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|سۆرانی، کوردیی ناوەندی|
|Native to||Iraq, Iran|
|6 million in Iraq (2012)
3 million in Iran
Official language in
Central Kurdish (کوردیی ناوەندی; kurdîy nawendî), also called Sorani (سۆرانی; Soranî) is a Kurdish language spoken in Iraq, mainly in Iraqi Kurdistan, as well as the Kurdistan Province of western Iran. Central Kurdish is one of the two official languages of Iraq, along with Arabic, and is in political documents simply referred to as "Kurdish".
The term Sorani, named after the former Soran Emirate, is used especially to refer to a written, standardized form of Central Kurdish written in the Sorani alphabet developed from the Persian alphabet in the 1920s by Sa'íd Sidqi Kaban and Taufiq Wahby.
- 1 History
- 2 Alphabet
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Subdialects
- 5 As an official language
- 6 Phonology
- 7 Grammatical features
- 8 Dictionaries and translations
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
In Sulaymaniyah (Silêmanî), the Ottoman Empire had created a secondary school, the Rushdiye, graduates from which could go to Istanbul to continue to study there. This allowed Central Kurdish, which was spoken in Silêmanî, to progressively replace Hawrami dialects as the literary vehicle for Kurdish.
Since the fall of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region, there have been more opportunities to publish works in the Kurdish languages in Iraq than in any other country in recent times. As a result, Central Kurdish has become the dominant written form of Kurdish.
Central Kurdish is written with a modified Persian alphabet. This is in contrast to the other main Kurdish language, Northern Kurdish (Kurmanji), which is spoken mainly in Turkey and is usually written in the Latin alphabet.
However, during the past decade, official TV in Iraqi Kurdistan has mainly used the Latin script for Central Kurdish.
The exact number of Soriani speakers is difficult to determine, but it is generally thought that Soriani is spoken by about 6 to 7 million people in Iraq and Iran. It is the most widespread speech of Kurds in Iran and Iraq. In particular, it is spoken by:
- Around 3 million Kurds in Iranian Kurdistan. Located south of Lake Urmia that stretches roughly to the outside of Kermanshah.
- Around 3 million Kurds in Iraqi Kurdistan, including the Soriani tribe. Most of the Kurds who use it are found in the vicinity of Hewlêr (Erbil), Sulaymaniyah (Silêmanî), Kirkuk and Diyala Governorate.
Following includes the traditional internal variants of Soriani. However, nowadays, due to widespread media and communications, most of them are regarded as subdialects of standard Soriani:
- Mukriyani; The language spoken south of Lake Urmia with Mahabad as its center, including the cities of Piranshahr and the Kurdish speaking part of Naghadeh. This region is traditionally known as Mukriyan.
- Ardalani, spoken in the cities of Sanandaj, Marivan, Kamyaran, Divandarreh and Dehgolan in Kordestan province and the Kurdish speaking parts of Tekab and Shahindej in West Azerbaijan province. This region is known as Ardalan.
- Garmiani, in and around Kirkuk
- Hawlari, spoken in and around the city of Hawler (Erbil) in Iraqi Kurdistan and Oshnavieh. Its main distinction is changing the consonant /l/ into /r/ in many words.
- Babani, spoken in and around the city of Sulaymaniya in Iraq and the cities of Saghez, Baneh, Bokan and Sardasht in Iran.
- Jafi, spoken in the towns of Javanroud, Ravansar and some villages around Sarpole Zahab and Paveh.
As an official language
A recent proposal was made for Central Kurdish to be the official language of the Kurdistan Regional Government. This idea has been favoured by some Central Kurdish-speakers but has disappointed Northern Kurdish speakers.
The following table contains the vowels of Sorani Kurdish. Vowels in parentheses are not phonemic, but have been included in the table below because of their ubiquity in the language. Letters in the Sorani alphabet take various forms depending on where they occur in the word. Forms given below are letters in isolation.
|IPA||Sorani Alphabet||Romanization||Example Word (Sorani)||Example Word (English)|
|i||ى||î||hiʧ = "nothing"||"beet"|
|ɪ||-||i||gɪr'tɪn = "to take"||"bit"|
|e||ێ||e, ê||hez = "power"||"bait"|
|(ɛ)||ه||e||bɛjɑni = "morning"||"bet"|
|æ||ه||â||tænæ'kæ = "tin can"||"bat"|
|u||وو||û||gur = "calf"||"boot"|
|ʊ||و||u||gʊɾg = "wolf"||"book"|
|o||ۆ||o||gor = "level"||"boat"|
|ɑ||ا||a||gɑ = "cow"||"balm" ("father")|
Some Vowel Alternations and Notes
The vowel [æ] is sometimes pronounced as [ə] (the sound found in the first syllable of the English word "above"). This sound change takes place when [æ] directly precedes [w] or when it is followed by the sound [j] (like English "y") in the same syllable. If it, instead, precedes [j] in a context where [j] is a part of another syllable it is pronounced [ɛ] (as in English "bet").
