Sophie's Choice (novel)
Sophie's Choice is a 1979 novel by American author William Styron. It concerns the relation between three people sharing a boarding house in Brooklyn: Stingo, a young aspiring writer from the South who befriends the Jewish Nathan Landau and his beautiful lover Sophie, a Polish survivor of the German Nazi concentration camps. The plot ultimately centers on a tragic decision which Sophie was forced to make upon entering the concentration camp.
An immediate bestseller,[not verified in body] Sophie's Choice won the US National Book Award for Fiction in 1980. The novel was the basis of a successful film of the same name, and is often considered both Styron's best work,[not verified in body] and a major novel of the twentieth century.[not verified in body]
- 1 Overview and history
- 2 Plot summary
- 3 Inspiration and themes
- 4 Reception and controversies
- 5 Adaptations
- 6 References and notes
- 7 See also
- 8 Further reading
Overview and history
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Sophie's Choice is a 1979 novel by American author William Styron. It concerns the relation between three people sharing a boarding house in Brooklyn: Stingo, a young aspiring writer from the South, who befriends the Jewish Nathan Landau, and Sophie, Landau's beautiful lover, a Polish survivor of the German Nazi concentration camps. The plot ultimately centers on a tragic decision which Sophie was forced to make upon entering the concentration camp.
Selected publication history
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- Styron, William (1979) Sophie’s Choice, New York, NY, USA: Random House, ISBN 0-394-46109-6, ISBN 978-0-394-46109-0, see , accessed 7 November 2015.
- —. (1998)  — (Modern Library 100 Best Novels Series), reprint, revised, New York, NY, USA: Modern Library, ISBN 0679602895, see , accessed 7 November 2015.
- —. (2004)  — (Vintage Classics), reprint, London, ENG: Vintage, ISBN 0099470446, ISBN 9780099470441, see , accessed 7 November 2015.
- —. (2010)  — authorized e-book, New York, NY, USA: Open Road Media, ISBN 1936317176, ISBN 9781936317172, see , accessed 7 November 2015.
The following of Styron's works have been collected, per Sylvie Mathé, as relevant to the author's philosophical framework with regard to his constructing the history and characters within his novel.
- Styron, William (1974) “Auschwitz,” In This Quiet Dust and Other Writings, 1993 , pp. 336–339, New York, NY, USA: Vintage.
- —. (1978) “Hell Reconsidered,” In This Quiet Dust and Other Writings, 1993 , pp. 105–115, New York, NY, USA: Vintage.
- —. (1997) “A Wheel of Evil Come Full Circle: The Making of Sophie’s Choice,” The Sewanee Review (Summer), Vol. 105, No. 3, pp. 395–400.
- —. (1999) Afterword to Sophie’s Choice, pp. 601–606, New York, NY, USA: Modern Library.
Sophie's Choice is narrated by Stingo, a novelist who is recalling the summer when he began his first novel. As the story begins, in the early summer of 1947, Stingo (like Styron, a writer and Duke graduate) has been fired from his low-level reader's job at the publisher McGraw-Hill and has moved into a cheap boarding house in Brooklyn, where he hopes to devote some months to his writing. While he is working on his novel, he is drawn into the lives of the lovers Nathan Landau and Sophie Zawistowska, fellow boarders at the house, who are involved in an intense and difficult relationship. Sophie is a beautiful, Polish-Catholic survivor of the concentration camps of the Holocaust, and Nathan is a Jewish-American – and, purportedly, a genius. Although Nathan claims to be a Harvard graduate and a cellular biologist with a pharmaceutical company, it is later revealed that this is a fabrication. Almost no one – including Sophie and Stingo – knows that Nathan is a paranoid schizophrenic. However, Sophie is aware that Nathan is self-medicating with drugs, including cocaine and benzadrine, that he supposedly obtains at Pfizer, his employer. This means that although he sometimes behaves quite normally and generously, there are times that he becomes frighteningly jealous, violent, abusive and delusional.
