Source Code Control System
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|Original author(s)||Marc J. Rochkind|
|License||proprietary licenses, Common Development and Distribution License|
|Website||The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, 2016 Edition|
Source Code Control System (SCCS) is a version control system designed to track changes in source code and other text files during the development of a piece of software. This allows the user to retrieve any of the previous versions of the original source code and the changes which are stored. It was originally developed at Bell Labs in 1972 by Marc Rochkind for an IBM System/370 computer running OS/360.
SCCS is also known for the
sccsid string, for example:
static char sccsid = "@(#)ls.c 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/11/93";
This string contains the file name, date, and can also contain a comment. After compilation, the string can be found in binary and object files by looking for the pattern "@(#)" and can be used to determine which source code files were used during compilation. The "what" command  is available to automate this search for version strings.
- 1 History
- 2 Background
- 3 Composition
- 4 SCCS files
- 5 SCCS basic commands
- 6 Alternatives
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
The first publicly released version was SCCS version 4 from February 18, 1977. It was available with the Programmer's Workbench (PWB) edition of the operating system. Release 4 of SCCS was the first version that used a text-based history file format, earlier versions did use binary history file formats. Release 4 was no longer written or maintained by Marc Rochkind. Subsequently, SCCS was included in AT&T's commercial System III and System V distributions. It was not licensed with 32V, the ancestor to BSD. The SCCS command set is now part of the Single UNIX Specification.
SCCS was the dominant version control system for Unix until later version control systems, notably the RCS and later CVS, gained more widespread adoption. Today, these early version control systems are generally considered obsolete, particularly in the open-source community, which has largely embraced distributed version control systems. However, the SCCS file format is still used internally by a few newer version control programs, including BitKeeper and TeamWare. The latter is a frontend to SCCS. Sablime has been developed from a modified version of SCCS but uses a history file format that is incompatible with SCCS. The SCCS file format uses a storage technique called interleaved deltas (or the weave). This storage technique is now considered by many version control system developers as foundational to advanced merging and versioning techniques, such as the "Precise Codeville" ("pcdv") merge.
Apart from fixing some Year 2000 problems in 1999, there is no active development on the various UNIX vendor specific SCCS versions. In 2006, Sun Microsystems (today part of Oracle) released their Solaris version of SCCS as open-source under the CDDL license as part of their efforts to open-source Solaris.
The Source Code Control System (SCCS) is a system for controlling file and history changes. Software is typically upgraded to a new version by fixing bugs, optimizing algorithms and adding extra functions. Popular software has many versions, such as Java. Changing software causes problems that require version control to solve.
- Source code takes up too much space because it is repeated in every version.
- Passing optimization from one version to other versions is difficult.
- It is hard to acquire information about when and where changes occurred.
- Finding the exact version which the client has problems with is difficult.
SCCS was built to solve these problems. SCCS from AT&T had five major versions for the IBM OS and five major versions for UNIX Two specific implementations using SCCS are: PDP 11 under Unix and IBM 370 under the OS.
SCCS consists of two parts: SCCS commands and SCCS files. All basic operations (e.g., create, delete, edit) can be realized by SCCS commands. SCCS files have a unique format prefix
s., which is controlled by SCCS commands.
An SCCS file is composed of three different parts:
- Delta table
- Access and tracking flags
- Body of the text
In SCCS, a delta refers to a change of SCCS file. Deltas are stored in a delta table, so each SCCS file has its own record of changes.
Control and tracking flags in SCCS files
Every operation of each SCCS file will be tracked by flags. Their functions are as below:
- Setting permissions for editing of every SCCS file.
- Control each release of every SCCS file.
- Permitting collaborative editing of every SCCS file.
- Mutual-referencing changes of every SCCS file.
Body of the texts
There are three types of control records used to keep track of insertions and deletions applied in different deltas. They are insertion control record, deletion control record and end control record. Whenever a user changes some part of the text, a control record is inserted surrounding the change. These control records are stored in the body along with the original source code or text records.
SCCS basic commands
There are lots of commands that can be used in SCCS. These commands helps users to finish what they want to achieve without understanding how they worked. Also, the SCCS allows users to have access to history files. Moreover, it also provides some commands which allow them to edit, monitor and change the source files.
The sccs create command uses the text of source file to create a new history file. For example:
$ sccs create program.c program.c: 1.1 87 lines
The outputs are name, version and lines.
The create command is a macro that expands to admin to create the new history file followed by a get to retrieve the file.
