A sound chip is an integrated circuit (i.e. "chip") designed to produce sound. It might do this through digital, analog or mixed-mode electronics. Sound chips normally contain things like oscillators, envelope controllers, samplers, filters and amplifiers. During the late 20th century, sound chips were widely used in arcade game system boards, video game consoles, home computers, and PC sound cards.
- 1 Programmable sound generators (PSG)
- 2 Wavetable synthesis
- 3 Frequency modulation (FM) synthesis
- 4 Pulse-code modulation (PCM, sample-based)
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Programmable sound generators (PSG)
- Atari TIA, combined sound and graphics chip, used in the Atari 2600 and Atari 7800 video game consoles and in Video Music, a music visualizer for TV.
- Atari POKEY, used in Atari 8-bit home computers, the Atari 5200 console, and certain Atari 7800 cartridges.
- Atari AMY, intended for the 65XEM, but never released.
- General Instrument AY-3-8910, used in arcade boards (DECO, Taito Z80, Konami Scramble, Irem M27, Konami 6809, Capcom Z80), computers (Colour Genie, Oric 1, MSX, Amstrad CPC, ZX Spectrum with 128K RAM, Elektor TVGC and Mockingboard), and the Intellivision home console.
- General Instrument SP0250, LPC (linear predictive coding) speech synthesis chip used in the Sega G80 arcade system board.
- General Instrument SP0256, LPC speech synthesis chip.
- Konami RC, used in the Konami Scramble and Gyruss arcade system boards.
- Konami VRC6, used in certain Konami-produced Famicom cartridges.
- MOS Technology 6560/6561 "VIC", used in the Commodore VIC-1001 and VIC-20.
- MOS Technology 6581/8580 "SID", used in the Commodore 64 and Commodore 128.
- MOS Technology 7360/8360 "TED", used in the Commodore 16 and Commodore Plus/4.
- Ricoh 2A03/2A07, used in the Nintendo Entertainment System/Famicom home console (hardware expandable) and the arcade game Punch-Out!!
- Sega Melody Generator, used in the Sega G80 arcade system board.
- Sega PSG (SN76496), used in the Sega Z80, Sega Zaxxon and System E arcade boards, and the Sega Master System and Mega Drive/Genesis consoles.
- Texas Instruments SN76477, used in the Space Invaders arcade system board.
- Texas Instruments SN76489 "DCSG", used in various arcade system boards, the Sega SG-1000 console, and the BBC Micro, home computer Sharp MZ-800 and Texas Instruments TI-99/4A computers.
- Texas Instruments SN76489A "DCSG", used in the ColecoVision, Sega Master System and Mega Drive/Genesis consoles, and the Sega Game Gear and Pico handheld game consoles.
- Texas Instruments SN76496, used in the Tandy 1000 computer.
- Yamaha YM2149 (based on General Instrument AY-3-8910), used in various arcade boards, and the Atari ST computer.
- Yamaha YM3439, used in the Atari Falcon computer.
- Ensoniq 5503, used in the Apple IIgs computer.
- Konami SCC, used in certain arcade boards and game carts for the MSX.
- Namco WSG (Waveform Sound Generator), used in several Namco arcade system boards, including Namco Pac-Man and Namco Galaga.
- Namco 15xx (WSG), used in the Namco Super Pac-Man arcade system board.
- Namco 52xx (Audio Processor), used in the Namco Galaga and Namco Pole Position arcade system boards.
- Namco 54xx (Audio Generator), used in the Namco Pole Position arcade system board.
- Namco CUS30, used in the Namco System 1, Namco Thunder Ceptor and System 86 arcade boards.
- Namco 163, used in Namco-produced Famicom games.
Frequency modulation (FM) synthesis
- Jerry, used in the Atari Jaguar. Also supports single-cycle wavetable-lookup synthesis and PCM (sample-based synthesis).
- ESFM synthesizer, used in most ESS Tech sound chips, ES1868/69 being most common. Chip includes wavetable interface. Two modes, one "OPL2/3 compatible" and the other the native superset.