As the story progresses, Sophie tells Stingo of her past, of which she has never before spoken. She describes her violently anti-Semitic father, a law professor in Kraków; her unwillingness to help him spread his ideas; her arrest by the Nazis for smuggling food to her mother, who was on her deathbed; and particularly, her brief stint as a stenographer-typist in the home of Rudolf Höss, the commander of Auschwitz, where she was interned. She specifically relates her attempts to seduce Höss in an effort to persuade him that her blond, blue-eyed, German-speaking son should be allowed to leave the camp and enter the Lebensborn program, in which he would be raised as a German child. She failed in this attempt and, ultimately, never learned of her son's fate. Only at the end of the book does the reader also learn what became of Sophie's daughter, named Eva.
As Nathan's "outbreaks" become more violent and abusive, Stingo receives a summons from Nathan's brother, Larry. He learns that Nathan is schizophrenic and is not a cellular biologist, although, as Larry says, "he could have been fantastically brilliant at anything he might have tried out ... But he never got his mind in order."[this quote needs a citation] Nathan's delusions have led him to believe that Stingo is having an affair with Sophie, and he threatens to kill them both.
Sophie and Stingo attempt to flee to a peanut farm in Virginia which Stingo's father has inherited. On the way there, Sophie reveals her deepest, darkest secret: on the night that she arrived at Auschwitz, a sadistic doctor made her choose which of her two children would die immediately by gassing and which would continue to live, albeit in the camp. Of her two children, Sophie chose to sacrifice her seven-year-old daughter, Eva, in a heart-rending decision that has left her in mourning and filled with a guilt that she cannot overcome. By now alcoholic and deeply depressed, she is clearly willing to self-destruct with Nathan, who has already tried to persuade her to commit suicide with him. Despite the fact that Stingo proposes marriage to her, and despite a shared night that relieves Stingo of his virginity and fulfills many of his sexual fantasies, Sophie disappears, leaving only a note in which she says that she must return to Nathan.
Upon arriving back in Brooklyn, Stingo discovers that Sophie and Nathan have committed suicide by ingesting sodium cyanide and is devastated.
Inspiration and themes
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Sylvie Mathé notes that Styron's "position" in the writing of this novel was made clear in his contemporary interviews and essays, in the latter case, in particular "Auschwitz,” “Hell Reconsidered,” and “A Wheel of Evil Come Full Circle,” and quotes Alvin Rosenfeld's summary of Styron's position, where Rosenfeld states that:
(1) while [Styron] acknowledges Jewish suffering under the Nazis, he insists on seeing Auschwitz in general or universalistic terms, as a murderous thrust against “mankind” or “the entire human family”; (2) in line with the above, he sees his own role as “correcting” the view that the Holocaust was directed solely or exclusively against the Jews by focusing attention on the many Christians, and particularly the Slavs, who also perished in the camps; (3) … Auschwitz was “anti-Christian” as well as “anti-Semitic,” and hence assertions of Christian guilt are misplaced and perhaps even unnecessary; (4) since he rejects historical explanations of Christian anti-Semitism as causative, Styron is drawn to the view, set forth by Richard Rubenstein and others … that in its essential character Auschwitz was a capitalistic slave society as much as or even more than it was an extermination center; and (5) viewed against European examples of barbarism and slavery, epitomized by Auschwitz, the American South’s treatment of the blacks looks pretty good and “… seems benevolent by comparison”. … [Rosenfeld summarizing:] The drift of these revisionist views, all of which culminate in Sophie’s Choice, is to take the Holocaust out of Jewish and Christian history and place it within a generalized history of evil.:44
Mathé reinforces Rosenfeld's conclusion with a quote from Styron himself, who stated in his "Hell Reconsidered" essay that “the titanic and sinister forces at work in history and in modern life… threaten all men, not only Jews.”:114 She goes on to note that Styron’s choices to represent these ideas, and to incorporate them so clearly into the narrative of his novel, resulted in polemic and controversy that continued, at least into the early years of the new millennium (see section on Controversy, below).
