South 24 Parganas
|South 24 Parganas district
দক্ষিণ চব্বিশ পরগণা জেলা
|District of West Bengal|
Location of South 24 Parganas district in West Bengal
|• Lok Sabha constituencies||Jaynagar, Mathurapur, Diamond Harbour, Jadavpur, Kolkata Dakshin|
|• Assembly seats||Gosaba, Basanti, Kultali, Patharpratima, Kakdwip, Sagar, Kulpi, Raidighi, Mandirbazar, Jaynagar, Baruipur Purba, Canning Paschim, Canning Purba, Baruipur Paschim, Magrahat Purba, Magrahat Paschim, Diamond Harbour, Falta, Satgachia, Bishnupur, Sonarpur Dakshin, Bhangar, Kasba, Jadavpur, Sonarpur Uttar, Tollyganj, Behala Purba, Behala Paschim, Maheshtala, Budge Budge, Metiaburuz|
|• Total||9,960 km2 (3,850 sq mi)|
|• Density||820/km2 (2,100/sq mi)|
|• Literacy||78.57 per cent|
|• Sex ratio||937|
|Major highways||NH 117|
|Average annual precipitation||1750 mm|
South 24 Parganas (Pron: pɔrɡɔnɔs) is a district of West Bengal State, headquartered in Alipore. It is the largest district of West Bengal State by area and second largest by population. On one side it has the urban fringe of Kolkata and on the other, the remote riverine villages in the Sundarbans.
- 1 History
- 2 Economy
- 3 Divisions
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Flora and fauna
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Once the capital of Raja Bikramaditya and Maharaja Pratapaditya was at Dhumghat. Later it was transferred to Ishwaripur (Originated from the name Jeshoreshwaripur). Maharaja Pratapaditya declared independence of South Bengal (Jessore, Khulna in north, Sundarbans, Bay of Bengal in South, Barisal in east and River Ganges in west) against the Mughal Empire of India.
Jashoreshwari Kali Temple (built by Pratapaditya), Chanda Bhairab Mandir at Ishwaripur (a triangular temple, built during the Sena period), Five domed Tenga Mosque at Banshipur (Mughal period), two big and four small domed Hammankhana (constructed by Pratapaditya) at Bangshipur, Govinda Dev Temple at Gopalpur (built by Basanta Roy, uncle of Maharaja Pratapaditya in 1593), Jahajghata Port (Khanpur). Pratapaditya king of Jessore and one of the bara-bhuiyans of Bengal. Pratapaditya fought against the Mughal imperial army during its inroad into Bengal in the early 17th century. His father Shrihari (Shridhar), a Kayastha, was an influential officer in the service of daud khan karrani. On the fall of Daud he fled away with the government treasure in his custody. He then set up a kingdom for himself in the marshy land to the extreme south of Khulna district (1574) and took the title of Maharaja. Pratapaditya succeeded to the kingship in 1574. The baharistan and the travel diary of Abdul Latif and the contemporary European writers, all testify to the personal ability of Pratapaditya, his political pre-eminence, material resources and martial strength, particularly in war-boats. His territories covered the greater part of what is now included in the greater Jessore, Khulna and Barisal districts. He established his capital at Dhumghat, a strategic position at the confluence of the Jamuna and Ichhamati.
Among the Bengal zamindars Pratapaditya was the first to send his envoy to Islam Khan Chisti with a large gift to win the favour of the Mughals, and then tendered personal submission to the Subahdar (1609). He promised military assistance and personal service in the Mughal campaign against musa khan, a pledge that he did not keep. To punish Pratapaditya for his disloyalty as a vassal and to subjugate his territory, a large expedition was launched under the command of Ghiyas Khan, which soon reached a place named Salka, near the confluence of the Jamuna and Ichhamati (1611). Pratapaditya equipped a strong army and a fleet and placed them under expert officers including Feringis, Afghans and Pathans. His eldest son Udayaditya made a big fort at Salka with natural barriers on three sides rendering it almost impregnable. In battle the Jessore fleet gained an initial advantage. But the imperial army cut off the Jessore fleet, made a breach in its ranks and broke its unity and discipline. In the melee that followed, the admiral Khwaja Kamal was killed. Udayaditya lost heart and hastily fled to his father, narrowly escaping capture. Jamal Khan evacuated the fort and followed Udayaditya.
Pratapaditya prepared himself to fight a second time from a new base near the confluence of Kagarghat canal and the Jamuna. He made a big fort at a strategic point and gathered all his available forces there. The imperialists began the battle by an attack on the Jessore fleet (Jan 1612) and compelled it to seek shelter beneath the fort. But their further advance was checked by the heavy cannonade of the Jessore artillery. A sudden attack of the imperialists completely defeated the Jessore fleet and they fell upon the fort with the elephants in front, thereby compelling Pratapaditya to evacuate the fort and retreat.
