Sony Computer Entertainment
Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. (SCEI; Japanese: 株式会社ソニー・コンピュータエンタテインメント) is a Japanese multinational video game company specializing in a variety of areas in the video game industry, and is a wholly owned subsidiary and part of the Consumer Products & Services Group of Sony. The company was established on November 16, 1993 in Tokyo, Japan, prior to the launch of the original PlayStation video game system.
Sony Computer Entertainment handles the research and development, production, and sales of both hardware and software for the PlayStation line of handheld and home console video game systems. It is also a developer and publisher of video game titles and is composed of several subsidiaries covering the company's largest markets: North America, Europe and Asia. SCE's largest workforce is in the United States and has 8,000 employees in more than 50 countries. The company as of March 31, 2015, has sold more than 458 million consoles.
- 1 History
- 2 Corporate affairs
- 3 Hardware
- 4 Software development studios
- 5 Owned franchises and properties
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
1993–2004: Establishment, PlayStation release, North American expansion
Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. (SCEI) was jointly established by Sony and its subsidiary Sony Music Entertainment Japan in 1993 to handle the company's ventures into the video game hardware market. The original PlayStation (PlayStation 1) console was released on December 3, 1994, in Japan.
The company's North American operations, Sony Computer Entertainment of America (SCEA), were originally established in May 1995 as a division of Sony Electronic Publishing. Located in Foster City, California, the North American office was originally headed by Steve Race.
In the months prior to the release of the PlayStation 1 console in Western markets, the operations were restructured: All videogame marketing from Sony Imagesoft was folded into SCEA in July 1995, with most affected employees transferred from Santa Monica, California, to Foster City. On August 7, 1995, Race unexpectedly resigned and was named CEO of Spectrum HoloByte three days later. He was replaced by Sony Electronics veteran Martin Homlish. The PS console was released in the United States on September 9, 1995.
As part of a worldwide restructuring at the beginning of 1997, SCEA (currently Sony Computer Entertainment America LLC) was re-established as a wholly owned subsidiary of SCEI.
The PlayStation Portable (PSP) was SCEI's first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE's E3 conference in 2003, and it was officially unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004. The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, and in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005.
2005–2011: SCE Worldwide Studios, Acquisitions, Restructure
On September 14, 2005, SCEI formed Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios (SCE WWS), a single internal entity to oversee all wholly owned development studios within SCEI. It became responsible for the creative and strategic direction of development and production of all computer entertainment software by all SCEI-owned studios—all software is produced exclusively for the PS family of consoles. Shuhei Yoshida was named as President of SCE WWS on May 16, 2008, replacing Kazuo Hirai, who was serving interim after Harrison left the company in early 2008.
On December 8, 2005, video game developer Guerrilla Games, developers of the Killzone series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On January 24, 2006 video game developer Zipper Interactive, developers of the Socom series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS.
In March 2006, Sony announced the online network for its forthcoming PlayStation 3 (PS3) system at the 2006 PlayStation Business Briefing meeting in Tokyo, Japan, tentatively named "PlayStation Network Platform" and eventually called just PlayStation Network (PSN). Sony also stated that the service would always be connected, free, and include multiplayer support.
The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, U.S., on May 8, 2006. The PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, and the U.S. date was November 17, 2006. The PSN was also launched in November 2006.
On November 30, 2006 President of SCEI, Ken Kutaragi, was appointed as Chairman of SCEI, while Hirai, then President of SCEA, was promoted to President of SCEI. On April 26, 2007, Ken Kutaragi resigned from his position as Chairman of SCEI and Group CEO, passing on his duties to the recently appointed President of SCE, Hirai.
On April 15, 2009, David Reeves, President and CEO of SCE Europe, announced his forthcoming resignation from his post. He had joined the company in 1995 and was appointed as Chairman of SCEE in 2003, and then President in 2005. His role of President and CEO of SCEE would be taken over by Andrew House, who joined Sony Corporation in 1990. The PSP Go was released on October 1, 2009, for North America and Europe, and on November 1, 2009, for Japan.
