The Sonora River watershed covers 10,040 square miles (26,000 km2) of public land. Slopes range from steep orientations in the upper part of the watershed to more gradual topographies in the valleys. The Sonora River watershed is subdivided into six smaller watersheds.
Biotic communities found within the watershed in order of importance by the area covered are the Sinaloan thornscrub, the plains of Sonora subdivision, semidesert grasslands, the Madrean evergreen woodland, and the central gulf coast subdivision. Average annual precipitation is 375 millimetres (14.8 in) which occurs in two seasons, late summer-early fall and winter-early spring.
- Diego Valdez-Zamudio, Peter F. Ffolliott (2005). "Agroforestry Practices in the Sonora River Watershed, Mexico" (PDF). AFTA 2005 Conference Proceedings: 1–4. Retrieved 2011-11-22.
- D. E. Brown, C. H. Lowe (1994). A supplementary map to Biotic Communities: Southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press.
- Edgar Alexander Mearns (1907). Mammals of the Mexican boundary of the United States: A descriptive catalogue of the species of mammals occurring in that region; with a general summary of the natural history, and a list of trees. Government Printing Office. p. 359. Retrieved 2011-11-22.
- http://www.elbalero.gob.mx/kids/explora/html/sonora/orografia.html Sonora
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