Sophia Brahe

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Sophia Brahe
Sophie Brahe portrait.jpg
Portrait from 1602
BornAugust 24, 1559 (or September 22, 1556)
Died1643 (aged 83–84)
Known forAssisting her brother Tycho Brahe with his astronomical observations, creating exceptional gardens at Trolleholm Castle, genealogist of Danish noble families
Spouse(s)
  • Otto Thott
  • Erik Lange
ChildrenTage Thott
Scientific career
InfluencesTycho Brahe

Sophia or Sophie Brahe or after marriage Sophie Thott Lange (24 August 1559 or 22 September 1556[1] – 1643), was a Danish noble woman and horticulturalist with knowledge of astronomy, chemistry, and medicine. She assisted her brother Tycho Brahe with his astronomical observations.

Life[edit]

She was born in Knudstrup, as the youngest of ten children, to Otte Brahe rigsråd, or advisor to the King of Denmark; and Beate Bille Brahe, leader of the royal household for Queen Sophie. Sophia's oldest brother was astronomer Tycho Brahe. Though he was both more than a decade her senior and raised in a separate household, the pair became quite close by the time Sophia was a teenager.[2] The brother and sister were united by their work in science, and by their family's opposition to science as an appropriate activity for members of the aristocracy.[2]

She married Otto Thott in 1576, an older man than her: he was 33. She had one child with him before he died on 23 March 1588.[3][4] Their son was Tage Thott [da], born in 1580. Upon her husband's death, Sophie Thott managed his property in Eriksholm (today Trolleholm Castle[5]), running the estate to keep it profitable until her son came of age. During this time, she also became a horticulturalist, in addition to her studies in chemistry and medicine. The gardens she created in Eriksholm were said to be exceptional.[2] Sophie was particularly interested in studying chemistry and medicine according to Paracelsus,[4] in which small doses of poison might serve as strong medicines, and used her skills to treat the local poor.[2] She was devoted to the study of astrology and helped her brother with producing horoscopes.

On 21 July 1587, King Frederick II of Denmark signed a document transferring to Sophia Brahe title of Årup farm in what is now Sweden (Svensson, et al.).

Sophia continued to be a frequent visitor at Uranienborg where she met Erik Lange, a nobleman who studied alchemy and a friend of Tycho's.[2] In 1590, Sophie took 13 visits to Uranienborg and became engaged to Lange. Lange used up most of his fortune with alchemy experiments, so their marriage was delayed some years while he avoided his creditors and traveled to Germany to try to find patrons for his work. Tycho Brahe wrote the Latin epic poem "Urania Titani" during the couple's separation, expressed as a letter from his sister Sophia to her fiance in 1594.[4] Tycho casts Sophia as Urania, muse of astronomy,[6] a further suggestion of his respect for her scientific endeavours.

In 1599, she visited Lange in Hamburg, but they did not marry until 1602 in Eckernförde. They lived in this town for a while in extreme poverty. Sophie wrote a long letter to her sister Margrethe Brahe, describing having to wear stockings with holes in them for her wedding. Lange's wedding clothes had to be returned to the pawn shop after the wedding, because the couple could not afford to keep them. She expressed anger with her family for not accepting her science studies, and for depriving her of money owed to her. By 1608, Erik Lange was living in Prague, and he died there in 1613 (Det Kongelige Bibliotek).

Sophie Brahe personally financed the restoration of the local church, Ivetofta kyrka. She planned to be buried there, and the lid for her unused sarcophagus remains in the church's armory (Svensson, et al.). But, by 1616 she had moved permanently to Zealand and settled in Helsingør. In Zealand, she lived specifically in Elsinore where she worked primarily on horticulture and healing plants.[7] She spent her last years writing up the genealogy of Danish noble families, publishing the first major version in 1626 (there were later additions). Her work is still considered a major source for early history of Danish nobility (Det Kongelige Bibliotek). She died in Helsingør in the year 1643,[8] and was buried in the Torrlösa old church (in the village of Torrlösa, east of the town of Landskrona in what was then Denmark but now is southern Sweden. That church housed a burial chapel for the Thott family that remained for some time even after the church itself was pulled down in the mid-19th century (the new Torrlösa church was built nearby). Currently, a stone setting marks the outlines of the Thott chapel, while the tombstone for Sophie Brahe is still standing on the site.

