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Sonic & Knuckles

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Sonic & Knuckles
Sonic & Knuckles cover.jpg
US cover art
Developer(s)Sega Technical Institute
Director(s)Hirokazu Yasuhara[1][2]
Producer(s)Yuji Naka[1][2]
  • Yuji Naka
  • Takahiro Hamano
  • Masanobu Yamamoto[2]
  • Takashi Yuda
  • Satoshi Yokokawa[2]
SeriesSonic the Hedgehog
Platform(s)Sega Genesis, Windows
ReleaseSega Genesis
  • WW: October 18, 1994
  • JP: February 14, 1997
  • WW: 1997
Genre(s)Platform game

Sonic & Knuckles[a] is a 1994 platform game developed and published by Sega. It is part of the Sonic the Hedgehog series and the sequel to Sonic the Hedgehog 3 (1994). Players control Sonic the Hedgehog and Knuckles the Echidna in their quests to save Angel Island; Sonic tries to prevent Doctor Robotnik from relaunching his orbital weapon, the Death Egg, while Knuckles scuffles with Robotnik's minion, EggRobo. The game takes place across six levels in which the player collects rings and fights bosses.

Sega Technical Institute developed Sonic & Knuckles simultaneously alongside Sonic 3. The two were intended to be released as a single game, but time constraints and small cartridge sizes forced Sega to split the project. The Sonic & Knuckles cartridge features "lock-on technology" that allows the game to connect to the Sonic the Hedgehog 2 or Sonic the Hedgehog 3 cartridges, combining elements from both games. This feature was implemented so the game could be experienced as intended.

Sonic & Knuckles was released for the Sega Genesis on October 18, 1994. It sold 1.24 million copies and received positive reviews; critics were impressed with the replay value and lock-on technology despite its similarity to Sonic 3. Alongside Sonic 3, a Windows port was released through the Sonic & Knuckles Collection (1997). It has also been rereleased through various compilations and on digital platforms such as Xbox Live Arcade and the Wii's Virtual Console, while it was bundled with Sonic 3 on Steam.


Knuckles explores Mushroom Hill, the first zone of Sonic & Knuckles

Since Sonic & Knuckles and Sonic the Hedgehog 3 were initially developed as one game, their gameplay is similar: both are 2D side-scrolling platformers with similar level design, graphics, and game mechanics. However, in Sonic & Knuckles, unlike in Sonic 3, the player chooses either Sonic or Knuckles at the title screen,[3] Miles "Tails" Prower is not available to select, and the player cannot control two characters together. There is also no multiplayer mode or save feature.[4]

The player character moves through six levels, each divided into two acts.[5] The first act of each level ends with a miniboss fight with one of Dr. Robotnik's robots,[6] while the second ends with a regular boss fight with Robotnik (or EggRobo in Knuckles' campaign).[7] Sonic and Knuckles traverse levels differently; Sonic can jump slightly higher and has access to unique shield abilities, whereas Knuckles can glide and climb most walls. The levels also include cutscenes that differ based on the character selected, as Sonic and Knuckles are opponents for most of the game.[3]

The game contains two types of bonus stages accessed by passing a checkpoint with at least 20 rings. The first type has Sonic or Knuckles orbit floating, glowing spheres, jetting off each one when a button is pressed, while a fence of light approaches from the bottom and will remove the player from the stage if touched. Collecting 50 rings in this stage earns the player a continue. The second type involves bouncing around a room with a slot machine in its center with the intention of winning extra lives and power-ups.[8]

Special Stages are entered by finding giant rings hidden in secret passageways: the player is placed in a 3D environment and must turn all of a number of blue spheres red by running through them, but must avoid all red spheres, including formerly blue ones. Yellow spheres bounce the player long distances, and white spheres with red stars on them make the player walk backwards in the opposite direction. Completing a Special Stage earns the player a Chaos Emerald; collecting all seven Emeralds allows the player to turn into Super Sonic or Super Knuckles, more powerful versions of the characters.[8]

