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Sophistical Refutations (Greek: Σοφιστικοὶ Ἔλεγχοι; Latin: De Sophisticis Elenchis) is a text in Aristotle's Organon in which he identified thirteen fallacies.[note 1] At the end of the text he also claims to be the first thinker to treat the subject of deduction. (Soph. Ref., 34, 183b34 ff.). The fallacies Aristotle identifies are the following:
- Fallacies in the language
- Fallacies not in the language
- Sometimes listed as twelve.
- Parry, William T.; Hacker, Edward A. (1991), Aristotelian Logic, SUNY Press, p. 435, ISBN 978-0-7914-0690-8
- Works related to Sophistical Refutations at Wikisource
- HTML Greek text via Greco interattivo
- Translated by W. A. Pickard-Cambridge
- Free LibriVox audiobook version of Sophistical Refutations (Translated by W. A. Pickard-Cambridge)
- ChangingMinds.org: "Aristotle's 13 fallacies"