Career and Research[edit]

Tycho wrote that he had trained Sophia in horticulture and chemistry, but he initially told her not to study astronomy. He expressed with pride that she learned astronomy on her own, studying books in German, and having Latin books translated with her own money so that she could also study them (Tjørnum). She frequently visited his observatory Uranienborg, on the then-Danish island of Hveen.[2][9] There, she assisted him with astronomical observations associated with his publication De nova stella (On the New Star), in particular the 11 November 1572 observations which led to discovery of a supernova and the 8 December 1573 lunar eclipse.[2][10] The precise details of her assistance here appear to be unrecorded. Tycho seems to have respected Sophia's intellectual pursuits—referring with admiration to Sophia's animus invictus or her "determined mind" (Det Kongelige Bibliotek)—suggesting her contributions to (what is today recognized as) his work were non-trivial.

Sophia Brahe studied horticulture and chemistry. Initially, Tycho Brahe advised her to avoid studying astronomy; however Sophia persisted and studied the subject on her own time and own resources. [11] The work that Sophia aided her brother in is now seen as the basis of modern orbit predictions of the planets and solar system.[12] The Island of Hven, sometimes referred to as Ven (Sweden), is where many of these observations took place. In the Hven Observatory, Tycho and Sophia collected the most accurate measurements to date (prior to the telescope invention) of the positions of the planets with respect to time. [13] Tycho Brahe is generally known for the devices and instruments that he made which aided in the observations. Sophia, on the other hand, had a key role in performing the observations themselves.[14] Tycho and his assistants, which included Sophia, watched the orbits of planetary bodies, rather than the locations alone. [15] A monumental discovery that was made by the Brahe siblings was the new star, known as Tycho's Supernova. [16] The official scentific name of the Supernova is SN 1572. Tycho's Supernova was a controversial discovery which waviered peoples faith due to it being the first evidence found showing that the Earth is not at the center of the universe. [17]

Once some major observations were made by the Brahes, Tycho requested money from King Frederick II of Denmark, Frederick the Great, to move forward with more observation facilities in Hven. The king was under the impression that the observatories were for Tycho and his personal research; however it is known that some of the observatories were made for Sophia to work in for her own observations. [18] Much of the data that was gathered throughout Tycho's life was passed down to his pupil, Johannes Kepler, rather than his sister, Sophia Brahe. [19] It can be said that the work that Sophia Brahe assisted her brother in laid the groundwork for Sir Isaac Newton. [20]

As one can see Sophia was interested more in hands on experience and observations rather than experimenting. This really shines true during her marriage. Sophia remarried to Erik Lange in 1602. Lange was known for his study in Alchemy, but this was nothing of interest to Sophia. While trying to make them rich, Lange spent all the couple's money to no avail. They ended up living in extreme poverty. [21]

Urania Titani[edit]

Urania Titani was a poem written by Tycho Brahe, the brother of Sophia, about a fictional love correspondence between Sophia and Erik.[22] Tycho wrote the poem in Latin, a language Sophia was not fluent in.[23] In the poem, Tycho represents Sophia as Urania, the Muse of astronomy in Greek mythology, and Erik as a Titan, a son of Uranus (mythology).[24] Sophia is depicted as longing for her husband while he studied abroad to study alchemy.[25] his work established the co-dependence that Sophia and Tycho maintained, including their similar beliefs.[26] Lastly, the poem was a large indicator of Tycho publicizing his bond with his sister, establishing himself as a Renaissance man and unashamed of his work with his sister.

Genealogy[edit]

Sophia is well known for her work in genealogy. Sophia's first work was completed in 1600.[27] During this time, genealogy was placed in documents called family books. These books contained many aspects of the family's life such as family members, traditions, and different family branches.[28] In Sophia's renditions of her family book she included letters and correspondence with other women concerning their interwoven heritage and possible relatives. Sophia also included anecdotes from her family and rarely placed her own comments within her works.[29] Sophia's work was common among women during her time, as women were valued for their penmanship and ability to maintain their households. [30]

Legacy[edit]

Sophie Brahe - Painted in 1636

Sophie, along with her brother Tycho, have come to represent the flowering of letters and science during the Danish Renaissance. She worked closely with her brother in his scientific endeavors and is thought to have acted as his muse. Indeed the two were so close that poet Johan L. Heiberg admonished that "Denmark must never forget the noble woman who, in spirit much more than flesh and blood, was Tycho Brahe's sister; the shining star in our Danish heaven is indeed a double one."[31] In 1626 Sophie had completed a 900-page manuscript on the genealogies of 60 Danish noble families, which is held by Lund University.[32][33]






