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Sotha, Hisar district, Haryana, India
Sotha in Haryana, India
Coordinates: 29°34′26″N 76°07′38″E / 29.57389°N 76.12722°E / 29.57389; 76.12722Coordinates: 29°34′26″N 76°07′38″E / 29.57389°N 76.12722°E / 29.57389; 76.12722
Country  India
State Haryana
District Hisar
Founded by Indus Valley Civilization
 • Type Local government
 • Body Panchayat
Elevation 221 m (725 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,716
 • Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 125039[1]
Vehicle registration HR

Sotha, also known as Sothi, is an early, mature and late Indus Valley Civilization archeological site and village on the paleochannel of Chautang which is now relict Drishadvati river (a tributary of Sarasvati River which still flows as present Ghaggar-Hakra River).


It near the largest Indus Valley Civilization metropolis of Rakhigarhi in Hisar district. It is in Barwala tehsil of Hisar district, 18 km from Barwala and 47 km from Hisar.[2]


In 2011, it had 334 families with a population of 1716.[3]


Bolstering the status of Rakhigarhi as the largest Indus Valley Civilization metropolis on the banks of Drishadvati river (current day paleochannel of Chautang), at least 23 other Indus Valley Civilization sites within 5 km (at 4 sites), 10 km (at least 10 sites) and 15 km (at least 9 sites) radius of Rakhigarhi have been discovered till 2001. Some of the raw materials were procured from the nodal Rakhigarhi site and finished products were brought back to the nodal Rakhigarhi site for marketing.[4]

Within 5 km to 10 km radius are early, mature and late Harrpan sites. To the north-west of Rakhigarhi are Panhari, Gyanpura, Sotha, Kagsar, Sulchani and south-west of Rakhigarhi are Sisai 1, 2 and 3, Rajpura 2, Pali and Masudpur.[4]

Sothi-Siswal culture[edit]

Siswal, in Haryana, has similar remains. This is now known as Sothi-Siswal culture.

This is the site of a Pre-Indus Valley Civilisation settlement dating to as early as 4600 BCE.[5][6]

According to Tejas Garge, Sothi culture precedes Siswal culture considerably, and should be seen as the earlier tradition.[5]

Drishadvati River[edit]

Both Sothi and Siswal are located in the valley of the prehistoric Drishadvati River. The site of Rakhigarhi is likewise located in the valley of Drishadvati.[7]


The ceramic ware termed Sothi may feature painted pipal leaf or fish scale designs. External ribbing and external cord impressions are also typical of Sothi ceramics, as are ceramic toy cart wheels and the short-stemmed dish on a stand. Sothi ware is present at almost all the Harappa sites in the Sarasvati valley. (The culture represented by Sothi ware is also called Kalibangan I, and mature Harappan is designated Kalibangan II.)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Pin codes of Sotha in Hisar". Retrieved 2016-05-05. 
  2. ^ Profile of Sotha in Hisar
  3. ^ ensus 2011, Sothi in Hisar
  4. ^ a b ASI Rakhigarhi Excavation Report for 1997-98 and 199-2001 excavations, Author: Dr. Amrendra Nath, Publisher: Archaeological Survey of India, Published: 2004
  5. ^ a b Tejas Garge (2010), Sothi-Siswal Ceramic Assemblage: A Reappraisal. Ancient Asia. 2, pp.15–40. doi:10.5334/aa.10203
  6. ^ Nath, Amarendra, Tejas Garge and Randall Law, 2014. Defining the Economical Space of Harappan Rakhigarhi, in Puratattva 44, Indian Archaeological Society, New Delhi, pp. 84
  7. ^ Jane McIntosh, The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives. Understanding ancient civilizations. ABC-CLIO, 2008 ISBN 1576079074 p76