Lock-on technology[edit]

Sonic & Knuckles features "lock-on technology" that allows players to open the hatch on the cartridge and insert a second cartridge. When Sonic 3 is inserted, the player can play through both games as one, Sonic 3 & Knuckles. This features several changes to the games,[3] such as slightly altered level layouts,[9] the ability to play through Sonic 3 levels as Knuckles[3] or Sonic & Knuckles levels as Tails, and the ability to save progress in Sonic & Knuckles levels.[4] Additionally, combining the cartridges is the only way to collect "Super Emeralds", earned by accessing Special Stages in the Sonic & Knuckles levels after collecting all seven Chaos Emeralds from Sonic 3. When all Super Emeralds have been collected, Sonic, Knuckles, and Tails can transform into Hyper Sonic, Hyper Knuckles, and Super Tails respectively, each with unique abilities.[10]

Inserting Sonic 2 unlocks Knuckles the Echidna in Sonic the Hedgehog 2, wherein the player can play Sonic 2 using Knuckles' abilities.[3]

If the player attaches any other Genesis game released prior to Sonic & Knuckles, a screen with Sonic, Tails, Knuckles, and Robotnik stating "No Way!" is displayed.[11] From here, the player can also access a minigame based on Sonic 3's and Sonic & Knuckles's Chaos Emerald Special Stages.[12] The attached cartridge determines the Special Stage layout. If the player attaches the original Sonic the Hedgehog,[12] they are able to access all of the possible variations of the special stages, each with a unique level number and corresponding password. This game is named Blue Sphere in Sonic Mega Collection.[10]


The story begins immediately after the events of Sonic 3, where Dr. Robotnik's orbital weapon, the Death Egg, is damaged in a battle with Sonic and crash-lands back onto Angel Island. Sonic travels through each zone looking to retrieve the Chaos Emeralds to defeat Robotnik, and once again comes into conflict with Knuckles, who believes Sonic is trying to steal the Emeralds for himself. In Hidden Palace Zone, Sonic fights and defeats Knuckles. The two hear a disturbance outside of the chamber, and go out to find Dr. Robotnik stealing the Master Emerald, the secret to the island's levitation powers. Knuckles attempts to attack Robotnik, but is electrically shocked in the process, and is trapped with Sonic in an underground passage. Knuckles, realizing Sonic is on his side, shows him a portal that leads them to Sky Sanctuary, where the Death Egg is relaunching. Sonic proceeds to infiltrate the Death Egg, and defeats Robotnik as Super Sonic.

Knuckles' story, which takes place after the events of Sonic's campaign, begins in Mushroom Hill,[b] where he is relaxing with his animal friends but is interrupted by a bomb dropped by EggRobo. This prompts Knuckles to chase after him, leading him through more difficult versions of most of the same zones Sonic went through. The chase ends at the damaged remains of Sky Sanctuary, where a robot called Mecha Sonic attacks Knuckles but accidentally destroys EggRobo instead. After a short fight, Mecha Sonic uses the power of the Master Emerald to achieve a Super form similar to Sonic's. Knuckles manages to defeat Super Mecha Sonic, who explodes. Sonic flies in piloting the biplane Tornado and Knuckles hitches a ride to return the Master Emerald to Angel Island. If all the Chaos Emeralds are collected, Angel Island rises upwards, into the sky. However, if the player has not collected all the Chaos Emeralds, Knuckles cannot redeem the Master Emerald, and Angel Island plummets into the ocean.


The Sonic & Knuckles cartridge features a "lock-on" adapter that allows it to be physically attached to other Genesis cartridges.

