|Born||Sophia Bekele Eshete
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
|Alma mater||San Francisco State University (BSc.)
Golden Gate University (M.B.A.)
|Occupation||Business Women, Corporate Executive, International Entrepreneur, Corporate Governance specialist, Policy advisor, ICT & Governance Activist|
|Notable work||Ethiopian Parliament Bid, IDNs, .africa|
|Height||1.75 m (5 ft 9 in)|
|Parent(s)||Bekele Eshete, MuluAlem Beyene|
Sophia Bekele Eshete (Amharic: ሶፍያ በቀለ; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia) is a woman of Ethiopian ancestry. She is a business and corporate executive, an International entrepreneur, corporate governance and risk management specialist, international policy advisor on ICT, internet and development issues, a governance and ICT activist and philanthropist.
Bekele is well known in the Global ICT and Internet Society for her efforts to bridge the global digital divide through technology transfer and education. She is reputed to have stood in the gap for women and youth in Africa, and her well known efforts for due process have earned her a reputation as one to reposition Africa's social, economic and political landscape and restore Africa's glory. She has been frequently quoted in the media for her views, as well as spoken regularly on international forums and made public affairs commentary through published articles.
As a serial entrepreneur, Bekele has founded and run various companies and initiatives. She is the Founder and Executive Director of DotConnectAfrica (DCA) Trust based in Mauritius, and CEO of DCA Registry Systems Kenya (Ltd), organizations she has used to initiate the .africa Internet Top Level Domain Name from ICANN, and a project she used as a platform to launch initiatives for women and youth in Africa. Bekele is the Founder of the highly acclaimed and successful "Yes2dotAfrica" global awareness campaign, for re-branding Africa using the .africa internet domain name, the co-founder of Internet Society ISOC San Francisco chapter and the Pan African Internet Business council for Africa (IBCA), based in Nairobi. She is the Founder and CEO of tech start-ups, CBS International in California and SbCommunications Network (SbCnet) plc, based in Addis Ababa. In 2002, SbCNet was known for being successfully awarded a highly contentious bid for a government contract to build an integrated information network infrastructure for the Ethiopian Parliament. Prior to her focus on international technology issues, Bekele had maintained a successful career track record spanning over a decade of constant professional activity working for multinational Fortune 500 Companies.
Bekele has served on high-level policy advisory boards and leadership positions of various national and international, public and private organizations and has influenced the implementation of key policies, including Africa's digital divide, Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) and the new Domain name (.africa). Bekele was elected and served on numerous United Nations-sponsored initiatives, where she represented the private sector in discussions about ICT and the economic development of Africa. She was an elected member of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Council of the gNSO (Generic Names Supporting Organization), which advises on global internet policy. She was also elected for two terms to serve on the Golden Gate University’s alumni Board.
Early life and family
Born and raised in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, the third of six Children, Bekele is the daughter of Ato Bekele Eshete Wolde Michael, a prominent and successful entrepreneur engaged in various business sectors in the country, and a founder and Board Director of United Bank, S.C and United Insurance, S.C, one of the first and largest Private Banks and Insurance companies in Ethiopia and Sister Mulualem Beyene Engida, a medical nurse. She attended a private Catholic high school, and then traveled to the United States of America to acquire her higher education.
Bekele earned her Bachelor's Degree in Business Analysis and Information Systems from San Francisco State University and an MBA in the Management of Information Systems MIS from Golden Gate University. She is also a Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA), Certified Control Specialist (CCS), and Certified in the Governance of Enterprise IT (CGEIT), certifications issued to professionals who demonstrate competent knowledge & proficiency in the field of IS Audit, Security & Enterprise IT governance principles and practices.
In 2014, Sophia Bekele has been named "Top 20 Inspirational African Diaspora Professional Women in Europe" by ADIPWE List 2014, released on 28 March 2014 for the International Women's Day, as a TechEntrepreneur in technology Transfer; "a list of African Women who have achieved phenomenal success, and inspire a new generation of African Women to share ideas to fulfill their potential to contribute to the rebranding of Africa and the development of the continent, by identifying opportunities to transfer the vast amount of knowledge gained in Europe and the rest of the Diaspora".
In 2013, Bekele was named as one of the “two leading ladies in Africa’s ICT sector” by "Bloomberg TV" and enumerated in “African Women to Watch” a prime TV program, that “celebrates the most fearless, competitive and visionary African women of our time”, and explores “the women working hard to close the gender gap and shaping the continent’s social, political and economic landscape”.
Also in 2013, Bekele was named Top “50 Trailblazers – A future made in Africa”, by the influential UK’s NewAfrican Magazine, an IC Publications group, “Collector’s Edition” which coincides with the continent’s 50th anniversary celebrations of the African Union, as those “who are realizing significant achievements in their specific field of endeavor” and features individuals who are “breaking ground, making Africa proud and propelling it into a future of great hope.”
In 2005, Bekele was presented with a Paul Harris Fellow award for her contributions in the various works of International Rotary Clubs.
In 2006, Ms. Bekele's work in Africa, noted as a representative entrepreneur, was profiled in a book published as "Africa: Continent of Economic Opportunity", By Fick, David (2006). Africa: Continent of Economic Opportunity (Paperback). STE Publishers. pp. 512 pages. ISBN 978-1-919855-59-2. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
Bekele started out as a young MBA, and is now an international entrepreneur who has built a successful career track record in fields that are traditionally male-dominated. Bekele was recruited out of college by Bank of America and started her career in IT Auditing and Information Security, a highly specialized field and highly male dominated at the time. She then moved on advancing her career in Corporate Governance and risk management to hold managerial positions with UnionBanCal Corporation and PriceWaterhouseCoopers.