One of the important parallels in Sophie's Choice, as Stingo explicitly points out, is between the worst abuses of the American South – both its slave-holding past and the lynchings of the book's present – and Nazi anti-Semitism. Just as Sophie is left conflicted by her father's attitudes towards Poland's Jews, Stingo analyzes his own culpability derived from his family's slave-holding past, eventually deciding to write a book about Nat Turner – an obvious parallel to Styron's own controversial novel The Confessions of Nat Turner. Similarly, by placing a non-Jewish character at the center of an Auschwitz story, Styron suggests the universality of the suffering under the Third Reich. Though several characters, including Stingo, discuss in detail the fact that the Jewish people suffered far more than other groups, Stingo also describes Hitler's attempts to eliminate the Slavs or turn them into slave labor and makes the case that the Holocaust cannot be understood as an exclusively Jewish tragedy. In contrast, Nathan, whose paranoid condition makes him particularly sensitive about his ethnicity, is the novel's prime spokesman for this exclusivity. His inability to cope with the fact that Sophie, a Polish-Catholic, shared the sufferings of European Jews, while he was prevented, by his mental illness, from even enlisting in the military, causes him to accuse Sophie of complicity in the Holocaust and leads to their mutual destruction.
A central element of the novel' plot, the personally catastrophic choice referred to in the title, is said to have been inspired by a story of a gypsy woman who was ordered by the Nazis to select which of her children was to be put to death, which Styron attributes[where?] to Hannah Arendt's Eichmann in Jerusalem. However, Ira Nadel claims[where?] that the story is found in Arendt's The Origins of Totalitarianism.[better source needed]
Reception and controversies
An immediate bestseller, Sophie's Choice won the US National Book Award for Fiction in 1980, against competition from Just Above My Head by James Baldwin, The Executioner's Song by Norman Mailer, The Ghost Writer by Philip Roth, and Endless Love by Scott Spencer (where the Pulitzer for fiction and the Nobel for literature for that year went, respectively, to Norman Mailer for Executioner's and to Czeslaw Milosz for his body of poetry and other work).
|This section requires expansion with: an even more broadly sourced overview given the current centrality of Mathe, especially with regard to scholarship since 2004. (November 2015)|
Sylvie Mathé notes that Sophie’s Choice, which she refers to as a "highly controversial novel," appeared in press in the year following the broadcast of the NBC miniseries Holocaust (1978), engendering a period in American culture where "a newly-raised consciousness of the Holocaust was becoming a forefront public issue." She goes on to note that with regard to the Holocaust (Hebrew, Shoah):
Styron’s ideological and narrative choices in his framing of a novel touching upon the “limit events” of Auschwitz, considered by many to lie beyond the realm of the imagination… spurred a polemic… which, twenty-five years later, is far from having died down.
Here, the reference to a "limit event" (synonymous with "limit case" and "limit situation") is to a concept deriving at least from the early 1990s—Saul Friedländer, in introducing his Probing the Limits of Representation, quotes David Carroll, who refers to the Shoah as "this limit case of knowledge and feeling"—a concept that can be understood to mean an event or related circumstance or practice that is "of such magnitude and profound violence" that it "rupture[s]... otherwise normative foundations of legitimacy and... civilising tendencies that underlie... political and moral community" (the oft-cited formulation of Simone Gigliotti).
The controversy to which Mathé is specifically referring arises from a thematic analysis which—in apparent strong consensus (e.g., see Rosenfeld's 1979 work, “The Holocaust According to William Styron”)—has Styron, through the novel (and his interviews and essays, see Inspiration and themes, above):
- acknowledging Jewish suffering under the Nazis, but attempting to reorient views of the Holocaust away from its being solely aimed against the Jews, toward its encompassing Slavic and other Christians (hence the Sophie character's nationality and Catholic heritage);
Styron further extends his argument, again with controversy, proposing:
- that this more general view of the barbarism of Auschwitz (and in particular the fact that Slavic Christians were caught up in its program of forced labour and extermination) obviates the need for Christian guilt and sets aside historical arguments for Christian anti-Semitism as a causative agent in the Holocaust, and
- that the camp's role in forced labour justified its comparison (e.g., in the writings of Rubenstein) with the American institution of slavery, even allowing the latter to be viewed more favourably.
