Soul City, North Carolina
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Soul City, North Carolina is a planned community first proposed in 1969 by Floyd McKissick, a civil rights leader and director of the Congress of Racial Equality. Funded by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, (HUD) as one of thirteen model city projects under the Urban Growth and New Community Development Act, it was located on 5,000 acres (20 km2) in Warren County near Manson-Axtell Road and Soul City Boulevard in Norlina, North Carolina, 27563.
McKissick states, "Soul City was an idea before the movement. Soul City actually started after World War II, in my mind. And it was first talked about when we saw the use of the Marshall Plan, and all like that. See, I've always been in real estate and I've always been a businessman." Soul City was intended to be a new town built from the ground up and open to all races, but placed emphasis on providing opportunities for minorities and the poor. It was also designed to as a means of reversing out-migration of minorities and the poor to urban areas; the opportunities Soul City provided, such as jobs, education, housing, training, and other social services would help lessen the migration.
The city was planned to contain three villages housing 18,000 people by 1989. Soul City was projected to have 24,000 jobs and 44,000 inhabitants by the year 2004. It was intended to include industry and retail development for jobs, as well as residential housing and services. The plan was for residents to work, get schooling, shop, receive health care, and worship in town. Soul City was the first new town to be organized by African-American businesses. McKissick envisioned Soul City as a community where all races could live in harmony.
In 1972, the city received a grant of $14 million from HUD based on plans of attracting industry as well as developing residential housing. By 1975, the city had few homes and only one industrial building, "Soul Tech 1".
The city failed to reach its initial ambitions. Lawsuits and investigations into the use of funds by the Soul City Company, the city's developers, resulted in foreclosure in 1979 despite eventually being cleared by a Government Accountability Office audit.  In 1980, 35 housing units, a clinic, a tennis court, and a pool had been developed. About 150 people were employed in the city.
Since that time, the city has grown somewhat, but not to the size originally planned. The former Soul Tech building was purchased by the adjoining Warren County Correctional Institution for expansion. A number of new homes have been constructed.
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