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Soredia on Evernia prunastri

Soredia are common reproductive structures of lichens.[1] Lichens reproduce asexually by employing simple fragmentation and production of soredia and isidia.[2] Soredia are powdery propagules composed of fungal hyphae wrapped around cyanobacteria or green algae.[1] Fungal hyphae make up the basic body structure of lichen.[2] The soredia are released through openings in the upper cortex of the lichen structure.[1] After their release, the soredia disperse to establish the lichen in a new location.[2]


  1. ^ a b c Eichorn, Susan E; Evert, Ray F; Raven, Peter H (2005). Biology of Plants. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. p. 289. 
  2. ^ a b c Cook, Rebecca; McFarland, Kenneth (1995). General Botany 111: Laboratory Manual. Knoxville: University of Tennessee. p. 104.