Speaking of Styron's views as set forth in the novel and his nonfiction work, Rosenfeld refers to them as "revisionist views" that "culminate in Sophie’s Choice" with an aim to "take the Holocaust out of Jewish and Christian history and place it within a generalized history of evil,":44 and it is this specific revisionist thrust that is the substance of the novel's initial and persisting ability to engender controversy.
The book was pulled from the La Mirada High School Library in California by the Norwalk-La Mirada High School District in 2002 because of a parent's complaint about its sexual content. However, a year after students voiced protest and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) sent a letter to the school district requesting that the district reverse its actions, the book was reinstated.
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The novel was made into a film of the same name in the United States, in 1982. Written and directed by Alan J. Pakula, the film was nominated for Academy Awards for its screenplay, musical score, cinematography, and costume design, and Meryl Streep was nominated for and received the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance of the title role.
References and notes
- Mathé, Sylvie (2004). "The "grey zone" in William Styron's Sophie's Choice". Études anglaises, Klincksieck (Pascal Aquien, ed.). Tome 57, No. 4. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- Rosenfeld, Alvin H. (1979) “The Holocaust According to William Styron,” Midstream, Vol. 25, No. 10 (December), pp. 43-49.
- Styron, William (1978) “Hell Reconsidered,” In This Quiet Dust and Other Writings, , pp. 105-115, New York, NY, USA: Random House, ISBN 039450934X, ISBN 9780394509341, see , accessed 7 November 2015.
- Robin, Corey (2015). "Hannah Arendt and Philip Roth: Parallel Lives". Crooked Timber (blog, June 9). Retrieved 4 November 2015.[better source needed]
- Weil, Robert (2009) "Sophie’s Choice by William Styron, 1980" at National Book Association [Fiction Blog, August 14], see , accessed 7 November 2015.
- This was the 1980 award for hardcover general Fiction, see National Book awards citation, op. cit. The National Book Awards there given for both hardcover and paperback in most categories from from 1980 to 1983, and for multiple fiction categories, especially in 1980. Most of the paperback award-winners in that year were reprints, including for General Fiction.
- Anon. (2012) "National Book Award, 1980 – Hardcover," at National Book Association, see , accessed 7 November 2015.
- Friedländer, Saul (1992). "Introduction". In Friedländer, Saul. Probing the Limits of Representation: Nazism and the "final Solution". Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard U Press. pp. 1–21 (esp. 6). ISBN 0674707664. Retrieved 7 November 2015. [See David Carrol citation following, for the relevant quote.]
- Carroll, David (1990) . "The Memory of Devastation and the Responsibilities of Thought: 'And let's not talk about that' [Foreward]". In Lyotard, Jean François. Heidegger and "the Jews" [Heidegger et "les juifs"] (in [French]). (Andreas Michel & Mark S. Roberts, transl.). Paris, FR: Éditions Galilée. pp. vii–xxix (esp. xi). ISBN 0816618577. Retrieved 7 November 2015 – via Minneapolis, MN, USA: U of Minnesota Press.
Quote: [T]his indeterminacy has special significance when it comes to the Shoah, this limit case of knowledge and feeling, in terms of which all such systems of belief and thought, all forms of literary and artistic expression, seem irrelevant or criminal.
- Gigliotti, Simone (2003). "Unspeakable Pasts as Limit Events: The Holocaust, Genocide, and the Stolen Generations". Australian Journal of Politics and History (Wiley-Blackwell) 49 (No. 2, June): 164–181, esp. 164. doi:10.1111/1467-8497.00302.
Quote: A 'limit event' is an event or practice of such magnitude and profound violence that its effects rupture the otherwise normative foundations of legitimacy and so-called civilising tendencies that underlie the constitution of political and moral community.
- "A History of Fighting Censorship" (PDF). American Civil Liberties Union. 2006. Retrieved 2009-10-07.
- "Banned Books Week: September 25-October 2". UCSD. September 22, 2004. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-07.
