In the 18th century, Mikhail Lomonosov propagated a theory that words containing certain sounds should bear certain meanings; for instance, the front vowel sounds E, I, YU should be used when depicting tender subjects and those with back vowel sounds O, U, Y when describing things that may cause fear ("like anger, envy, pain, and sorrow").
However, it is Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913) who is considered to be the founder of modern 'scientific' linguistics. Central to what de Saussure says about words are two related statements: First, he says that "the sign is arbitrary". He considers the words that we use to indicate things and concepts could be any words – they are essentially just a consensus agreed upon by the speakers of a language and have no discernible pattern or relationship to the thing. Second, he says that, because words are arbitrary, they have meaning only in relation to other words. A dog is a dog because it is not a cat or a mouse or a horse, etc. These ideas have permeated the study of words since the 19th century.
Margaret Magnus is the author of a comprehensive book designed to explain phonosemantics to the lay reader: Gods in the Word. This work describes three types of sound symbolism using a model first proposed by Wilhelm von Humboldt (see below):
This is the least significant type of symbolism. It is simply imitative of sounds or suggests something that makes a sound. Some examples are "crash", "bang", and "whoosh".
Words that share a sound sometimes have something in common. If we take, for example, words that have no prefix or suffix and group them according to meaning, some of them will fall into a number of categories. So we find that there is a group of words beginning with /b/ that are about barriers, bulges and bursting, and some other group of /b/ words that are about being banged, beaten, battered, bruised, blistered and bashed. This proportion is, according to Magnus, above the average for other letters.
Another hypothesis states that if a word begins with a particular phoneme, then there is likely to be a number of other words starting with that phoneme that refer to the same thing. An example given by Magnus is if the basic word for 'house' in a given language starts with a /h/, then by clustering, disproportionately many words containing /h/ can be expected to concern housing: hut, home, hovel, habitat...
Sound symbolic words cannot be broken down into smaller units of meaning. Sound clusters are not treated as morphemes. Words beginning with /gl/ (glitter, gleam, glow, glisten, etc.) pertain to light reflection but [gl] on its own has no meaning nor does every other word with /gl/ refer to light.
Clustering is language dependent, although closely related languages will have similar clustering relationships.
Iconism, according to Magnus, becomes apparent when comparing words which have the same sort of referent. One way is to look at a group of words that all refer to the same thing and that differ only in their sound, such as 'stamp', 'stomp', 'tamp', 'tromp', 'tramp', and 'step'. An /m/ before the /p/ in some words makes the action more forceful; compare 'stamp' with 'step' or 'tamp' with 'tap'. According to Magnus, the /r/ sets the word in motion, especially after a /t/ so a 'tamp' is in one place, but a 'tramp' goes for a walk. The /p/ in all those words would be what emphasizes the individual steps.
Magnus suggests that this kind of iconism is universal across languages.
Phenomimes and psychomimes
Some languages possess a category of words midway between onomatopoeia and usual words. Whereas onomatopoeia refers to the use of words to imitate actual sounds, there are languages known for having a special class of words that "imitate" soundless states or events, called phenomimes (when they describe external phenomena) and psychomimes (when they describe psychological states). On a scale that orders all words according to the correlation between their meaning and their sound, with the sound-imitating words like meow and whack at one end, and with the conventional words like water and blue at the other end, the phenomimes and the psychomimes would be somewhere in the middle. In the case of the Japanese language, for example, such words are learned in early childhood and are considerably more effective than usual words in conveying feelings and states of mind or in describing states, motions, and transformations. They are not found, however, only in children's vocabulary, but widely used in daily conversation among adults and even in more formal writing. Like Japanese, the Korean language also has a relatively high proportion of phenomimes and psychomimes.
History of phonosemantics
Several ancient traditions exist which talk about an archetypal relationship between sounds and ideas. Some of these are discussed below, but there are others as well. If we include a link between letters and ideas then the list includes the Viking Runes, the Hebrew Kabbalah, the Arab Abjad, etc.. References of this kind are very common in The Upanishads, The Nag Hammadi Library, the Celtic Book of Taliesin, as well as early Christian works, the Shinto Kototama, and Shingon Buddhism.
Sinologist Axel Schuessler asserts that in Old Chinese, "Occasionally, certain meanings are associated with certain sounds." Concerning initials, he suggests that words with meanings such as "dark, black, covered" etc. tend begin with *m-, while those indicating "soft, subtle, flexible" begin with *n-. Taking a broader perspective, he also notes that "Roots and stems meaning 'round, turn, return' have an initial *w- not only in Chinese, but generally in the languages of the area."
As for finals in Old Chinese, Schuessler points out, "Words that signify movement with an abrupt endpoint often end in *-k," and "Words with the meaning 'shutting, closing' ... tend to end in final *-p." He also notes an overlap between the significations of initial *m- and final *-m: "Words that imply 'keeping in a closed mouth' tend to end in a final *-m".