On April 1, 2010, SCEI was restructured to bring together Sony's mobile electronics and personal computers divisions. The main Japanese division of SCEI was temporarily renamed "SNE Platform Inc." (SNEP) on April 1, 2010, and was split into two divisions that focused on different aspects: "Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc.", consisting of 1,300 employees who focused on the console business, and the network service business consisting of 60 to 70 employees. The network service business of SCEI was absorbed into Sony Corp's Network Products & Service Group (NPSG), which had already been headed by Hirai since April 2009. The original SCEI was then dissolved after the restructure.
The North American and European branches of SCEI were affected by the restructure, and remained as SCEA and SCEE. Hirai, by that time SCEI CEO and Sony Corporation EVP, led both departments.
On March 2, 2010, video game developer Media Molecule, developers of the PlayStation 3 (PS3) game LittleBigPlanet, was acquired by SCEI as part of its SCE WWS. On August 23, 2010, the headquarters of the company moved from Minami-Aoyama to the Sony City (Sony Corporation's headquarters) in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.
On April 20, 2011, SCEI was the victim of an attack on its PlayStation Network system, which also affected its online division, Sony Online Entertainment. On August 1, 2011, video game developer Sucker Punch Productions, developers of the Sly Cooper and Infamous series, was also acquired.
2012–present: Restructuring, PlayStation 4, China expansion
On January 2012, BigBig Studios was closed and Cambridge Studio—renamed Guerrilla Cambridge—becoming a sister studio of Guerrilla Games. On March 2012, Zipper Interactive, developers of the SOCOM series, MAG and Unit 13, was closed. On June 25, 2012, Hirai retired as chairman of Sony Computer Entertainment; however, he remains on the board of directors.
A press release was published on August 20, 2013, announcing the release date of the PlayStation 4 (PS4) console. On that date, SCEI introduced the CUH-1000A series system, and announced the launch date as November 15, 2013, for North American markets and November 29, 2013, for European, Australian, New Zealand Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama and Peru markets.
Following a January 2014 announcement by the Chinese government that the country's 14-year game console ban would be lifted, the PS4 is scheduled to be the first Sony video game console to be officially and legally released in China since the PlayStation 2—the ban was enacted in 2000 to protect the mental health of young people.
On March 6, 2014, Sony Computer Entertainment of America President and CEO, Tretton, announced he was resigning from his position at the end of the month, citing a mutual agreement between himself and SCEA for the cessation of his contract. Tretton had worked at SCEA since 1995, and was a founding member of the company's executive team. He was involved in the launch of all PlayStation platforms in North America, including the PSone, PS2, PS Portable, PS3, PS Network, PS Vita, and PS4. Tretton was replaced by Shawn Layden, who was the vice-president and chief operating officer (COO) of Sony Network Entertainment International, effective April 1, 2014.
The beta version of Sony's first-ever cloud-based television service, PlayStation Vue (PSVue), was launched in the U.S. in November 2014. It was only offered on an invite-only basis for PS3 and PS4 users, prior to its official launch in early 2015. Sony signed deals with major networks, including CBS, Discovery, Fox and Viacom, so that users can view live streaming video, as well as catch up and on-demand content, from more than 75 channels, such as Comedy Central and Nickelodeon. Although pricing and release dates for other regions was not publicized, Sony confirmed that PSVue will eventually be available on iPad, followed by other Sony and non-Sony devices.
On January 26, 2016, Sony announced that effective April 1, 2016, Sony Computer Entertainment and Sony Network Entertainment International will be re-organized and replaced by a new, U.S.-based company, Sony Interactive Entertainment, LLC. Unlike SCE, Sony Interactive Entertainment will be based in San Mateo, California, and represent the entire PlayStation unit, regional subsidiaries, and its content operations. SIE will be led by Andrew House.
The President, and Group CEO of SCE is currently Andrew House, replacing Kaz Hirai, who himself had replaced longtime CEO Ken Kutaragi, also known as "The Father of the PlayStation". Kutaragi officially retired from his executive position at SCE on June 19, 2007, and now holds the title of Honorary Chairman at the company. Shawn Layden and Jim Ryan currently serve as President and CEO of Sony Computer Entertainment America and Sony Computer Entertainment Europe, respectively. In June 2011, it was announced that Kaz Hirai was to become Chairman of Sony Computer Entertainment and Andrew House to become President and Group CEO as of September 1, 2011.