Sonic & Knuckles was developed in California by the Japanese members of Sega Technical Institute (STI).[13][14][15] Sonic 3 and Sonic & Knuckles were originally planned as a single game;[16] according to designer Takashi Iizuka, the team "really wanted to hit a home run", with larger stages that took longer to develop.[17] As ROM cartridges were too small to contain the game and publisher Sega wanted it released in time for a promotional deal with McDonald's, Sonic 3 was split in two,[17] with Sonic & Knuckles as the second part.[18]

Despite the split, the developers wanted the games to feel like a single experience.[17] According to Roger Hector, vice president and general manager of STI, the lock-on technology was conceived two and a half years before the release of Sonic & Knuckles, between the releases of Sonic the Hedgehog and Sonic the Hedgehog 2.[19] The team explained their situation to Sega's hardware division, which gave them the lock-on adapter. The team knew that players would likely use the adapter to insert games beside Sonic 3, so they implemented the Blue Sphere minigame for most games. They made Knuckles playable in Sonic 2 if that game was inserted because the team found his playstyle suited its levels. However, the team did not implement the same feature for the original Sonic the Hedgehog as it "didn't really feel right".[17]


Sonic & Knuckles was released worldwide on October 18, 1994.[20] It was released around the same time as Nintendo's Donkey Kong Country for the Genesis's competitor, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Industry figures called the coinciding releases a "battle" as both advertised "revolutionary" technological advances: lock-on technology for Sonic & Knuckles and 3D-rendered graphics for Donkey Kong.[21]

Sonic & Knuckles was backed by a $45 million marketing campaign; at the time, video games typically had a marketing budget of $5 million.[21] Blockbuster Video and MTV co-sponsored a tournament in which children were allowed to play Sonic & Knuckles. The final tournament was held at Alcatraz Island in San Francisco, California, with a prize of $25,000 and the title "The World's Most Hardcore Gamer". Two finalists were also awarded a copy of every Sega product released for the next year.[22] MTV broadcast the tournament finale along with footage of the game as "MTV's Rock the Rock".[22]


Sonic & Knuckles has been released as part of numerous compilations of Sega games including Sonic Jam (1997) for the Sega Saturn;[23] Sonic & Knuckles Collection (1997) and Sonic & Garfield Pack (1999) for the PC,[24] Sonic Mega Collection (2002) for the Nintendo GameCube;[25] Sonic Mega Collection Plus (2004) for the PlayStation 2, Xbox, and PC;[26] Sonic's Ultimate Genesis Collection (2009) for the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3;[27] and Sonic Classic Collection (2010) for the Nintendo DS.[28]

Sonic Jam, in addition to featuring the original release, included some new "remix" options to modify the game:[29] "Normal" mode alters the layout of rings and hazards and "Easy" mode removes certain acts entirely from the game. The version in Sonic's Ultimate Genesis Collection does not retain the lock-on feature included in other versions of the game, because of "tight development times".[30][31]

The game has been re-released through the Wii's Virtual Console and Xbox 360's Xbox Live Arcade.[32][33] Both releases are programmed such that, if any of the "Lock-on" games are also downloaded on the same account, the "connected" versions of the game are also available. For example, if one downloads Sonic & Knuckles and Sonic 2, they have the option to play the corresponding Knuckles in Sonic 2 game.[32] When the PC version was released via the Steam software, the games were released together as Sonic 3 & Knuckles as originally intended, with the player (even if playing as Tails) simply continuing at the beginning of Sonic & Knuckles after finishing Sonic 3.[34]


Critics praised Sonic & Knuckles, despite its similarity to its predecessor. The four reviewers of Electronic Gaming Monthly named it their "Game of the Month". They lauded the lock-on technology and remarked that despite that being "more of the same, it still is an exceptional game."[35] A reviewer of GamePro, who gave it a perfect score, commented that the ability to play as Knuckles makes it essentially two games on a single cartridge, the game is more challenging than Sonic 3, and the ability to hook the cartridge up to Sonic 2 and 3 makes those games "worth playing again."[37] Next Generation called it "the same Sonic game that Sega has sold for the last three years, just wrapped up better and with a prettier ribbon."[41]