- Ballantine, Christopher (2010), "Sophie's Choice, Maw", in Opera, June 2010, p. 94. Website version accessed 25 April 2015; Gurewitsch, Matthew (2010). "Maw: Sophie's Choice", Opera News, August 2010, on beyondcriticism website, accessed 25 April 2015
- Styron, William (1967) The Confessions of Nat Turner, New York, NY, USA: Random House.
- Le Monde's 100 Books of the Century
- Arendt, Hannah (1994)  Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil, New York, NY, USA: Penguin.
- Rubenstein, Richard L. (2001)  The Cunning of History: The Holocaust and the American Future, New York, NY, USA: Perennial.
- West, James L.W., III, ed. (1985) Conversations with William Styron, Jackson, MS, USA: University of Mississippi Press.
- Styron, William (2001)  "Introduction," in The Cunning of History: The Holocaust and the American Future  (Rubenstein, Richard L., ed.), New York, NY, USA: Perennial.[page needed]
- Rosenfeld, Alvin H. (1979) “The Holocaust According to William Styron,” Midstream, Vol. 25, No. 10 (December), pp. 43–49.
- Morris, Robert K. & Irving Malin, eds. (1981) The Achievement of William Styron, Athens, GA, USA: University of Georgia Press.
- Pearce, Richard (1981) “Sophie’s Choices,” pp. 284–297, in The Achievement of William Styron (Morris, Robert K. & Malin, Irving, eds.), Athens, GA, USA: University of Georgia Press.
- Krzyzanowski, Jerzy R. (1983) "What's Wrong with Sophie's Choice?," Polish American Studies, No. 1 (Spring), p. 72, see , accessed 7 November 2015.
- Sirlin, Rhoda A. (1990) William Styron’s Sophie’s Choice: Crime and Self-Punishment, Ann Arbor, MI. USA: University of Michigan Research Press.
- Styron, William (1990) "Introduction," in William Styron’s Sophie’s Choice: Crime and Self-Punishment, Ann Arbor, MI. USA: University of Michigan Research Press.[page needed]
- Friedman, Saul S., ed. (1993) Holocaust Literature: A Handbook of Critical, Historical and Literary Writings, Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Press.
- White, Terry (1994) “Allegorical Evil, Existentialist Choice in O’Connor, Oates, and Styron,” The Midwest Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 3 (Spring), pp. 383–397.
- Cologne-Brookes, Gavin (1995) The Novels of William Styron: From Harmony to History, Baton Rouge, LA, USA: Louisiana State University Press.
- Bloom, Harold, ed. (2002) William Styron’s Sophie’s Choice (Modern critical interpretations series), Philadelphia, PA, USA: Chelsea House, ISBN 0791063402, ISBN 9780791063408, see , accessed 7 November 2015.
- Law, Richard G. (2002) “The Reach of Fiction: Narrative Technique in Styron’s Sophie’s Choice,” pp. 133–150, in William Styron’s Sophie’s Choice, (Bloom, Harold, ed.; Modern critical interpretations series), Philadelphia, PA, USA: Chelsea House, ISBN 0791063402, ISBN 9780791063408, see , accessed 7 November 2015.
- Telpaz, Gideon (2002) “An Interview with William Styron,” pp. 231–241, in William Styron’s Sophie’s Choice, (Bloom, Harold, ed.; Modern critical interpretations series), Philadelphia, PA, USA: Chelsea House, ISBN 0791063402, ISBN 9780791063408, see , accessed 7 November 2015.
- Oster, Sharon (2003) “The ‘Erotics of Auschwitz’: Coming of Age in The Painted Bird and Sophie’s Choice,” pp. 90-124, in Witnessing the Disaster: Essays on Representation and the Holocaust, (Bernard-Donals, Michael & Glejzer, Richard, eds.), Madison, WI, USA: University of Wisconsin Press.
- Beranek, Stephanie (2015)  "Literature—William Styron: Sophie's Choice," at London School of Journalism, June 2003, see , accessed 7 November 2015.
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