Plato and the Cratylus Dialogue
In Cratylus, Plato has Socrates commenting on the origins and correctness of various names and words. When Hermogenes asks if he can provide another hypothesis on how signs come into being (his own is simply 'convention'), Socrates initially suggests that they fit their referents in virtue of the sounds they are made of:
Now the letter rho, as I was saying, appeared to the imposer of names an excellent instrument for the expression of motion; and he frequently uses the letter for this purpose: for example, in the actual words rein and roe he represents motion by rho; also in the words tromos (trembling), trachus (rugged); and again, in words such as krouein (strike), thrauein (crush), ereikein (bruise), thruptein (break), kermatixein (crumble), rumbein (whirl): of all these sorts of movements he generally finds an expression in the letter R, because, as I imagine, he had observed that the tongue was most agitated and least at rest in the pronunciation of this letter, which he therefore used in order to express motion— Cratylus.
However, faced by an overwhelming number of counterexamples given by Hermogenes, Socrates has to admit that "my first notions of original names are truly wild and ridiculous".
The Upanishads contain a lot of material about sound symbolism, for instance:
The mute consonants represent the earth, the sibilants the sky, the vowels heaven. The mute consonants represent fire, the sibilants air, the vowels the sun… The mute consonants represent the eye, the sibilants the ear, the vowels the mind.
The concept of Sphota is also based on this.
Early Western phonosemantics
The idea of phonosemantics was sporadically discussed during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. In 1690, Locke wrote against the idea in an essay called "An Essay on Human Understanding". His argument was that if there were any connection between sounds and ideas, then we would all be speaking the same language, but this is an over-generalisation. Leibniz's book New Essays on Human Understanding published in 1765 contains a point by point critique of Locke's essay. Leibniz picks up on the generalization used by Locke and adopts a less rigid approach: clearly there is no perfect correspondence between words and things, but neither is the relationship completely arbitrary, although he seems vague about what that relationship might be.
In 1836 Wilhelm von Humboldt published Über die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaues und ihren Einfluß auf die geistige Entwicklung des Menschengeschlechts. It is here that he establishes the three kinds of relationship between sounds and ideas as discussed above under Types of Sound Symbolism. Below is a sample of researchers in the field of phonosemantics.
Otto Jespersen suggests that: "Sound symbolism, we may say, makes some words more fit to survive." Dwight Bolinger of Harvard University was the primary proponent of phonosemantics through the late 1940s and the 1950s. In 1949, he published The Sign is Not Arbitrary. He concluded that morphemes cannot be defined as the minimal meaning-bearing units, in part because linguistic meaning is so ill-defined, and in part because there are obvious situations in which smaller units are meaning-bearing.
Ivan Fónagy (1963) correlates phonemes with metaphors. For example, nasal and velarized vowels are quite generally considered 'dark', front vowels as 'fine' and 'high'. Unvoiced stops have been considered 'thin' by European linguists, whereas the fricatives were labelled 'raw' and 'hairy' by the Greeks.
Hans Marchand provided the first extensive list of English phonesthemes. He wrote, for example, that "/l/ at the end of a word symbolizes prolongation, continuation" or "nasals at the end of a word express continuous vibrating sounds."
Gérard Genette published the only full length history of phonosemantics, Mimologics (1976). In 450 pages, Genette details the evolution of the linguistic iconism among linguists and poets, in syntax, morphology and phonology.
Linguist Keith McCune demonstrated in his doctoral thesis that virtually every word in the Indonesian language has an iconic (phonosemantic) component. His two-volume doctoral thesis "The Internal Structure of Indonesian Roots" was completed at the University of Michigan in 1983 and published in Jakarta in 1985.
Relationship with neuroscience
In the 2003 BBC Reith Lectures, Vilayanur S. Ramachandran outlined his research into the links between brain structure and function. In the fourth lecture of the series he describes the phenomena of synesthesia in which people experience, for example, sounds in terms of colors, or sounds in terms of tastes. In one type of synesthesia, people see numbers, letters of the alphabet, or even musical notes as having a distinct color. Ramachandran proposes a model for how language might have evolved.[clarification needed] The theory may explain how humans create metaphors and how sounds can be metaphors for images – why for example sounds can be described as "bright" or "dull". In explaining how language might have evolved from cross activation of adjacent areas in the brain, Ramachandran notes four crucial factors, not all related to language, but which combined might have resulted in the emergence of language. Two of these four processes are of particular interest here.
Synesthetic cross modal abstraction: i.e. we recognize properties that sounds and images have in common and abstract them to store them independently. The sounds and shapes of the objects have characteristics in common that can be abstracted; for example, a "sharp", "cutting" quality of a word, and the shape it describes. Ramachandran calls this the 'Bouba/kiki effect', based on the results of an experiment with two abstract shapes, one blob-like and the other spiky, that asked people to relate the nonsense words bouba and kiki to them. The effect is real and observable, repeatable across linguistic groups, and evident even in the description of the experiment (with the bouba shape usually described using similar-sounding words like bulbous or blobby while the kiki shape is prickly or spiky).