Currently Bekele travels with her work globally, while coordinating the work of her different offices in Nairobi and Mauritius in Africa, as well as Walnut Creek, California, USA where she has been a resident for nearly two decades; first while pursuing her undergraduate and graduate studies, and a business career in Information Technology, especially in the areas of corporate governance, Internet security and policy development, at the same time, running her entrepreneurship work in Addis Ababa, where she has a firm business base and family.
In early 2000, Ms. Bekele broke off from her Corporate Career to focus on international technology issues and Third-World technological development using Africa as a base model. Most of Ms. Bekele's work in these years has been associated with CBS International, a company she founded and served as President and Chief Executive Officer. CBS International is a California-based consulting company with focus on, technology transfer to emerging markets. Primarily, the Company provided International technology procurement, project-based capacity building, technological project management, internet/intranet systems integration and Internet related solutions. As an affiliate, Bekele set up SbCommunications Network, plc, (SbCnet), based in Addis Ababa, specializing in technology integration and support services. Bekele was interested to do nation building projects that have high impact and yield to benefit society. Through her companies, she expressed interest and participated and won international contracts for large scale projects such as the information technology infrastructure for the Organization of African Unity (AU) General Secretariat and an integrated data networking infrastructure for the Ethiopian parliament, House of Peoples’ Representatives and House of Federation. The AU project was an e-government Internet-working project initiative, sponsored by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) involving the implementation of a complex fiber-optic based information technology campus wide area network infrastructure and considered one of the largest IT projects in the Country at the time. CBS International handled technological inputs and services procurement while SbCnet provided strategic technology integration services and field management and successfully commissioned the project
The Parliament project was also an e-government internet initiative funded by a consortium of donor agencies. This project received significant local media coverage because of Bekele’s public challenge to what she considered an unfair procurement process, a challenge which she fought single-handedly and ultimately won, making it a precedent setting bid reversal case on a major government contract. She appealed through the General Auditor's office of the country over a nine-month period, and the investigations declared the project award improper Bekele believes her stand helped promote transparency and accountability in the government contracting process at the time, also vindicating her and her company. In this project, her company SbCnet was the Prime Contractor and handled all front-line liaison and project services delivery to the Parliament and worked closely with its foreign partners CBS International, USA, and a South African company Dimension Data Holdings.
Bekele later on also challenged the private sector over her views of what turned out to be the illegitimate formation of a Stock Exchange in Addis Ababa. She wrote an editorial claiming that this entity was planned without the proper rules, regulations, infrastructure and controls. To her vindication, the government eventually rejected the proposal for the share dealing group in November 2002. As a follow-up, though there was no direct link with Bekele, in April 2008 the Ethiopian government launched a commodities exchange market, aimed at boosting fair trade and stabilizing its food market.
In 2004, Bekele shifted her focus back to the US to meet the challenges arising from the major corporate governance scandals in the US, such as Enron and WorldCom, therefore, repositioning herself and her California Company to advise US based Clients in public/private markets, primarily in Corporate Governance and Risk Management areas, including Sarbanes-Oxley ACT, and corporate relations/communications programs. She built clients such as Intel Corp. (Nasdaq), Genetech, BDO Sieldman LLP, Federal Reserve Bank, OnScreen Technologies, (OTC), and the like.
International Domain Names (IDNs)
During her tenure at ICANN from 2005-2007, and her service to the Council of the GNSO (Generic Names Supporting Organization), Bekele was instrumental in initiating policy dialogue over IDNs as well as developing the framework for leading a language group. Bekele led an active campaign to introduce IDNs under which new Internet Domain names in Arabic, Cyrillic, Russian, Chinese and non-Latin alphabets will become available, thereby providing non-English/non-Latin language native speakers an opportunity to access and communicate on the Internet in their native languages. She forged to form an IDN working group within ICANN to bring the global voices of the IDN stakeholders to ICANN. Bekele was then nominated to chair ICANN’s IDN Working Group at gNSO and was highly influential in drafting the IDN policy guidelines. As a result, Bekele was credited for successfully championing the inclusion of the global IDN community within this policy dialogue and championing the work of IDNs at ICANN. This global IDN group, which later on organized itself as the International Domain Resolution Union (IDRU) gave a testimonial to Bekele's work over IDNs. The IDNs are now introduced by ICANN under the auspices of the current new GTLD program.
In 2006 Bekele turned her focus to .africa – a new generic Top-Level Domain (gTLD) for the Africa geographic name that she also championed during her appointment at ICANN. The project has been introduced and will be delegated for operation under ICANN’s new gTLD program. ICANN is a U.S.-based non-profit organization that is overseeing the global Internet expansion project to introduce new generic Top-Level Domain Names (gTLDs) under the new gTLD Program.
Bekele started the DotAfrica initiative following the important experiences gained from her ICT Service delivery in Africa and the work as gNSO advisor to ICANN. The gNSO is a policy advisory body which advises the ICANN Board on global public policies that guide the development of the Internet, including the gTLD policy and processes affecting such TLDs as .asia, .com, .net, .org and the policy development work on new gTLD (generic Top Level Domain names). Bekele made a clear case for a DotAfrica (.africa) gTLD for Africa within ICANN and also the global Internet Community on behalf of the global African and Pan-African constituency. Her personal dream for the DotAfrica initiative that she is leading is, to deploy the new domain name as a positive branding opportunity for Africa, that will benefit all Africans and in the use of technology to power their businesses, and to also realize certain charitable projects aimed at giving back to the community such as the miss .africa and the generation .africa program that her organization has already initiated to empower girls and young people in Africa in the field of technology. She soon led the .africa initiative under a new start-up DotConnectAfrica (DCA) introducing it to the Pan-African inter-governmental organizations – the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa UNECA and the African Union Commission (AUC) and received endorsement for DCA respectively. Other entities that also gave endorsement for DCA include the IDRU group and the Corporate Council for Africa (CCA) and various African Governments.