- Yamaha YM2413 (a.k.a. OPLL), used in the Japanese Sega Master System, and in the MSX in MSX Music cartridges like the FM-PAC and internally in several Japanese models by Panasonic, Sony and Sanyo
- Yamaha YM2203 (a.k.a. OPN), used in some 80's arcade games and the NEC PC-88 and PC-98 computers
- Yamaha YM2151 (a.k.a. OPM), used in mid-80's to mid-90's arcade games (the most prolific FM chip used in arcades), the Sharp X68000 computer, and the Yamaha SFG-01 and SFG-05 FM Sound Synthesizer Unit cartridges for the MSX
- Yamaha YM2608 (a.k.a. OPNA), used in the NEC PC-88 and PC-98 computers
- Yamaha YM2610 (a.k.a. OPNB), used in the SNK Neo Geo console
- Yamaha YM2612 (a.k.a. OPN2), used in the Sega Mega Drive / Genesis console and FM Towns computer
- Yamaha YM3526 (a.k.a. OPL)
- Yamaha Y8950 (a.k.a. MSX-AUDIO, very similar to Yamaha YM3526), used in MSX-Audio cartridges for the MSX: Panasonic FS-CA1, Toshiba HX-MU900, and Philips NMS-1205
- Yamaha YM3812 (a.k.a. OPL2), used in AdLib and early Sound Blaster sound cards for the PC
- Yamaha YMF262 (a.k.a. OPL3), used in Sound Blaster Pro 2.0 and later cards for the PC
- Yamaha YMF278 (a.k.a. OPL4), used in the Moonsound cartridge for the MSX computer
- Yamaha YMF288 (a.k.a. OPN3), used in the NEC PC-98 computer
- Yamaha YMF7xx (Embedded audio chipset in some laptops and soundcards)
Pulse-code modulation (PCM, sample-based)
- Jerry, used in the Atari Jaguar. Also supports FM and single-cycle wavetable-lookup synthesis.
- SDMA, used in the Atari Falcon030.
- CS4231, Windows Sound System Compatible.
- Digitalker MM54104, a DM (delta modulation) DPCM (differential PCM) speech synthesis chip used in the Namco Galaxian (King & Balloon) and Scorpion arcade system boards
- HC-55516, a CVSD (continuously variable slope delta modulation) ADM (adaptive delta modulation) speech coding decoder used in the Red Alert, Sinistar and Midway Y Unit arcade system boards
- Namco C140, used in the Namco System 21 arcade board
- Namco C352, used in the Namco System 22 and System 23 arcade boards
- LMC1992, used in the Atari STE and Atari TT030
- OKI MSM5205, ADPCM chip used in various arcade system boards (Irem M-52, Data East Z80, Capcom 68000) and NEC's PC Engine CD-ROM²/TurboGrafx-CD console
- Oki MSM6258, used in Sharp's X68000 computer
- Oki MSM6295
- Ricoh RF5c68, used in the Fujitsu FM Towns computer and the Sega System 18 and System 32 arcade boards
- VLM5030 Speech Synthesizer, a speech synthesis chip used in the arcade game Punch-Out!!
- SegaPCM, used in the Sega Space Harrier, Sega OutRun, X Board and Y Board arcade system boards
- Sega MultiPCM, used in the Sega System Multi 32, Sega Model 1 and Model 2 arcade boards
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-09-29. Retrieved 2014-09-27.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-09-30. Retrieved 2014-09-27.
- https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/master/src/mame/audio/segag80r.c[permanent dead link]
- https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/master/src/emu/sound/sn76496.c[permanent dead link]
- https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/master/src/emu/sound/namco.c[permanent dead link]
- https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/master/src/mame/audio/redalert.c[permanent dead link]
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2014-09-27.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-03-19. Retrieved 2008-05-28.
- Sound generators of the 1980s home computers - Has a list of chips, pictures, datasheets, etc.