Sophistical Refutations

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Sophistical Refutations (Greek: Σοφιστικοὶ Ἔλεγχοι; Latin: De Sophisticis Elenchis) is a text in Aristotle's Organon in which he identified thirteen fallacies.[note 1] At the end of the text he also claims to be the first thinker to treat the subject of deduction. (Soph. Ref., 34, 183b34 ff.). The fallacies Aristotle identifies are the following:

Fallacies in the language
  1. Equivocation
  2. Amphibology
  3. Composition
  4. Division
  5. Accent
  6. Figure of speech or form of expression
Fallacies not in the language
  1. Accident
  2. Secundum quid
  3. Irrelevant conclusion
  4. Begging the question
  5. False cause
  6. Affirming the consequent
  7. Fallacy of many questions

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Sometimes listed as twelve.

References[edit]

External links[edit]