Letters in the Sorani alphabet take various forms depending on where they occur in the word. Forms given below are letters in isolation.
|IPA||Sorani Alphabet||Romanization||Example Word (Sorani)||Example Word (English"||Notes|
|b||ب||b||b in "bat"|
|p||پ||p||p in "pat"|
|t||(ت (ط||t||t in "tab"|
|d||د||d||d in "dab"|
|k||ك||k||c in "cot"|
|g||گ||g||g in "got"|
|q||ق||q||Like Eng. k but further back in the throat|
|ʔ||ا||'||middle sound in "uh-oh"|
|f||ف||f||f in "fox"|
|v||ڤ||v||v in "voice"|
|s||s in "sing"|
(ذ) (ض) (ظ)
|z||z in "zipper"|
|x||خ||kh||Like the ch in German "Bach"|
|ɣ||غ||gh||Like the sound above, but voiced||Mostly in borrowed words, usually pronounced [x]|
|ʃ||ش||sh||sh in "shoe"|
|ʒ||ژ||zh||ge in "beige"|
|ʧ||چ||ch||ch in "cheap"|
|ʤ||ج||j||j in "jump"|
|ħ||ح||ḥ||More gutteral than the English h||Presence of this is regional|
|h||ه||h||h in "hat"|
|m||م||m||m in "mop"|
|n||ن||n||n in "none"|
|w||و||w||w in "water"|
|j||ى||y||y in "yellow"|
|ɾ||ر||r||t in Am. Eng. "water"|
|r||ڕ||ř, rr||Like Spanish trilled r|
|l||ل||l||l in "light" (forward in the mouth)|
|ɫ||ڵ||ł||l in "all" (backward in the mouth)|
Nouns in Sorani Kurdish may appear in three general forms. The Absolute State, Indefinite State, and Definite State.
Indefinite nouns receive an interpretation like English nouns preceded by a, an, some, or any.
Several modifiers may only modify nouns in the indefinite state. This list of modifiers includes:
- chand [ʧand] "a few"
- hamu [hamu] "every"
- chî [ʧi] "what"
- har [haɾ] "each"
- ...i zor [ɪ zoɾ] "many"
|Noun Ending with a Vowel||-yek||-yân|
|Noun Ending with a Consonant||-ek||-ân|
Definite nouns receive an interpretation like English nouns preceded by the.
|Noun Ending with a Vowel||-ka||-kæn|
|Noun Ending with a Consonant||-aka||-akæn|
When a noun stem ending with [i] is combined with the definite state suffix the result is pronounced [eka] ( i + aka → eka)
here are no pronouns to distinguish between masculine and feminine and no verb inflection to signal gender.
Dictionaries and translations
There are a substantial number of Soriani dictionaries available, amongst which there are many that seek to be bilingual.
English and Soriani
- English–Kurdish Dictionary by Dr. Selma Abdullah and Dr. Khurhseed Alam
- Raman English-Kurdish Dictionary by Destey Ferheng
The standard word order in Soriani is SOV (subject–object–verb).
- Central Kurdish at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
- "Full Text of Iraqi Constitution". Washington Post. 12 October 2005. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Central Kurdish". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Allison, Christine (2012). The Yezidi Oral Tradition in Iraqi Kurdistan. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-74655-0. "However, it was the southern dialect of Kurdish, Central Kurdish, the majority language of the Iraqi Kurds, which received sanction as an official language of Iraq."
- "Kurdish language issue and a divisive approach | Kurdish Academy of Language". 5 March 2016. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.
- Blau, Joyce (2000). Méthode de Kurde: Soriani. Editions L'Harmattan. ISBN 978-2-296-41404-4., page 20
- "Iraqi Kurds". Cal.org. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- "Language background of major refugee groups to the UK - Refugee Council". Languages.refugeecouncil.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- "Kurdistan Democratic Party-Iraq". Knn.u-net.com. Archived from the original on 2012-08-07. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- SIL Ethnologue (2013) under "Central Kurdish" gives a 2009 estimate of 3.5 million speakers in Iraq and an undated estimate of 3.25 speakers in Iran.
- "Kurdish language issue and a divisive approach | Kurdish Academy of Language". Kurdishacademy.org. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- Merchant, Livingston T. Introduction to Sorani Kurdish: The Principal Kurdish Dialect Spoken in the Regions of Northern Iraq and Western Iran. University of Raparin. ISBN 978-1483969268.
- Thackston, W.M. (2006). Sorani Kurdish: A Reference Grammar with Selected Readings.
- Kurdish Soriani language developmental features
- Sorianî Kurdish, A Reference Grammar with Selected Readings, by W. M. Thackston
- Hassanpour, A. (1992). Nationalism and Language in Kurdistan 1918–1985. USA: Mellen Research University Press.
- Nebez, Jemal (1976). Toward a Unified Kurdish Language. NUKSE.
- Izady, Mehrdad (1992). The Kurds: A Concise Handbook. Washington, D.C.: Taylor & Francis.
|Central Kurdish edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|