SCE currently has three main headquarters around the world: Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo, Japan (Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. & Sony Computer Entertainment Japan Asia) which control operations in Asia; San Mateo, California, US (Sony Computer Entertainment America) which controls operations in North America; and London, United Kingdom (Sony Computer Entertainment Europe) which controls operations in Europe and Oceania. SCE also has smaller offices and distribution centers in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, US; Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Melbourne, Australia; and Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
SCE evaluates and approves games for its consoles. The process is more strict than for the Nintendo Seal of Quality, and developers submit game concepts to Sony early in the design process. Each SCE unit has its own evaluation process; SCEE, for example, approved Billy the Wizard for its consumers but SCEA did not. The company sometimes imposes additional restrictions, such as when it prohibited PlayStation 1 and 2 games from being ported to the PSP without 30% of content being new to the Sony console.
SCEI produces the PlayStation line of video game hardware that consists of consoles and handhelds. Sony's first wide home console release, the PlayStation (codenamed "PSX" during development, currently "PSone"), was initially designed to be a CD-ROM drive add-on for Nintendo's Super Nintendo Entertainment System (a.k.a. "Super Famicom" in Japan) video game console, in response to the Sega Mega-CD. When the prospect of releasing the system as an add-on dissolved, Sony redesigned the machine into a standalone unit.
The PlayStation was released in Japan on December 3, 1994 and later in North America on September 9, 1995. By the end of the PS console's 12-year production cycle, Sony registered sales of 102 million units.
SCE's second home console, the PlayStation 2 (PS2) was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, and later in North America and Europe in October and November 2000, respectively. The PS2 is powered by a proprietary central processing unit, the Emotion Engine, and was the first video game console to have DVD playback functionality included out of the box.
The PS2 consisted of a DVD drive and retailed in the U.S. for US$299. SCEI received heavy criticism after the launch of the PS2 due to the games released as part of the launch, difficulties that it presented for video game designers, and users who struggled to port Sega Dreamcast games to the system. However, despite these complaints, the PlayStation 2 received widespread support from third party developers throughout its lifespan on the market.
On December 28, 2012, Sony confirmed that it would cease production of the PS2 through a gradual process that started in Japan—the continuing popularity of the console in markets like Brazil and India meant that PS2 products would still be shipped, while games for the console were released in March 2013. Up until the beginning of December 2012, the PS2 was the best-selling home video game console in history, with a total of 153.68 million machines sold—it was eventually surpassed by the Nintendo DS console.
Writing for the ExtremeTech website at the end of 2012, James Plafke described the PS2 as revolutionary and proclaimed that the console "turn[ed] the gaming industry on its head":
Aside from being the “first” next-gen console, as well as providing many, many people with their first DVD player, the PlayStation 2 launched in something of a Golden Age of the non-PC gaming industry. Gaming tech was becoming extremely sophisticated ... Sony seemingly knew the exact route toward popularity, turning the console with the least powerful hardware of that generation into a juggernaut of success.
The PlayStation Portable (PSP) was SCEI's first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE's E3 conference in 2003, and it was officially unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004. The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, and in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005. The console has since seen two major redesigns, with new features including a smaller size, more internal memory, a better quality LCD screen and a lighter weight.
The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, U.S., on May 8, 2006.The PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, and the U.S. date was November 17, 2006. Technology journalists observed that Sony had followed what Microsoft did with the Xbox 360, and produced the PS3 in two versions: one with a 20GB hard drive and the other with a 60GB hard drive.
The PS3 utilizes a unique processing architecture, the Cell microprocessor, a proprietary technology developed by Sony in conjunction with Toshiba and IBM. The graphics processing unit, the RSX 'Reality Synthesizer', was co-developed by Nvidia and Sony. Several variations of the PS3 have been released, each with slight hardware and software differences, and each denoted by the varying size of the included hard disk drive.
The PSP Go was released on October 1, 2009, for North America and Europe, and on November 1, 2009, for Japan. It has a 3.8" LCD which slides up to reveal the main controls. The PSP Go is 45% lighter and 56% smaller than the original PSP and does not support UMD. The device supports Bluetooth and is completely digital, which means that all media must be downloaded or transferred to the device (16 GB of internal flash memory).
The PS Vita is the successor to the PlayStation Portable. It was released in Japan and other parts of Asia on December 17, 2011, and then in Europe, Australia and North America on February 22, 2012.
