon phase in the tenth month, the souls of the deceased relatives and friends, especially those not yet reborn would be released to meet the living relatives. So the living would prepare foods to offer them to the monks in their names. In Sathing Phra this festivity is different than in other districts whereby tall gold figures are paraded as the "proxy" for the deceased who were respected by the villagers.
Lak Phra and Tak Bat Thewo (almsgiving) (งานประเพณีลากพระและตักบาตรเทโว) is held on the new moon in the eleventh lunar month, around October of every year in Amphoe Mueang Songkhla. The festivities start one day before the official start to wrap a large cloth around the top of the chedi on Khao Tang Kuan. On the morning of the festival day, alms are offered to monks (tak bat thewo) at the foot of the hill. Several hundred monks walk down from Khao Tang Kuan to receive the offerings. Late in the morning monks travelling by boat from other temples in Songkhla proceed along the waterfront so locals can offer alms and pull their boats along. Such acts are highly merited. The monks' boats congregate at the lotus pond to participate in the boat decoration contest. On the festival ground there are also art and culture performances.
- "Songkhla Lake". Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT). Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "San Kala Khiri National Park". Department of National Parks (DNP) Thailand. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Khao Nam Khang National Park". Department of National Parks (DNP) Thailand. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Laem Samila". Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT). Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Stargardt, Janice (2001). "Behind the Shadows: Archaeological Data on Two-Way Sea Trade Between Quanzhou and Satingpra, South Thailand, 10th-14th century". In Schottenhammer, Angela. The Emporium of the World: Maritime Quanzhou, 1000-1400. Volume 49 of Sinica Leidensia. Brill. pp. 309–393. ISBN 90-04-11773-3.
- "Thai districts impose martial law". BBC. 2005-11-03.
- Geoffrey Benjamin, Cynthia Chou. Tribal Communities in the Malay World. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 80. ISBN 981-230-166-6.
- Kobkua Suwannathat-Pian. The Historical Development of Thai-Speaking Muslim Communities in Southern Thailand and Northern Malaysia. Civility and Savagery: Social Identity in Tai States (Routledge). p. 173. ISBN 0-7007-1173-2.
- 2Bangkok.com - The Songkhla to Hat Yai rail line Archived December 5, 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Samart, Somchai (2015-08-03). "Power plant to fulfil dream to be 'energy city'". The Nation. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- Provincial website (Thai)
||Phatthalung Province||Nakhon Si Thammarat Province||Gulf of Thailand|
|Satun Province||Pattani Province|