Sorghum

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Sorghum (food))
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Sorghum
Sorghum.jpg
Sorghum bicolor
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Supertribe: Andropogonodae
Tribe: Andropogoneae
Genus: Sorghum
Moench 1794, conserved name not Sorgum Adanson 1763
Type species
Sorghum bicolor
Synonyms[1]
  • Blumenbachia Koeler 1802, rejected name not Schrad. 1825 (Loasaceae)
  • Sarga Ewart
  • Vacoparis Spangler
  • Andropogon subg. Sorghum Hackel.

Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae. Seventeen of the twenty-five species are native to Australia,[2][3] with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[4][5] One species is grown for grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized, in pasture lands.[6] Sorghum is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugarcane).

Cultivation and uses[edit]

One species, Sorghum bicolor,[7] native to Africa with many cultivated forms now,[8] is an important crop worldwide, used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses"), animal fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, and biofuels. Most varieties are drought- and heat-tolerant, and are especially important in arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people. These varieties form important components of forage in many tropical regions. S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the fifth-most important cereal crop grown in the world.[9]

In the early stages of the plants' growth some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine, and nitrates which are lethal to grazing animals. When stressed by drought or heat, plants can also contain toxic levels of cyanide and nitrates at later stages in growth. [10][11]

Another Sorghum species, Johnson grass (S. halapense), is classified as an invasive species in the US by the Department of Agriculture.[12]

Diversity[edit]

Accepted species[13]
  1. Sorghum amplum – northwestern Australia
  2. Sorghum angustum – Queensland
  3. Sorghum arundinaceum – Africa, Indian Subcontinent, Madagascar, islands of western Indian Ocean
  4. Sorghum bicolor – cultivated sorghum, often individually called sorghum, also known as durra, jowari, or milo. - native to Sahel region of Africa; naturalized in many places
  5. Sorghum brachypodum – Northern Territory of Australia
  6. Sorghum bulbosum – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  7. Sorghum burmahicum – Thailand, Myanmar
  8. Sorghum controversum – India
  9. Sorghum × drummondii – Sahel and West Africa
  10. Sorghum ecarinatum – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  11. Sorghum exstans – Northern Territory of Australia
  12. Sorghum grande – Northern Territory, Queensland
  13. Sorghum halepense – Johnson grass – North Africa, islands of eastern Atlantic, southern Asia from Lebanon to Vietnam; naturalized in East Asia, Australia, the Americas
  14. Sorghum interjectum – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  15. Sorghum intrans – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  16. Sorghum laxiflorum – Philippines, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, New Guinea, northern Australia
  17. Sorghum leiocladum – Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria
  18. Sorghum macrospermum – Northern Territory of Australia
  19. Sorghum matarankense – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  20. Sorghum nitidum – East Asia, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Micronesia
  21. Sorghum plumosum – Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia
  22. Sorghum propinquum – China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Christmas Island, Micronesia, Cook Islands
  23. Sorghum purpureosericeum – Sahel from Mali to Tanzania; Yemen, Oman, India
  24. Sorghum stipoideum – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  25. Sorghum timorense – Lesser Sunda Islands, Maluku, New Guinea, northern Australia
  26. Sorghum trichocladum – Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras
  27. Sorghum versicolor – eastern + southern Africa from Ethiopia to Namibia; Oman
  28. Sorghum virgatum – dry regions from Senegal to Israel
Formerly included[citation needed]

Many species once considered part of Sorghum, but now considered better suited to other genera include: Andropogon, Arthraxon, Bothriochloa, Chrysopogon, Cymbopogon, Danthoniopsis, Dichanthium, Diectomis, Diheteropogon, Exotheca, Hyparrhenia, Hyperthelia, Monocymbium, Parahyparrhenia, Pentameris, Pseudosorghum, Schizachyrium, and Sorghastrum.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  2. ^ Sally L. Dillon; Peter K. Lawrence; Robert J. Henry; et al. "Sorghum laxiflorum and S. macrospermum, the Australian native species most closely related to the cultivated S. bicolor based on ITS1 and ndhF sequence analysis of 25 Sorghum species". SOUTHERN CROSS PLANT SCIENCE. Southern Cross University. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  3. ^ Australia, Atlas of Living. "Sorghum - Atlas of Living Australia". Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  4. ^ "Tropicos, ''Sorghum'' Moench". Tropicos.org. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  5. ^ "Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 600 高粱属 gao liang shu ''Sorghum'' Moench, Methodus. 207. 1794". Efloras.org. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  6. ^ "Sorghum". County-level distribution maps from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  7. ^ Mutegi, Evans; Sagnard, Fabrice; Muraya, Moses; et al. (2010-02-01). "Ecogeographical distribution of wild, weedy and cultivated Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench in Kenya: implications for conservation and crop-to-wild gene flow". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 57 (2): 243–253. doi:10.1007/s10722-009-9466-7.
  8. ^ Stefan Hauser, Lydia Wairegi, Charles L. A. Asadu, Damian O. Asawalam, Grace Jokthan, Utiang Ugbe (2015). "Sorghum- and millet-legume cropping systems" (PDF). CABI and Africa Soil Health Consortium. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  9. ^ Tove Danovich (15 December 2015). "Move over, quinoa: sorghum is the new 'wonder grain'". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  10. ^ "Cyanide (prussic acid) and nitrate in sorghum crops Primary industries and fisheries. Queensland Government". Retrieved 2018-10-15.
  11. ^ "Sorghum". Retrieved 2018-10-15.
  12. ^ Johnson Grass, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Accessed 2257 UDT, 12 March 2009.
  13. ^ "The Plant List: Sorghum". Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Missouri Botanic Garden. Retrieved 28 February 2017.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]