Built in preexisting cross activation. Ramachandran points out that areas of the brain which appear to be involved in the mix-ups in synesthesia are adjacent to each other physically, and that cross-wiring, or cross activation, could explain synesthesia and our ability to make metaphors. He notes that the areas that control the muscles around the mouth are also adjacent to the visual centers, and suggests that certain words appear to make our mouth imitate the thing we are describing. Examples of this might be words like "teeny weeny", "diminutive" to describe small things; "large" or "enormous" to describe big things.
More recently, research on ideasthesia indicated that Kiki and Bouba have an entire semantic-like network of associated cross-modal experiences.
Relationship with poetry
The sound of words is important in the field of poetry, and rhetoric more generally. Tools such as euphony, alliteration, and rhyme all depend on the speaker or writer confidently choosing the best-sounding word.
John Michell's book Euphonics: A Poet's Dictionary of Enchantments collects lists of words of similar meaning and similar sounds. For example, the entry for "gl-" contains words for shiny things: glisten, gleam, glint, glare, glam, glimmer, glaze, glass, glitz, gloss, glory, glow, and glitter. Likewise, in German, nouns starting with "kno-" and "knö-" are mostly small and round: Knoblauch "garlic", Knöchel "ankle", Knödel "dumpling", Knolle "tuber", Knopf "button", Knorren "knot (in a tree)", Knospe "bud (of a plant)", Knoten "knot (in string or rope)".
Use in commerce
Phonesthesia is used in commerce for the names of products and even companies themselves. According to linguist Steven Pinker, one particularly "egregious example" was when cigarette maker Philip Morris rebranded to Altria. The name "Altria" is claimed to come from the Latin word for "high" but Pinker sees the change as an attempt to "switch its image from bad people who sell addictive carcinogens to a place or state marked by altruism and other lofty values". The brand names of many pharmaceuticals are common examples.
- Imitation of natural sounds in various cultures
- Japanese sound symbolism
- Origin of speech
- Phono-semantic matching
- Sign (linguistics)
- М. В. Ломоносов. Краткое руководство к красноречию. Книга первая, в которой содержится риторика, показующая общие правила обоего красноречия, то есть оратории и поэзии, сочиненная в пользу любящих словесные науки (1748) // Ломоносов М. В. Полное собрание сочинений / АН СССР. — М.; Л., 1950—1983. Т. 7: Труды по филологии 1739—1758 гг. — М.; Л.: Изд-во АН СССР, 1952. — С. 242 (§ 172).
- Lieber, Rochelle (2016). Introducing morphology (Second ed.). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 48. ISBN 9781107480155. OCLC 907495600.
- Junko Baba, "Pragmatic Function of Japanese Mimesis in Emotive Discourse" The author shows that psychomimes "create more vivid and intensified expressions to fuel the liveliness of the personal conversation" and "are effectively used to dramatize the emotive state of the protagonist".
- Schuessler (2007), p. 27
- (note this is an open source translation available at Internet Classics Archive
-  The Upanishads, translated by Max Müller, 1879.
- adapted from a literature review by Magnus - see website below
- The above review of modern phonosemantics is partially adapted from a literature review by Magnus - see website below.
- "Altria Director Discusses Rebranding Company, CNNfn". Finance Wire. November 11, 2003.
- Pinker, Steven (2007). The Stuff of Thought. Penguin Books. p. 304.
- Jakobson, Roman; Waugh, Linda R. (2002). The Sound Shape of Language. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-017285-0.
- Magnus, Margaret (2010). Gods in the Word: Archetypes in the Consonants. CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-4538-2444-3.
- Mitchell, John (2006). Euphonics: A Poet's Dictionary of Enchantments. Wooden Books. ISBN 978-1-904263-43-2.
- Schuessler, Axel (2007). ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2975-9.
- Hinton, L., J. Nichols and J. J. Ohala (eds), 1994. Sound Symbolism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Science Friday podcast and NPR segment on the Bouba Kiki Effect
- Margaret Magnus's Phonosemantics Website
- phonosemantics.com Website
- The Influence of Phonesthesia on the English Language - an alternative approach to phonosemantics.
- Cratylus Dialogue
- Reference and symbol in Plato's Cratylus and kuukai's Shojijissogi Philosophy East and West Vol. 32:4 (October 1982)
- BBC Reith Lectures 2003
- especially "Lecture 4: Purple Numbers and Sharp Cheese"
- An example of phonosemantics in advertising
- Oral Metaphor Construct Asa M. Stepak
- Induced generic sound symbolism for the blind - "seeing with sound"
- Conversational Grunts
- Eating the Wind a satirical but illustrative example of sound symbolism and iconicity using airstream mechanisms.
- "Phonological Clusters of Semantically Similar Words"
- comparison of dirty words in Chinese and English
- La Caverna Sonora (spanish) Miguel Ángel Mendo
- The lost words of Life and Death