Bekele then launched a global promotional campaign establishing DCA as lead and spearheading the .africa project under a Yes2dotAfrica Campaign. The campaigns involved the first ever global multilingual (English, French, Arabic) social media infrastructure to promote .africa, .afrique and .afriqia. Bekele received ample media coverage for her work on .africa including honorary mention by The New African Magazine as one of Top 50 African Trailblazers for a successful Six Year "yes2dotaAfrica global Campaign Bloomberg TV covering her .africa work, Enterprise Technology Magazine named her "Sophia Bekele: Champion of .africa initiative" Diplomat East Africa inscribed her "Brains behind .africa." CIO East Africa calling her views "controversial" on who should run gTLDs', said "Sophia Bekele has been in the news if not for promoting DotConnectAfrica’s bid for the DotAfrica geographical gTLD for the past three years, then in a controversial statement about the same":
DotConnectAfrica Trust - Bekele currently oversees the .africa new gTLD initiative under the DotConnectAfrica Trust, a non-profit, non partisan organization. As Executive Director of DCA Trust & CEO of DotConnectAfrica Registry Services Limited (Kenya), she has led a multi-national team of experts to prepare and submit an application for the DotAfrica (.AFRICA) generic Top-Level Domain in May 2012 to the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). She is also overseeing the women and youth initiatives she has launched under the same platform.
Bekele has been very active in the Internet Domain Name Service (DNS) Industry since 2005, when she was initially elected as the first African to serve on the gNSO of ICANN. She has been on various forums discussing and presenting the DNS Industry and its benefits to Africa under the Multi-Stakeholder Internet Governance (MIG) Framework. It was this experience that made her become fully enmeshed in the work of Global Internet Governance and multi-stakeholder advocacy that led her to where she is now: leading a new generic Top-Level Domain (gTLD) initiative as one of the applicants contending for the .africa generic Top-Level Domain
Bekele's eight year .africa journey was not without a trial. She has fought many challenges by her opponents over the issues of accountability and transparency on the bid for .africa, including the African Union Commission(AUC). For instance, in April 24, 2014, during the International ICT Girls day, the AUC blocked Bekele from speaking at an ITU event that was held on the AUC premises in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, due to a dispute over the .africa. Bekele has been challenging the AUC, who allegedly disavowed the first endorsement they gave her organization DotConnectAfrica in 2009 to apply at ICANN for the .africa gTLD, to subsequently request for the same directly from ICANN, at the ICANN 42 International meeting held in Dakar Senegal from 23–28 October 2011. AUC requested from ICANN to include all similar name strings ".africa", ".afrique" and ".afriqia", in the list of "reserved names", to afford special legislative protection to the AUC to own these strings so as to make it unavailable to anyone, through a method of bypassing the formal application process of the ICANN's new generic top level domains (gTLDs). Bekele strongly opposed to the AUC's request to reserve the names saying the request was against the ICANN gTLD rule book, thus reserving the name will disqualify all competition to enable the AUC to separately negotiate the delegation of these name strings under a separate process outside the aegis of the official ICANN new gTLD programme. Bekele came victorious on this battle at ICANN Dakar, as it became known later that ICANN could not reserve the names for the AU, however ICANN did recommend to the AUC to use Government Advisory Committee to raise concerns that an applicant is seen as potentially sensitive or problematic, or to provide direct advice to the Board, so as to change the outcome of the gTLD. which AUC implemented the advice during the GAC objection period, to the detriment of DCA's application.
In addition, failing to secure the reserve names, the AUC then directly endorsed another firm from SouthAfrica to apply to ICANN, who was also supported by its own AU Dotafrica Task Force. According to the public part of their application, the South African company submitted a "non-community" application to ICANN naming AUC as a “co-applicant” and giving the .africa registry and intellectual property rights to the AUC in a separate contract Bekele's organization then challenged the ICANN application process for the competition, through the official channels of ICANN, as well as challenged the AUC's RFP process that gave a direct endorsement for the SouthAfrican company by requesting full disclosure of the process with the AU leadership and ICANN Governmental Committee, in the interest of accountability and transparency to the global public at large
Seeking global external support: Having no affirmative response either from ICANN nor the AUC, in October 2013, Bekele's company DotConnectAfrica Trust filed for an independent review panel process ('DCA Trust vs. ICANN') at the International Dispute Resolution Procedures (ICDR) in New York, to investigate these issues over matters of .africa, as ICANN did not allow further processing of DCA's application due to Governmental objections, despite DCA's passing on all financial, technical and operational evaluated criteria. In February 2013, Bekele had written an open letter to the United States Congress who gave final approval for the new gTLD program to ICANN, to escalate DotConnectAfrica’s complaints and grievances and appealed for a congressional Ombudsman that would look into any irregularities and any allegations of illegality regarding the implementation of the new gTLD program.
In June 2014, at the ICANN International Meeting in London, while the independent review process of the .africa gTLD was proceeding, and in response to the announcement of ICANN NTIA transition, however a separate process, ICANN’s Generic Names Supporting Organization (gNSO) made an unprecedented move to unanimously endorse a joint statement in support of the creation of an independent accountability mechanism, which vindicated Bekele's efforts. She responded in an open commentary thanking the gNSO group for their work and urged them to continue to be vigilant, and leave no stones unturned to make sure that ICANN decision makers are held accountable in their decision makings.