Critics praised the lock-on technology the game offered. Lucas Thomas of IGN said it was "a great game on its own", but the lock-on feature completely revamped the overall experience.[3] Dan Whitehead of Eurogamer preferred Sonic & Knuckles to Sonic 3,[42] stating that he could not fully appreciate its predecessor without its "companion piece".[43] Sega Power's review praised the game's harder difficulty in comparison to its predecessor and the new expansion of levels, admitting that the expansion would not have been possible had Sonic 3 been a single game.[39] Sega Magazine's review similarly praised the lock-on technology and the new innovation the unique cartridge offered, adding that Sonic & Knuckles' hidden stages and bosses would strongly add to the replay value of the combined game.[40]

Reviewing the Virtual Console release, Nintendo Life writer James Newton praised its support for the old lock-on feature of the original release, claiming that the game does not truly shine without having purchased Sonic the Hedgehog 2 and 3 to activate this feature.[38] Thomas praised the game for "impressive visuals that pushed the Genesis to its limits" and for the value added in the content unlocked with the lock-on technology.[3]

The Genesis version sold 1.24 million copies in the United States.[44]


For the series' twentieth anniversary in 2011, Sega released Sonic Generations, a game that remade aspects of various past games from the franchise.[45] A remake of the Sky Sanctuary stage was made for the Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, and PC versions of the game,[46] while the Mushroom Hill level was remade for the Nintendo 3DS version of the game.[47] Sonic & Sega All-Stars Racing features a track inspired by the Death Egg as downloadable content along with the Metal Sonic character.[45] The sequel, Sonic & All-Stars Racing Transformed, featured the same race course, and an additional new one inspired by the Sky Sanctuary stage.[48] Re-imagined versions of the Flying Battery and Lava Reef stages, along with the Blue Sphere bonus game, appear in the 2017 game Sonic Mania.[49]


  1. ^ Japanese: ソニック& (アンド)ナックルズ, Hepburn: Sonikku ando Nakkuruzu
  2. ^ When connected to Sonic 3, Knuckles' campaign begins in Angel Island, rather than Mushroom Hill.