$ sccs edit program.c 1.1 new delta 1.2 87 lines
Edit a specific file.
The edit command is a macro that expands to get -e.
$ sccs delget program.c comments? main function enhanced 1.2 10 inserted 0 deleted 87 unchanged 1.2 97 lines
Check in new version and get the new version from sccs.
The delget command is a macro that expands to delta to check in the new version file followed by a get to retrieve the file.
$ sccs get program.c 1.1 87 lines
The outputs are version and lines you want to get from specific file.
$ sccs prt program.c
This command produces a report of changes you made.
UNIX SCCS versions
Jörg Schilling's fork
Jörg Schilling (who requested the release of SCCS in the early days of the OpenSolaris project) maintains a fork of SCCS that is based on the OpenSolaris source code. It has received major feature enhancements but remains compatible with the original SCCS versions unless using the "new project" mode.
GNU conversion utility
GNU offers the SCCS compatible program GNU CSSC ("Compatibly Stupid Source Control"), which is occasionally used to convert SCCS archives to newer systems like CVS or Subversion; it is not a complete SCCS implementation and not recommended for use in new projects, but mostly meant for converting to a modern version control system.
Other version control systems
Since the 1990s, many new version control systems have been developed and become popular that are designed for managing projects with a large number of files and that offer advanced functionality such as multi-user operation, access control, automatic building, network support, release management and distributed version control. Bitkeeper and TeamWare use the SCCS file format internally and can be considered successors to SCCS.
- Rochkind, Marc J. (December 1975), "The Source Code Control System" (PDF), IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, SE-1 (4), pp. 364–370, doi:10.1109/tse.1975.6312866
- Oracle. "Chapter 5 SCCS Source Code Control System". Programming Utilities Guide.
- http://sccs.sourceforge.net/PWB.html AT&T Announcement for SCCSv4
- SCCS what(1) manpage from 4BSD, 1980, on the website of The Unix Heritage Society Archived 2005-08-31 at the Wayback Machine.
- Estublier, Jacky, David Leblang, André van der Hoek, Reidar Conradi, Geoffrey Clemm, Walter Tichy, and Darcy Wiborg-Weber. “Impact of software engineering research on the practice of software configuration management.” ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (TOSEM) 14 (October 2005): 383–430.
- Hudson, Greg (2002-10-03), Notes on keeping version histories of files, Unpublished personal notes
- Estublier, Jacky, David Leblang, André van der Hoek, Reidar Conradi, Geoffrey Clemm, Walter Tichy, and Darcy Wiborg-Weber. “Impact of software engineering research on the practice of software configuration management.” ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (TOSEM) 14 (October 2005): p.398.
- What is SCCS, GNU operating System
- Stephen Lau, Sun Microsystems (2006-12-19). "SCCS/make source available". Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
- "Home Organization Selection". search.proquest.com.prox.lib.ncsu.edu. Retrieved 2016-09-12.
- "Java Downloads for All Operating Systems". java.com. Retrieved 2016-09-11.
- The evolution of a Source Code Control System. Alan L.Glasser, published in sigmetrics, Nov 1978 when SCCS on UNIX was a version 4
- "SCCS". www-h.eng.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-09-12.
- IBM. "General Programming Concepts: Writing and Debugging Programs". IBM Knowledge Center.
- An Introduction to the Source Code Control System Eric Allman, Project Ingres, University of California at Berkeley
- Source Code Control System Programming Utilities Guide
- Koike, Hideki, and Hui-Chu Chu. "VRCS: Integrating version control and module management using interactive three-dimensional graphics." Visual Languages, 1997. Proceedings. 1997 IEEE Symposium on. IEEE, 1997.
- "os.solaris.opensolaris.rfe - Re: star - msg#00001 - Recent Discussion OSDir.com". osdir.com. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
- Jörg Schilling's SCCS development website
- Schily SCCS web site: "Will the upcoming SCCSv6 stay compatible with POSIX and with historic SCCS implementations?"
- Gunnar Ritter (20 June 2010). "The Heirloom Development Tools". Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- http://heirloom.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/heirloom/heirloom-devtools/sccs/ see CVS history
- SCCS2SVN conversion utility Archived 2009-12-22 at the Wayback Machine, which works with both SCCS and CSSC
- GNU CSSC list of limitations in its documentation
- "revtool | BitKeeper Documentation". www.bitkeeper.org.
- "Introduction to Sun WorkShop TeamWare". docs.oracle.com. Retrieved 10 September 2016.