Sophia was also vocal on the debate about the March 2014 National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) announcement of intent to transition key Internet Domain Name function oversight from US to a non-governmental body and wrote a public commentary vindicating her engagement with US Congress, and further advising "Therefore, I wish to call for the establishment of such a new body that will work in cooperation with the NTIA to exercise supervisory responsibilities over ICANN". Her comments relate to the issues that surround ICANN’s accountability and transparency that have been lacking in its own processes. She notes that the US Exceptionalism should be reconsidered in this regard to protect foreign governments from interfering, and if ICANN is defending its transition based on this principle, thus arguing in an another public commentary in that there is "No legal basis for IANA transition" in the post-mortem analysis of the Senate Committee hearing that took place on Feb 25 2015 
ln the interim, The DCA Vs ICANN IRP case overseen by the constituted .africa International Tribunal issued various key procedural rulings which has been a victory for DCA including a temporary injunction award to DCA against ICANN, which ruled "ICANN must immediately refrain from any further processing of any application for .africa until this Panel has heard the merits of DCA’s Trust Notice of Independent Review Process and issued its final decision regarding the same" 
The IRP Tribunal also accepted DotConnectAfrica’s position on the procedural framework  of the IRP proceedings thereby adopting it as a way in which the IRP would be. Several other key requests by ICANN to role back original declarations of Tribunal under the newly constituted panel was overturned by the Tribunal including no revisiting of its August 2014 declaration  in particular, to the case of hearing witnesses  therefore, the tribunal requiring all the witnesses to testify in final hearing 
Win over DCA Trust vs. ICANN IRP: On 9 July 2015, the .Africa IRP International Tribunal in its final declaration ruled that DCA Trust, the organization founded by Ms. Bekele was the prevailing party, which vindicated her efforts and her company. The Tribunal also recommended that ICANN continue to refrain from delegating the .AFRICA gTLD and permit DCA Trust’s application to proceed through the remainder of the new gTLD application process. The Tribunal further declared that ICANN is to bear, pursuant to Article IV, Section 3, paragraph 18 of the Bylaws, Article 11 of Supplementary Procedures and Article 31 of the ICDR Rules, the totality of the costs of this IRP and the totality of the costs of the IRP Provider.
The ruling of the .Africa IRP Tribunal which DCA Trust prevailed against ICANN has also received lot of media coverage given its precedential value.
Board and public service
With the registered successes in ICT project delivery in Africa, Ms. Bekele was invited to serve as an adviser on various UN led initiative advisory boards and committees. In 2002, Ms. Bekele was appointed by H.E. K.Y. Amoako, then Executive Secretary and UN under Secretary General of United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), as an expert advisor to serve on the Advisory Technical Committee (ATAC) of UNICT Task-force, sponsored by UNECA. The ATAC formulated policy and recommendation and provided technical guidance and direction on the implementation especially on how to bridge the digital divide between the developed countries and Africa. In her tenure at ATAC, Bekele co-authored the ‘Common Position for Africa’s Digital Inclusion’ which was developed in response to the UNECA Conference of Minister’s Resolution 812 (XXXI). The ‘Common Position’ was a blueprint that reflected Africa’s ICT position which was communicated to various global forums such as the G8 DOT Force, ECOSOC, the UN Task Force, World Economic Forum, NEPAD initiatives, etc. In 2003, Bekele was elected to serve as the East African Representative to the African Regional Network (ARN), a UN led initiative. Following such, in 2009, she has also served on the Global Alliance for Information and Communication Technologies and Development (UNGAID), an initiative started by the former United Nations Secretary-General, and the Chairmanship of Intel’s CEO Craig Barret. Also in 2009, she served as an expert adviser to the joint initiative of United Nations Public Administration Network and International Telecommunications Union (UNPAN/ITU) where she was representing the private sector in discussions about Public Private Partnerships (PPP), e-government and MDG implementation. She has since used these identifying frameworks for other ICT projects and Internet-Centered activities that are geared towards building a 21st-century e-enabled information and knowledge driven society in Africa.
In 2005, Ms. Bekele was elected member of the ICANN's Council of the GNSO (Generic Names Supporting Organization), by the NomCom, under the then Chairmanship of Dr. Vinton Cerf. The gNSO is a policy advisory body which advises the ICANN Board on global internet policy and the policy development work on new gTLDs. During her term at ICANN, she championed the IDN Policy Dialog for the international community. Concurrently, Bekele initiated the first African-run Registry for a .africa TLD, and run a successful 6-year “Yes2dotAfrica” global awareness campaign.
In 2007 Ms. Bekele was elected and served for two tenures as Alumni Board member of Golden Gate University. In 2008, Bekele co-founded the Internet Society Chapter (ISOC) San Francisco Bay, and was elected to serve as its Executive Board Member Bekele was a former Board Member of ISACA (Information Systems and Control Association), and a current steering committee member of the World Affairs Council, Contra Costa, California. Over the years, Bekele has also served as International Ambassador to various Rotary Clubs where she has earned recognition of a Paul Harris Fellow for her contributions.
Other work and ventures
Ms. Bekele is involved in public affairs commentary and continues to write articles on various subjects that is of current events that have been published in different newspapers, journals and Internet web sites. The media has also frequently sought her views in her area of expertise.
Bekele has spoken in many international conferences, lectures and forums throughout her career on a range of subjects including, Corporate Governance, Internet policy, technology for Development, the global economy, African Affairs, Entrepreneurship and Start-ups, IT Audit and online security, as well as women and youth.