  1. ^ a b Sonic & Knuckles US manual. p. 28. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e Sonic & Knuckles JP manual. Sega. 1994. Archived from the original on 2015-02-06.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Thomas, Lucas M. (February 22, 2010). "Sonic & Knuckles Review". IGN. Retrieved November 17, 2014.
  4. ^ a b Sonic & Knuckles (Genesis) instruction manual, pp. 22–24.
  5. ^ Sonic & Knuckles (Genesis) instruction manual, pp. 12–15.
  6. ^ Sonic & Knuckles (Genesis) instruction manual, p. 9.
  7. ^ Sonic & Knuckles (Genesis) instruction manual, p. 15.
  8. ^ a b Sonic & Knuckles (Genesis) instruction manual, pp. 16–18.
  9. ^ Sonic & Knuckles (Genesis) instruction manual, p. 22.
  10. ^ a b "Sonic And Knuckles Collection Cheats". Game Revolution. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  11. ^ "Sonic & Knuckles Cheats and Overview". Game Revolution. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  12. ^ a b c Thompson, Jon. "Sonic & Knuckles – Review". Allgame. Archived from the original on November 14, 2014. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  13. ^ Horowitz, Ken (June 11, 2007). "Developer's Den: Sega Technical Institute". Sega-16. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  14. ^ "Sonic 3 & Knuckles - Behind the Scenes". GamesTM (60): 140–144.
  15. ^ Thorpe, Nick (2016). "The Story of Sonic the Hedgehog". Retro Gamer. No. 158. Imagine Publishing. pp. 18–25.
  16. ^ "Sonic & Knuckles Development overview". NintendoLife. Gamer Network. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  17. ^ a b c d Shea, Brian (October 10, 2016). "How Sonic 3 Became Two Separate Games". Game Informer.
  18. ^ "Sega's Yuji Naka Talks!". GameSpy. Retrieved December 31, 2014.
  19. ^ "When Knuckles Met Sonic". GamePro. No. 66. IDG. January 1995. p. 20.
  20. ^ "ソニック&ナックルズ セガ Wii(R) バーチャルコンソール公式サイト" (in Japanese). Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  21. ^ a b Kronke, David (October 15, 1994). "It's Gonna Be a Video Jungle Out There : Video-game stars Donkey Kong and Sonic the Hedgehog will battle it out with new games backed by tech advances and mega-marketing". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2015-09-18. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  22. ^ a b "The Sega Man of Alcatraz". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 65. EGM Media, LLC. December 1994. pp. 186–187.
  23. ^ "Sonic Jam – Saturn". IGN. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  24. ^ "Sonic & Garfield Pack". Metacritic. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
  25. ^ Mirabella, Fran (November 2, 2002). "Sonic Mega Collection". IGN. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  26. ^ Goldstein, Hilary (November 3, 2004). "Sonic Mega Collection Plus". IGN. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  27. ^ Miller, Greg (February 12, 2009). "Sonic's Ultimate Genesis Collection". IGN. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  28. ^ Harris, Craig (March 5, 2010). "Sonic Classic Collection Review". IGN. Retrieved January 27, 2013.
  29. ^ "Sonic Jam overview – remix options". Game Revolution. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  30. ^ Gillbert, Henry. "SONIC'S ULTIMATE GENESIS COLLECTION REVIEW". GamesRadar. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  31. ^ "Sonic's Genesis Collection Not So Ultimate; Leaves Out Sonic 3 & Knuckles Lock-On". GameZone. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  32. ^ a b "Sonic & Knuckles – Wii release". IGN. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  33. ^ "Sonic & Knuckles (Xbox 360)". IGN. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  34. ^ "Sonic Hits Collection". Steam. Archived from the original on 23 March 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
  35. ^ a b "Review Crew: Sonic & Knuckles". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 65. EGM Media, LLC. December 1994. p. 34.
  36. ^ "NEW GAMES CROSS REVIEW: ソニック&ナックルズ". Famitsu. No. 309. November 11–18, 1994. p. 37.
  37. ^ a b "ProReview: Sonic & Knuckles". GamePro. No. 64. IDG. November 1994. pp. 72–73.
  38. ^ a b Newton, James (February 16, 2010). "Review". NintendoLife. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
  39. ^ a b "Sonic & Knuckles review". Sega Power. November 1994. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  40. ^ a b "Sonic & Knuckles overview". Sega Magazine. October 1994. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  41. ^ a b "Finals". Next Generation. No. 1. Imagine Media. January 1995. p. 101.
  42. ^ Whitehead, Dan (June 17, 2009). "SEGA Vintage Collection". Eurogamer. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
  43. ^ Whitehead, Dan. "Virtual Console roundup". Eurogamer. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
  44. ^ "US Platinum Videogame Chart". The Magic Box. Retrieved 2015-11-11.
  45. ^ a b Nunneley, Stephany. "Sonic Generations – Green Hill, Chemical Plant, and Sky Sanctuary remakes". VG247. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  46. ^ "Sonic Generations Sky Sanctuary". GameTrailers. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  47. ^ "Sonic Generations – Mushroom Hill Special Stage Clip". IGN. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  48. ^ Schilling, Chris. "Rev up For Sonic & All-Stars Racing Transformed". IGN. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  49. ^ Good, Owen. "Sonic Mania's latest trailer puts Knuckles back in Flying Battery Zone". Polygon. Retrieved 30 May 2017.

Works cited

  • Pinney, Joe (1994). Sonic & Knuckles : Official Game Book. Indianapolis, IN: Brady Pub. ISBN 978-1-5668-6218-9.

External links[edit]