Sophistical Refutations

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Sophistical Refutations (Greek: Σοφιστικοὶ Ἔλεγχοι; Latin: De Sophisticis Elenchis) is a text in Aristotle's Organon in which he identified thirteen fallacies.[note 1] According to Aristotle, this is the first work to treat the subject of deductive reasoning. (Soph. Ref., 34, 183b34 ff.). The fallacies Aristotle identifies are the following:

Fallacies in the language (in dictione)
  1. Equivocation
  2. Amphibology
  3. Composition
  4. Division
  5. Accent
  6. Figure of speech or form of expression
Fallacies not in the language (extra dictionem)
  1. Accident
  2. Secundum quid
  3. Irrelevant conclusion
  4. Begging the question
  5. False cause
  6. Affirming the consequent
  7. Fallacy of many questions


  1. ^ Sometimes listed as twelve.


  • Parry, William T.; Hacker, Edward A. (1991), Aristotelian Logic, SUNY Press, p. 435, ISBN 978-0-7914-0690-8

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