To mention but few, Bekele has delivered a KeyNote Address "Standing on the Shoulder of Giants" at the New York 2014 CUNY Young African Leadership Symposium YALS; "Digital Innovation in Africa" and a high level panel on “US-Africa Relations" at the New York Africa Summit in Gabon; "Bridging the Gender GAP" for ITUs International Girls day event in Addis Ababa; "Africa:Economic Development Through Technology" at Yale University, USA; "How to build a Top Level Domain Community" in Munich, Germany; KeyNote at the "Launch of the DotAfrica East African campaign"- AITEC East Africa Summit" "Public Private Partnership" sponsored by UNDESA and ITU World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) forum in Geneva; "Internet Governance-The Policy Divide" at Golden Gate University in San Francisco; "Role of the United Nations in supporting efforts to promote digital opportunity, in particular in Africa and the least developed countries" United Nations General Assembly high-level meeting on ICT in New York on ICT; "Connecting Africa through Information Networks" International Telecommunication Union (ITU's) “ConnectAfrica” Heads of State submit in Kigali Rwanda; Panel discussion on "How to build successful start-ups- Featuring people that have made great impact" Stanford Women in Business in California, alongside founders and executives of Pandora, YouTube, Gmail and Yahoo where the work of her company, CBS International was credited for "bringing powerful advanced information technology to the developing world with long-standing initiatives to bring the internet to Africa. and Rebranding Africa with African Leadership Retreat in South Africa
Bekele's International work have appeared on various leading TV and radio programs in Africa, the US and International, including but not limited to Bloomberg TV Africa program on "African Women to Watch" CNN discussing her "Yes2dotAfrica" campaign in Dakar Senegal, Africa 7 TV Channel on "Women in Charge" in Senegal and Nation Television (NTV) on "doing Business in Africa", as well as Kenya's leading TV station K24's Capital Talk "Movers and Shakers of Africa" KASS Media International, Radio Netherland's WorldWide Mobile banking:"Africa’s next revolution" a DotAfrica generation soon to be born; Startup Success Radio in the US; and on A4 Media Pan-African lifestyle TV program, "The Scoop" presenting her as "Serial entrepreneur, ICT Activist & Fondly referred to as "AddisHilton"
- Mary-Jane Wagle; Betel Bekele (August 2012). "Ethiopian Women Unleashed: Sophia Bekele Eshete". Profile. Retrieved Feb 17, 2013.
- Innov8tiv, Felix Omondi (Feb 26, 2014). "Fem Bosses: Sophia Bekele – Executive Director & Founder of DotConnectAfrica". Business Profile. Retrieved Feb 28, 2014.
- KonnectAfrica, Lovelyn Okafor (July 24, 2014). "Sophia Bekele-Eshete: Restructuring Africa’s Social, Political and Economic Landscape". Business Magazine. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- African Brains, Marc Mcilhone (April 3, 2014). "ADIPWE 2014 Top 20 inspirational women". Business Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- Bloomberg TV Africa (Nov 26, 2013). ""African Women to Watch" - Sophia Bekele on Bloomberg TV". Retrieved Nov 24, 2013.
- CircleId, Reporter (Nov 29, 2013). ""African Women to Watch" - Sophia Bekele on Bloomberg TV". Retrieved Nov 30, 2013.
- DomainNewsAfrica, Evans Taylor (Nov 30, 2013). "Sophia Bekele – Leading Change in Africa". Internet News. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- US-Africa Gateway, Tessema Christos (December 2013). "African Women in Technology". ICT News. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- NewAfrican Magazine, Belinda Otis (May 2013). "Top "50 African Trailblazers", Africa Leadership Network". Business Magazine. p. 58. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- Tech Moran, Sam Wakoba (July 11, 2013). "Sophia Bekele & Barrack Obama Named Top "50 African Trailblazers" By UK’s NewAfrican Magazine". Retrieved Feb 12, 2013.
- AllAfrica, Editor (May 24, 2013). "Africa: DotConnectAfrica's Sophia Bekele Named One of 50 African Trailblazers by NewAfrican Magazine". Retrieved Feb 12, 2013.
- Eish Online, Neema (Jul 11, 2013). "Sophia Bekele Named African Trailblazer". Internet News. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- Kay Kauffman (2010). "Prodigal Prodigy- Golden Gate University Alumni Magazine" (PDF). University Journal. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- The Reporter Daily (April 6, 2013). "An Ethiopian woman fighting for .africa, a new generic Top-Level Domain". Retrieved Feb 14, 2014.
- Bertha Kang'ong'oi (May 27, 2010). "Uniting Africa through IT". The Daily Nation. Retrieved Oct 23, 2013.
- The Capital (Aug 5, 2001). "CBS wins OAU’s largest IT project Part I". Business Journal. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- The Capital (Aug 5, 2001). "CBS wins OAU’s largest IT project Part II". Business Journal. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- NewAfrican Magazine (June 2013). "Recommendation for the work performed for the then OAU by Sophia Bekele's organizations by former Sierra Leonean Ambassador to Ethiopia" (PDF). Business Journal. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- The Fortune, Mary Dejene (Aug 5, 2001). "Auditor says Parliament project award improper" (PDF). Business Journal. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- IPSOS Synovate Kenya (Aug 23, 2013). "DCA's Sophia Bekele named among"50 African Trailblazers" by NewAfrican Magazine" (PDF). Business Journal. Retrieved Feb 18, 2014.
- Fortune Weekly Ethiopia, Sophia Bekele (Feb 20, 2002). "Share Dealing Group v s Stock Exchange", on standards of financial discipline" (PDF). Business Journal. Retrieved Nov 24, 2013.
- ICANN Wiki, Editor (September 2013). "Sophia Bekele ICANN Wiki". Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- The Register, Cade Metz (Nov 16, 2007). "ICANN speeds IDN ccTLDs". Policy. Retrieved Feb 28, 2014.
- CNET, Lance Whitney (Oct 30, 2009). "ICANN approves non-Latin domain names". ICT Journal. Retrieved Feb 28, 2014.
- The Domains, Michael Berkens (Oct 21, 2013). "First 4 New gTLD’s (ALL IDN’s) Cleared By ICANN To Go To Delegation". ICT Journal. Retrieved Feb 28, 2014.
- Domainmonster, Editor (Nov 9, 2011). "Africa Gears Up for .Africa Application". Domain Editorials. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- The East African, Michael Ouma (March 22, 2010). "Announcing the birth of the dot.africa generation". Business Editorials. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- Daily nation, Joy Wanja (March 29, 2010). "Search on for African domain". Smart Company. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- United Domains, Editor (Nov 2010). ".AFRICA resonates:Breaking Down Boundaries". New gTLD News. Retrieved Feb 14, 2014.