Internally, the Vita features a 4-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore processor and a 4-core SGX543MP4+ graphics processing unit, as well as LiveArea software as its main user interface, which succeeds the XrossMediaBar.
Described by Sony as a "next generation" console, the PS4 included features such as enhanced social capabilities, second-screen options involving devices like the handheld PlayStation Vita, a membership service and compatibility with the Twitch live streaming platform.
Following a January 2014 announcement by the Chinese government that the country's 14-year game console ban would be lifted, the PS4 is scheduled to be the first Sony video game console to be officially and legally released in China since the PlayStation 2—the ban was enacted in 2000 to protect the mental health of young people. Around 70 game developers, including Ubisoft and Koei, will service Chinese PlayStation users.
The Chinese release dates and price details were announced in early December, with January 11, 2015, confirmed by SCEI. The makers announced that both the PS4 and Vita consoles will be released in China, and the former's package will also consist of a 500GB hard drive and controller.
PlayStation 20th anniversary
The 20th anniversary of the original PS console was celebrated on December 6, 2014, with the release of a limited-edition, anniversary-edition PS4. The model was manufactured in the PS color scheme, and features the classic PS circle-cross-square-triangle symbols on its casing. The pre-order details for the 12,300 anniversary machine were delivered at the PlayStation Experience fan expo in Las Vegas, U.S.
Software development studios
Owned franchises and properties
- Ape Escape
- Aqua Vita
- Arc the Lad
- ATV Offroad Fury
- Baby Universe
- Beat Sketcher
- Beyond the Beyond
- Beyond: Two Souls
- Blade Dancer
- Blast Factor
- Boku no Natsuyasumi
- Bust a Groove
- C-12: Final Resistance
- Calling All Cars!
- Cardinal Syn
- Carnival Island
- Cash Guns Chaos
- Cart Kings
- Codename: Tenka
- Colony Wars
- Cool Boarders
- Crash Commando
- Crime Crackers
- DanceStar Party
- Dare to Fly
- Dark Cloud
- Dark Mist
- Dead Nation
- Demon's Souls
- Desi Adda
- Destiny of Spirits
- Destruction Derby
- Devil Dice
- Diggs Nightcrawler
- DJ: Decks & FX
- Dog's Life
- Doki-Doki Universe
- Downhill Domination
- Dropship: United Peace Force
- Dual Hearts
- Eat Them!
- Eight Days
- Elemental Gearbolt
- Enkaku Sōsa: Shinjitsu e no 23 Nichikan
- Escape Plan
- Everybody's Golf
- Everybody's Gone to the Rapture
- Everybody's Tennis
- Fat Princess
- Feel Ski
- Fired Up
- Freedom Wars
- Frobisher Says!
- Gangs of London
- Global Force: Shin Sentou Kokka
- God of War
- Gran Turismo
- Gravity Rush
- Grind Session
- Gunners Heaven
- GUNS UP!
- Heavenly Sword
- Hermie Hopperhead: Scrap Panic
- High Velocity Bowling
- Horizon: Zero Dawn
- Hustle Kings
- Intelligent Qube
- Jak and Daxter
- Jeanne d'Arc
- Jet Moto
- Jet X2O
- Jumping Flash!
- Jungle Party
- Kingdom of Paradise
- Kingsley's Adventure
- Kite Fight
- Kileak: The DNA Imperative
- Kula World
- Kung Fu Rider
- Legend of Legaia
- Linger in Shadows
- Little Deviants
- Mad Maestro!
- Medieval Moves
- Mister Mosquito
- MLB: The Show
- ModNation Racers
- Motor Toon Grand Prix
- Move Fitness
- Murasaki Baby
- My Street
- No Heroes Allowed
- Okage: Shadow King
- Omega Boost
- Open Me!
- Operation Creature Feature
- Ore no Ryouri
- Ore no Shikabane wo Koete Yuke/Oreshika
- Paint Park
- PaRappa the Rapper
- Patchwork Heroes
- Pet in TV
- PlayStation All-Stars
- PlayStation Home
- PlayStation Move Heroes
- PlayStation Vita Pets
- Project: Horned Owl
- Pursuit Force
- Rally Cross
- Rapid Racer
- Rapid Reload
- Ratchet & Clank
- Reality Fighters
- Retro Force
- Rise of the Kasai
- Rise to Honor
- Rogue Galaxy
- Rule of Rose
- Sagashi ni Ikouyo
- Savage Moon
- Shadow of the Colossus
- Shadow of the Beast
- Sky Diving
- Sly Cooper
- Smart As...
