Parts of this article (those related to districts of Assam) need to be updated.January 2019)(
|• Total||2,076.70 km2 (801.82 sq mi)|
|Elevation||48-560 m (−1,789 ft)|
|• Density||930/km2 (2,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-AS|
Sonitpur district was created in 1983 when it was split from Darrang. Udalguri was also carved out for the Bodoland Territorial Area Districts. Sonitpur district has a long history starting with Kamrupa Mlechha rule, which divided into Baro-Bhuyan rule and Chutiya kingdom rule. The border between the two kingdoms was the Kameng/Jia Bhorali River. Later, the Ahoms occupied the region during the period 1505-10 AD under the rule of Dihingia raja.
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- Headquarter : Tezpur
- Number of Sub-Divisions :
- Number of Revenue Circles/ Tehsils :
- Number of Mouza : 26
- Number of Community Development(C.D.) Blocks : 17
- Number of Police Stations : 11
- No. of Anchalik Panchayats : 7
- Name of Gaon Panchayats : 158
- Number of Villages : 1615 (including 19 under BTAD)
- Number of Towns : 6
- Names of Towns : Tezpur, Dhekiajuli, Rangapara & Jamugurihat
- Number of Municipality Board: 2
- Number of Town Committees : 4
- Number of Police District : 2 (Sonitpur Police District & Biswanth Police District)
It stands among the largest districts of Assam. In terms of area Sonitpur is the second largest district of Assam after Karbi Anglong district. It is spread over an area of 5324 km2 on the northern banks of Brahmaputra, the lifeline of Assam. Sonitpur district occupies an area of 5,324 square kilometres (2,056 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to Guadalcanal. Major Rivers in the district are Brahmaputra, Jiabharali, Gabharu, Borgang and Buroi.
National protected area
It is home to several wildlife sanctuaries and national parks.
Sonitpur District falls in the Tropical Rainforest climate region, (Af ) in Koppen's climate classification and enjoys Hot & Wet type of climate. Summers are hot and humid; with an average temperature of 27 °C. Rainfall is heavy above 3,000 mm (9 ft) in wet months January to June which is both a boon and a bane for the people. A boon, for it, provides natural irrigation to the fields; and a bane, as it causes the rivers to overflow their banks and cause floods. All months have average precipitation of at least 60 mm and the average temperature of the cold month is above 18 °C. As anyone can expect, Tropical rainforest is the vegetation in and around the city.
Flora and fauna
In 1998, Sonitpur district became home to Nameri National Park in the north, which has an area of 200 km2 (77.2 sq mi). It is also home to Orang National Park, which it shares with Darrang district. Orang National Park was established in 1999 and has an area of 79 km2 (30.5 sq mi).
The population of Sonitpur district is 1,924,110 as per 2011 Census. It is the third most populous district of Assam (out of 27), after Nagaon and Dhubri. The demography of Sonitpur district is not entirely homogenous as several linguistic, religious and ethnic communities and groups live in Sonitpur district.
According to the 2011 census Sonitpur district has a population of 1,925,975, roughly equal to the nation of Lesotho or the US state of West Virginia. This gives it a ranking of 245th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 365 inhabitants per square kilometre (950/sq mi) . Its population growth rate[failed verification] over the decade 2001-2011 was 15.67%. Sonitpur has a sex ratio of 946 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 69.96%.
The indigenous Assamese people
There are around 500,000 people belonging to indigenous Assamese communities in Sonitpur. These are Assamese Brahmins, Koch Rajbongshis, Ahom, Karbi, Keot(Kaibarta), Mising, Nath Jogis, Bodo, Thengal Kachari, Chutia, Rabha, other indigenous Assamese communities and Assamese Muslims. They are considered to be among the earliest aboriginal inhabitants of the place, and the indigenous traditional Assamese culture of the place grew with them. They have become a minority in the district due to influx of immigrants like Bengalis(both Hindu and Muslim), Biharis, Marwaris etc.
The immigrant Nepali speaking Gorkha community with a population of over 350,000 (nearly one-fifth of the district's population), is fairly dominant in the central and southern part of the district, especially in the Biswanath Chariali, Gohpur, and Jamugurihat subdivisions. Sonitpur district boasts the largest and highest concentration of Nepali speakers in Assam.
Nepali speaking people are considered to be immigrated into the district starting from the early 1850s as soldiers, cultivators, etc.
Adivasi (Tea tribes)
Adivasi community mainly composed of Mundas, Santhals, Kurmi, Kurukh, Gonds, Ahir Gowala, Kharia, Bhumij, Porja, Saora and dozens of motley group of tribes forms a significant portion accounting for nearly one-third of the district's population or if taken as a whole the largest community in the district with over 600,000. Their ancestors were chiefly brought from the tribal-dominated region of Central India for the purpose of employing in the tea industry by British during the late 19th century. They are now spread all over the district. However, they are mostly concentrated in the surrounding regions of Dhekiajuli, Rangapara, Balipara, Jamugurihat, Biswanath chariali, Behali, Gohpur, Helem and northern parts of the district. They use Sadri, a dialect of Hindi as their first and primary language amongst themselves and Assamese as their second or third language. Almost 100,000 of them practices Christianity.
The immigrant Bengali speaking Hindus came from erstwhile undivided Bengal and Bangladesh, as officials and clerks of the British administration and the Tea Industry; and stayed back. Later, on account of the partition of India, Hindu people from Bangladesh coming as refugees added significantly to the community. Though their primary language is Bengali most of them speak Assamese too. They are mostly urbanised having a sizeable population in towns of Rangapara, Tezpur, Dhekiajuli, Biswanath Chariali, and Balipara. The population of immigrant Bengali Hindus is over 100,000 in the district.
There has a sizeable population of immigrant Bengali speaking Muslims living since colonial times in the district mainly in and around char areas of Brahmaputra river and surrounding areas of Dhekiajuli, Thelamara, and Tezpur (Napam). The population of the community is now around 300,000 in the district.
There are nearly 50,000 speakers of Hindi and it's dialect Bhojpuri living in the district who are primarily immigrated into the district from Northern Hindi speaking regions of India particularly Bihar and Rajasthan.
All the indigenous Assamese communities use indigenous traditional Assamese culture and are a part of the indigenous Assamese community.
The major religions of the populace of Sonitpur district are – Hindu and Muslim, As per 2011 census there are approximately 1,422,821 (73.83%) Hindus and 350,675 (18.18%) Muslims in the district. There are around 138,355 (7.19%) Christians in the district. Other small population following Buddhism (0.5%), Jainism and Sikhism is also present in the district.
The town has produced notable people, including:-
- Kamalakanta Bhattacharya, essayist and poe
- Ankushita Boro, boxer
- Jamuna Boro, boxer
- Dr. Bhupen Hazarika, playback singer, poet and film-maker
- Bishnu Prasad Rabha (1909–69), promoter of Assamese culture
- Phani Sarma (1909–70), theatre and film actor, playwright and director
- Major Railway Station : Dekargaon, Rangapara & Biswanath Chariali.
- Nearest Airport : Salonibari Airport, Tezpur.
- Assam State Transport Corporation (ASTC) Stand : At the midst of Tezpur town.
- Law, Gwillim (2011-09-25). "Districts of India". Statoids. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
- Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Assam: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. p. 1116. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 1998-02-18. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
- Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: Assam". Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
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