- United Domains, Kate E. Hutchinson (Mar 6, 2012). "New gTLD News: Connecting a Continent with .AFRICA". Weekly Reader. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- Agano Consulting, Summit programme (Sep 7, 2010). "Lead speaker Sophia Bekele at the "Launch of the Dot Africa East African campaign"- AITEC EAst Africa Summit" (PDF). New gTLD News. Retrieved Feb 14, 2014.
- ICANN (Nov 4, 2005). "Nominating Committee Announces Final Selections for Key Leadership Positions within ICANN". ICANN. Retrieved Sep 5, 2012.
- ICANN (2005). "GNSO Activities". ICANN. Retrieved 2012.
- ICANN (Jan 18, 2011). "Open Letter for NITA-A preliminary case for an urgent need for .africa gTLD" (PDF). Open Letter. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- ICANN (Jun 25, 2008). "ICANN Public Forum,". Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- Amglobal, Andrew Mack (Sep 7, 2007). "In a world of .com and .org, why not .Africa?". Andys Global View. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- Name Talent, Mike Law (Dec 7, 2009). "DotConnectAfrica Preparing to Launch .Africa". Domain News. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- RNW Africa Desk (Mar 22, 2010). "A DotAfrica generation soon to be born". Domain News. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- BCNN5 (Apr 26, 2010). "Conference to Discuss .africa Domain Space". Domain News. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- Startup Success Podcast, Editor (Jun 14, 2011). "Show #111:Bob and Pat talk with Sophia Bekele, Executive Director of DotConnect Africa". Radio Interview. Retrieved Feb 18, 2014.
- ICANN Wiki, Editor (2013). "DotConnectAfrica". Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- The Standard, Fredrick Obura (Jun 25, 2012). "Safaricom readies to host Africa domain". Internet News. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- Ethiopian News, Solomon D. (Mar 27, 2010). "Africa: Heralding the birth of dot.africa generation". Technology News. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- Africa Business Source, Staff Writer (Mar 28, 2010). "African Businesses Hope to see Boost from Internet Advances". Technology Journal. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- Diplomat East Africa, Jane Mwangi (Oct 2010). "Towards a Digital Africa – Diplomat East Africa Pg 42". Business Journal. p. 42. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- Balancing Act Africa, Editor (Dec 17, 2010). "The International Domain Resolution Union has endorsed the dotafrica project for DotConnectAfrica". Internet News. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- The Zambian, Brenda Zulu (Feb 5, 2011). "DotConnectAfrica endorsed by Corporate Council on Africa (CCA)". Technology Journal. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- VOA, Nick Loomis (Oct 27, 2011). "Bids Open for '.africa' Internet Domain Name". Africa ICT Journal. Retrieved Feb 24, 2014.
- Bizcommunity, Carole Kimutai (Sep 10, 2010). "Dot Africa campaign to brand continent". Business Journal. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- Constant Contact (2010). "Taking Africa to the Promised land!....one Country at a time!!". Press Campaign. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- ICT Creatives, Joyce Tonda (Nov 30, 2011). "Sophia Bekele, Ethiopian champion of the dot africa \initiative". Enterprise Technology. Retrieved Jun 2, 2012.
- CIO East Africa, Staff Writer (Sep 12, 2012). "Governments have no roles in gTLDs". CIO East Africa. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
- AllAfrica, Editor (Feb 18, 2010). "African Union endorses the domain name ".Africa" to DotConnectAfrica Organization". ICT News. Retrieved Feb 18, 2014.
- CIO East Africa, Dan Muhuni (Jun 13, 2012). "Kenya is set to house the DOTAfrica (.africa) Domain". Business Editorial. Retrieved Feb 18, 2014.
- ICANN (June 13, 2012). "ICANN New gTLDs - Application Details". ICANN. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Cameroon Web News, Editor (Dec 20, 2012). "Internet Infrastructure: DotConnectAfrica Participates in ICANN Lottery Draw Ranking 1005 for .africa – A Historic Milestone". Domain News. Retrieved Feb 19, 2014.
- Senegal TV (Nov 8, 2011). "DCA Defends its Opposition to the Experts Meeting Agenda of the DotAfrica Task Force". TV Interview. Retrieved Feb 24, 2014.
- The East African, Mwaura Kimani (Dec 5, 2011). "Internet war: Scramble for .africa domain as January deadline looms". Technology News. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- The Reporter Daily, Staff Writer (Aug 24, 2013). "A delayed evaluation "pass" score for .Africa competition". Technology Journal. Retrieved Feb 24, 2014.
- TandaaBiashara, Alex Reece (Jun 13, 2013). "DotConnectAfrica Confident of Win Despite New gTLD Program Committee resolutions on .africa". technology Journal. Retrieved Feb 24, 2014.
- CircleId, Editor (Sep 6, 2013). "DotConnectAfrica Refuses to Withdraw its Application for .Africa before Accountability Hearing". Retrieved Feb 24, 2014.
- CirleID, Editor (Oct 24, 2014). "The "ICANN Africa Strategy" Is Not the Same as the 'African Agenda'". Retrieved Feb 24, 2014.
- DomainNewsAfrica, Editor (Jan 4, 2013). "LERATO MA – Joan of Arc of .africa: A case of anonymity and not a fake identity". Technology News. Retrieved Feb 25, 2014.