- Smart Ball
- Soul Sacrifice
- Sound Shapes
- Speed Freaks
- Sports Champions
- Start the Party!
- Steel Reign
- Super Rub 'a' Dub
- Super Stardust
- Syphon Filter
- Table Ice Hockey
- Table Top Tanks
- Team Buddies
- The Con
- The Eye of Judgment
- The Fight
- The Getaway
- The Hungry Horde
- The Last Guardian
- The Last Guy
- The Last of Us
- The Legend of Dragoon
- The Mark of Kri
- The Order: 1886
- The Playroom
- The Shoot
- The Tomorrow Children
- The Trials of Topoq
- The Unfinished Swan
- This Is Football
- Tokyo Jungle
- Top Darts
- Tori Emaki
- Toro Inoue
- Tourist Trophy
- Toy Home
- Trash Panic
- TV Superstars
- Twisted Metal
- UmJammer Lammy
- Unit 13
- Until Dawn
- Untold Legends
- War of the Monsters
- When Vikings Attack!
- White Knight Chronicles
- What Did I Do To Deserve This, My Lord?
- Wild Arms
- World Tour Soccer
- Yoake no Mariko
- List of video games published by Sony Computer Entertainment
- SCE Worldwide Studios
- Microsoft Studios
- Nintendo Worldwide Studios
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- Happy holidays from Guerrilla!. PlayStation.Blog.Europe
- Confirmed Sony Closes Zipper Interactive. IGN.com
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- Sony to Acquire Gaikai. IGN.com
- Sony closes WipEout developer Sony Liverpool. Eurogamer.net
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- Makuch, Eddie (March 6, 2014). "Veteran Playstation boss Jack Tretton to step down". GameSpot. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- Mic Wright (13 November 2014). "PlayStation Vue: Sony’s cloud TV service launches in the US this month". The Next Web. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
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- "TGS: Sony Reveals Vita's Release Date - PSP News at IGN". Psp.ign.com. 2011-09-14. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
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- "Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Introduces PlayStation®4" (Press release). Sony Computer Entertainment. February 20, 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- PS4 Launches in North America on November 15th, GamesCom Wrap-up. PlayStation.Blog.
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- PlayStation®4 Sales Surpass 5.3 Million Units Worldwide. Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. (Press Release)
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- Coming to PSN this Week: Patchwork Heroes. PlayStation.Blog
- Announcing Patchwork Heroes for PSP. PlayStation.Blog
- OPEN ME! for PS Vita Coming to North America. PlayStation.Blog
- The Future of Santa Monica Studio. PlayStation.Blog
- Entwined Announced, Out Now on PS4. PlayStation.Blog
- PlayStation GamesCom 2013 Press Conference (at 58:00). YouTube.com
- Sony XDev Europe. Official Site
- Worldwide Studios/XDev. XDev on Worldwidestudios.net
- Platformer Run Sackboy! Run! announced for PS Vita and mobile devices. PlayStation.Blog.Europe
- Control the undead in The Hungry Horde on PS Vita. PlayStation.Blog.Europe
- PS Vita's BigFest is also coming to PS4 and PS3. PlayStation.Blog.Europe
- Introducing WiLD a PS4 exclusive from Rayman creator Michel Ancel. PlayStation.Blog.Europe
- Naughty Dog Careers. Naughtydog.com
- Rob Wyatt | LinkedIn. Linkedin.com
- GUNS UP! Coming to PS4, PS3, PS Vita. PlayStation.Blog.
- Housemarque on Twitter. Twitter.com
- Hustle Kings is coming soon to PS4. PlayStation.Blog.Europe
- PS Vita's BigFest is also coming to PS4 and PS3. PlayStation.Blog.Europe.
- The Muppets Movie Adventures arrives on PS Vita this week. PlayStation.Blog.Europe
- PS Vita's BigFest is also coming to PS4 and PS3.PlayStation.Blog.Europe
- Coming to PSN this Week: Patchwork Heroes.PlayStation.Blog
- Introducing WiLD a PS4 exclusive from Rayman creator Michel Ancel.PlayStation.Blog.Europe
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