See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ probably in 1559 following Christianson 2000, p. 258, some others scholars give 1556, both dates match his horoscope (Det Kongelige Bibliotek).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Dreyer, J.L.E. (1890). Tycho Brahe, a picture of scientific life and work in the sixteenth century. Edinburgh: A. & C. Black.
  3. ^ Christianson 2000, p. 161
  4. ^ a b c Christianson 2000, p. 259
  5. ^ Christianson 2000, p. 258.
  6. ^ Ziggelaar, August (September 1996). "Reviewed Work: Tycho Brahes "Urania Titani": Et digt om Sophie Brahe by Peter Zeeberg". Isis. 87 (3): 542–543.
  7. ^ Copenhagen; Gothenburg. "Sophia Ottesdatter Brahe". The History of Nordic Women's Literature. KvindeLitteraturHistorie PÅ Nettet, 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  8. ^ Christianson 2000, p. 264
  9. ^ Christianson 2000, p. 57: 8 December 1573 ... helped Tycho to observe a lunar eclipse
  10. ^ "Sophia Brahe | National Schools' Observatory". www.schoolsobservatory.org. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  11. ^ "Sophia Brahe (1556 - 1643)". National Schools' Observatory. Liverpool John Moores University. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  12. ^ "Sophia Brahe (1556 - 1643)". National Schools' Observatory. Liverpool John Moores University. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  13. ^ "Sophia Brahe (1556 - 1643)". National Schools' Observatory. Liverpool John Moores University. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  14. ^ "Sophia Brahe (1556 - 1643)". National Schools' Observatory. Liverpool John Moores University. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  15. ^ Rice University, Galileo Project. "Tycho Brahe". Galileo Project. Rice University. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  16. ^ "Sophia Brahe (1556 - 1643)". National Schools' Observatory. Liverpool John Moores University. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  17. ^ Dunbar, Brian; Greicius, Tony. "Tycho's Supernova Remnant". NASA. NASA. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  18. ^ West, Mary Lou. "On Tycho's Island: Tycho Brahe and His Assistants, 1570–1601". Physics Today. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  19. ^ West, Mary Lou. "On Tycho's Island: Tycho Brahe and His Assistants, 1570–1601". Physics Today. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  20. ^ Jeuck Eggen, Olin. "Tycho Brahe - Danish Astronomer". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  21. ^ "Sophia Brahe (1556 - 1643)". National Schools' Observatory. Liverpool John Moores University. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  22. ^ Christianson, J.R. (1998). "TYCHO Brahe in Scandinavian Scholarhip". History of Science. 36: 475-476.
  23. ^ Christianson, J.R. (1998). "TYCHO Brahe in Scandinavian Scholarhip". History of Science. 36: 475-476.
  24. ^ Alenius, Marianne (27 July 2011). "THE HONEY-SWEET DELICACIES OF THE MUSES". The History of Nordic Women's Literature. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  25. ^ Alenius, Marianne (27 July 2011). "THE HONEY-SWEET DELICACIES OF THE MUSES". The History of Nordic Women's Literature. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  26. ^ Ziggelaar, August (September 1996). "Review : Tycho Brahes "Urania titani"". ISIS. 87: 542-543.
  27. ^ Sjöblad, Christina (27 July 2011). "THE FAMILY CIRCLE AND THE TEMPLE OF FRIENDSHIP". The History of Nordic Women's Literature. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  28. ^ Sjöblad, Christina (27 July 2011). "THE FAMILY CIRCLE AND THE TEMPLE OF FRIENDSHIP". The History of Nordic Women's Literature. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  29. ^ Sjöblad, Christina (27 July 2011). "THE FAMILY CIRCLE AND THE TEMPLE OF FRIENDSHIP". The History of Nordic Women's Literature. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  30. ^ Sjöblad, Christina (27 July 2011). "THE FAMILY CIRCLE AND THE TEMPLE OF FRIENDSHIP". The History of Nordic Women's Literature. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  31. ^ Wilson, Katharina (1991). An Encyclopedia of Continental Women Writers. Grand Publishing, Inc. pp. 164–165. ISBN 0824085477.
  32. ^ Christianson 2000, p. 264
  33. ^ Alenius, Marianne (27 July 2011). "THE HONEY-SWEET DELICACIES OF THE MUSES". The History of Nordic Women's Literature. Retrieved 18 March 2019.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • "Sophie Brahe: Brev til Margrethe Brahe". Det Kongelige Bibliotek. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
  • Ogilvie, Marilyn (1986). "Brahe, Sophia". Women in Science: Antiquity through Nineteenth Century: A Biographical Dictionary with Annotated Bibliography. MIT Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-262-65038-X.
  • Zeeberg, Peter (1994). Tycho Brahes "Urania Titani" : et digt om Sophie Brahe. København: Museum Tusculanums forlag. ISBN 8772892781.
  • Svensson, Rebecka; Bengtsson, Caroline; Jönsson, Lisa. "Årup". Retrieved 19 December 2002.[permanent dead link]
  • Tjørnum, Gilbert (27 November 2003). "Hvem er Sophie?" (PDF). Nyhedsbrevet Sophie (in Danish). Astrologisk Museum, Denmark (3). Retrieved 18 September 2007.

External links[edit]