- CIO East Africa, Michael Ouma (April 27, 2014). "AUC blocks Sophia Bekele from ITU event over DotAfrica dispute". Technology News. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- All Africa, Editor (April 27, 2014). "Kenya: AUC Blocks Sophia Bekele From ITU Event Over Dotafrica Dispute". Technology Journal. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- Internet Law Center Cyber Report (April 28, 2014). "Why is ICANN awarding .africa to African Union?". Technology News. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- Israel Foreign Affairs (April 28, 2014). "Kenya: AUC Blocks Sophia Bekele From ITU Event Over Dotafrica Dispute". Technology News. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- "African domain gets a nod". ITWeb Online. August 12, 2010. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
- The Human IPO (April 27, 2012). "Guest Post: Who deserves control of .africa gTLD?". Technology News. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- CircleID, Sophia Bekele (Oct 24, 2012). "The "ICANN Africa Strategy" Is Not the Same as the 'African Agenda'". Technology News. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- CircleID, Sophia Bekele (March 8, 2012). "Steve Crocker to Elham M.A. Ibrahim". ICANN. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- "GAC Early Warning 1-1165-42560" (PDF). ICANN. November 20, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
- CircleID, Sophia Bekele (April 2012). "Application ID: 1-1243-89583, ZA Central Registry NPC trading as Registry.Africa". ICANN. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- The Reporter Daily (Oct 24, 2013). "DCA Trust raises ethical questions, writes to newly elected African Union Leaders on .africa debacle". Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- Aptantech, Michael Ouma (March 8, 2012). "DCA challenges Africa Union on full disclosure over (dot)Africa gTLD matters". Technology Journal. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- ICANN (Jan 10, 2014). "Independent Review Process: DCA Trust v. ICANN". IRP. Retrieved Feb 24, 2014.
- DomainingAfrica, Brent Donald (Mar 1, 2013). "US-Congress receives request from DotConnectAfrica for a new gTLD Ombudsman to investigate and report on the existing illegality and irregularities on .africa". Domains. Retrieved Mar 6, 2014.
- CircleId, Philip S. Corwin (June 28, 2014). "GNSO Constituencies Issue Unanimous Joint Statement on ICANN Accountability". Internet Governance. Retrieved Sep 16, 2014.
- CircleId,Sophia Bekele (July 14, 2014). "Thank You GNSO - From the SHE.africa". Internet Governance. Retrieved Sep 16, 2014.
- "Congress Will Oversight ICANN: And You Can Take That to the Bank". Circleid. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
- "Wikileaks 2012, NSA 2013, NTIA Mishaps & Global Cyber Crime 2014: U.S. Exceptionalism over IG 2015?". Circleid. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
- ""No legal basis for IANA transition": A post-mortem analysis of Senate Committee hearing". CIO. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
- "DCA Trust wins first round against ICANN in injunction on DotAfrica domain". CIO East Africa, Michael Ouma. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- "dotAfrica launch further delayed by DotConnectAfrica injunction". Human IPO. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- "DCA Receives an Injunction It Requested in Its IRP Proceedings". CircleID. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- "Breaking: DotConnectAfrica wins .africa injunction against ICANN in first new gTLD IRP case". Domain News Africa. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- "Africa: DCA Trust Wins First Round Against Icann in Injunction On Dotafrica Domain". All Africa. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- "Tribunal freezes ICANN processing on .africa: Independent Review Panel Rules in favor of DotConnectAfrica". Tandaabiashara. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- "IRP Panel’s Declaration of the IRP Procedure" (PDF). ICANN. Retrieved Nov 10, 2014.
- "Panel accepts DCA’s position on procedural framework on DotAfrica IRP". ICANN. Retrieved Nov 10, 2014.
- "Africa: Panel accepts DCA’s position on procedural framework on DotAfrica IRP". All Africa. Retrieved Nov 10, 2014.
- "IRP Panel’s Declaration of the IRP Procedure in the case of DotConnect Africa Trust vs ICANN". TheDomains. Retrieved Nov 10, 2014.
- "IRP Panel’s Declaration of the IRP Procedure Panel interprets Declarations as binding on the .Africa IRP, Lectures ICANN on core accountability implications". Domainingafrica. Retrieved Nov 10, 2014.
- "DotConnectAfrica Update: IRP Panel Rules to Accept DCA's Position On Procedural Framework". NewsGtlds. Retrieved Nov 10, 2014.
- "Letter from ICANN to IRP Panel" (PDF). ICANN. Retrieved Feb 26, 2015.
- "Panel Declaration on the IRP Procedure" (PDF). ICANN. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
- "Panel Declaration on the IRP Procedure". DomainnewsAfrica. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
- "Third Panel Declaration of IRP Procedure" (PDF). ICANN. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
- "ICANN wants total control of DNS while breaking its own bylaws to block .africa probe". TheRegister. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- "ICANN Must Produce Witnesses, insists DCA vs ICANN .africa Tribunal". DomainnewsAfrica. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- "IRP Panel in DCA Trust Case Overrules ICANN Bylaws Provision". Domainmondo. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
- ".Africa IRP Panel decision over-rules unfairness in #ICANN bylaws that prevents panel from questioning ICANN Witnesses". TandaaBiashara. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
- "New .AFRICA gTLD: ICANN’s witness will not testify!". Newsgtlds. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
- "East Africa: DCA Trust wins .africa IRP, ICANN to pay over Kshs 60 million in costs". AllAfrica. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "Unredacted: ICANN's hidden role in fierce battle over .Africa rights". The Register. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "DCA Trust wins .africa IRP, ICANN to pay over Kshs 60 million in costs". CIO East Africa. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "ICANN loses .Africa case: IRP panel rules in favor of DCA". DomainNewsAfrica. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "Ethiopian Born Entrepreneur Sophia Bekele Wins .Africa Domain Name Accountability Suit Against ICANN". Ethioinfodesk. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "DCA Trust IRP Decision: ICANN Failed the Global Internet Community". Domainmondo. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "ICANN Loses Independent Review Panel Decision For Unfairly Treating TLD Applicant & Improper Deference to Governments". IpjJustice. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "Breaking: DotConnectAfrica Trust victorious on its challenge of ICANN Board over .africa". TandaaBiashara. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "Review Panel Chides ICANN Board, Government Reps". BNA. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "Having been slammed and embarrassed, ICANN tells the world: We’ve done nowt wrong". The Register. Retrieved Aug 5, 2015.
- "Will 2016 Politics Trump Bipartisan Support for the MSM and DOTCOM Act?". Circleid. Retrieved Aug 5, 2015.
- "ICANN gibt DCA-Bewerbung zweite Chance". Domain-Recht.de. Retrieved Aug 5, 2015.
- "Rage Against the ICANN Machine". CircleID. Retrieved Aug 5, 2015.
- "ICANN’s dotAfrica Dispute". BBC Click. Retrieved Aug 5, 2015.
- "What Brands Need to Know About ICANN’s Treatment of the .AFRICA Applications". Fairwinds Partners. Retrieved Aug 5, 2015.
- ""Case far from Closed" says BBC: Unsuccessful ICANN interview on .africa Cover up". DomainNewsAfrica. Retrieved Aug 5, 2015.
- "ICANN Accountability: "Creative Ambiguity" at Work in the ".AFRICA" Decision". BBC Click. Retrieved Aug 5, 2015.
- ".Africa IRP: The Transcript that cost ICANN – GAC’s "Creative ambiguity, We leave things unclear so we don’t have conflict"". DNA. Retrieved Aug 5, 2015.
- UNECA (May 8, 1996). "Common Position for Africa's Digital Inclusion" (PDF). UNECA. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
- UNECA (May 12, 2001). "Implementation of the African Information Society Initiative (AISI)812 (XXXI)". UNECA. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
- UNPAN (2009). "E-government and Public Private partnership for better public service delivery and MDGs implementation" (PDF). UNPAN Agenda. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
- ICANN NOMCOM (Nov 4, 2005). "Sophia Bekele ICANN GNSO". ICANN. Retrieved Sep 16, 2012.
- ISOC SF Bay (2008). "Founding Members ISOC San Francisco Bay". Retrieved 2010.
- East African Standard, Brenda Kageni (2008). ""Achieving Women, Connecting Africa to the Web"." (PDF). Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- SophiaBekele.com Editor (Feb 15, 2012). "Sophia Bekele Writing". Website. Retrieved Feb 18, 2014.
- SophiaBekele.com Editor (Feb 15, 2012). "Sophia Bekele TV Interviews". Website. Retrieved Feb 17, 2013.
- KeyNote: Sophia Bekele rallied YALS New York saying “P.U.S.H to Change Africa”
- Sophia Bekele’s “P.U.S.H to Change Africa” KeyNote Won the YALS in New York
- Selected Speaking Sessions
- Innovation and US-Africa Relations, NYF Africa in Gabon
- United Nations General Assembly high-level meeting on ICT in New York on ICT
- Internet bridging the gender gap
- Re-imagining Africa: a closer look at Autonomy, Identity and Perspective.
- NewDomains (Sep 27, 2011). "How to build a Top Level Domain Community". Munich Conference. Retrieved Feb 17, 2014.
- Launch of the DotAfrica East African campaign
- Golden Gate University (Mar 10, 2009). "Internet Governance and the Policy Divide". Golden Gate University. Retrieved Mar 2, 2009.
- United Nations General Assembly high-level meeting on ICT in New York on ICT
- International Telecommunication Union (ITU's) “ConnectAfrica” Heads of State submit in Kigali
- “I Don't Know to CEO: Inspiration at Every Milestone”
- "Re-Branding Africa", Africa 2.0 Africa Leadership Retreat
- CNN, Tim Hume (Dec 7, 2011). "Scramble for 'dot africa' internet domain name". TV Interview. Retrieved Feb 24, 2014.
- Africa 7 TV (Dec 21, 2011). "Africa 7's Zara DERIBE in a conversation with Sophia Bekele on DotAfrica and being a Woman-In-Charge". TV Interview. Retrieved Feb 17, 2011.
- NTV TV (Mar 3, 2011). "Nations TV calls Sophia Bekele on business in Africa + the new Domain for Africa". TV Interview. Retrieved 2012.
- K24 TV (Mar 8, 2011). "Capital Talk, Movers and Shakers of Africa". TV Interview. Retrieved Nov 16, 2012.
- KASS Media International, June J (Apr 27, 2011). "KASS Media International on her international work by CBS International and DCA activities". Radio Interview. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- Radio Netherlands Wordwide (Apr 27, 2011). "Africa in Progress - Mobile banking: Africa’s next revolution". Radio Interview. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- RNW Africa Desk (Mar 22, 2010). "A DotAfrica generation soon to be born". Radio Interview. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- A24 Media (June 2014). "Pan African lifestyle TV "The Scoop" presenting her as "Serial entrepreneur, ICT Activist & Addis Hilton". TV Interview. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- ItBusinessdirect, Anthony D. Curtis (June 20, 2014). "Sophia Bekele aka AddisHilton, gives The SCOOP her story of Balancing Life & Work and how Change is Controversial". TV Interview. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
- Fick, David (2006). Africa: Continent of Economic Opportunity (Paperback). STE Publishers. pp. 512 pages. ISBN 978-1-919855-59-2. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sophia Bekele.|
- SophiaBekele.com official website
- Sophia Bekele on LinkedIn
- Sophia Bekele on Twitter
- Bekele, Sophia. "whatido-whereido, Bekele's personal blog". blogspot.com. Retrieved May 13, 2008.
- Influential people that see the Potential of Africa
- Mireille Schwartz Birthday
- Sophia Bekele TV interviews
- Bekele Defends DCA's Opposition to the Experts Meeting Agenda of the DotAfrica Task Force at the African Ministerial RoundTable in Dakar Senegal.
- Radio Interviews