The second defeat sealed the fate of Pratapaditya. At Kagarghat he tendered submission to Ghiyas Khan, who personally escorted Pratapaditya to Islam Khan at Dhaka. The Jessore king was put in chains and his kingdom was annexed. Pratapaditya was kept confined at Dhaka. No authentic information is an available regarding his last days. Probably he died at Benares on his way to Delhi, as a prisoner.
Agriculture, Industry and Pisciculture are all at their peak in the district. In west side of this district situated Falta Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Various types of industry are situated in this SEZ.
Alipore is the district headquarters. There are thirty-three police stations, twenty-nine development blocks, seven municipalities and 312 gram panchayats in the district. The Sunderbans area is covered by thirteen CD blocks, viz. Sagar, Namkhana, Kakdwip, Patharpratima, Kultali, Mathurapur–I, Mathurapur–II, Jaynagar–I, Jaynagar–II, Canning–I, Canning–II, Basanti and Gosaba. The district contains thirty-seven islands.
Other than the municipality areas, each subdivision contains community development blocks which in turn are divided into rural areas and census towns. In total there are twenty-one urban units: seven municipalities and fourteen census towns.
Alipore Sadar subdivision
Alipore Sadar subdivision consists of three municipalities and five community development blocks.
- Urban areas which are part of Kolkata Municipal Corporation: Alipore, New Alipore, Garden Reach, Tartala, Behala, Bhowanipore, Kalighat, Tollygunge, Jadavpur, Ballygunge, Kustia, Gariahat.
- Three municipalities: Budge Budge, Pujali and Maheshtala.
- Bishnupur–I, a community development block which consists of rural areas with eleven gram panchayats and two census towns: Bishnupur and Kanyanagar.
- Bishnupur–II community development block consists of rural areas with eleven gram panchayats and two census towns: Amtala and Chak Enayetnagar.
- Budge Budge–I community development block consists of rural areas with six gram panchayats and three census towns: Balarampur, Uttar Raypur and Birlapur.
- Budge Budge–II community development block consists of rural areas with eleven gram panchayats and two census towns: Chak Kashipur and Bowali.
- Thakurpukur Maheshtala community development block consists of rural areas with six gram panchayats and one census town: Chata Kalikapur.
Baruipur subdivision consists of three municipalities and seven community development blocks.
- Three municipalities: Baruipur, Rajpur Sonarpur and Jaynagar Mazilpur.
- Baruipur community development block consists of rural areas only with nineteen gram panchayats.
- Bhangar–I community development block consists of rural areas with nine gram panchayats and one census town: Bhangar Raghunathpur.
- Bhangar–II community development block consists of rural areas only with ten gram panchayats.
- Jaynagar–I community development block consists of rural areas with twelve gram panchayats and one census town: Uttar Durgapur.
- Jaynagar–II community development block consists of rural areas only with ten gram panchayats.
- Kultali community development block consists of rural areas only with nine gram panchayats.
- Sonarpur community development block consists of rural areas only with eleven gram panchayats.
- Thakurpukur Maheshtala Block consists of rural areas only with six gram panchayats.
Canning subdivision consists of four community development blocks, with no urban areas.
- Basanti community development block consists of rural areas only with thirteen gram panchayats.
- Canning–I community development block consists of rural areas only with ten gram panchayats.
- Canning–II community development block consists of rural areas only with nine gram panchayats.
- Gosaba community development block consists of rural areas only with fourteen gram panchayats.
Diamond Harbour subdivision
- One municipality: Diamond Harbour
- Diamond Harbour - I community development block consists of rural areas only with eight gram panchayats.
- Diamond Harbour - II community development block consists of rural areas only with eight gram panchayats.
- Falta community development block consists of rural areas only with thirteen gram panchayats.
- Kulpi community development block consists of rural areas only with fourteen gram panchayats.
- Magrahat - I community development block consists of rural areas only with eleven gram panchayats.
- Magrahat - II community development block consists of rural areas with fourteen gram panchayats and two census towns - Uttar Kalas and Bilandapur
- Mandirbazar community development block consists of rural areas only with ten gram panchayats.
- Mathurapur - I community development block consists of rural areas only with ten gram panchayats.
- Mathurapur - II community development block consists of rural areas only with eleven gram panchayats.
Kakdwip subdivision consists of four community development blocks and no urban areas.
- Kakdwip community development block consists of rural areas only with eleven gram panchayats.
- Namkhana community development block consists of rural areas only with seven gram panchayats.
- Patharpratima community development block consists of rural areas only with fifteen gram panchayats.
- Sagar community development block consists of rural areas only with nine gram panchayats.
The district has five parliament constituencies :
- 19-Joynagar (SC) Parliamentary Constituency
- 20-Mathurapur (SC) Parliamentary Constituency
- 21-Diamond Harbour Parliamentary Constituency
- 22-Jadavpur Parliamentary Constituency
- 23-Kolkata Dakshin Parliamentary Constituency
1997 to 2008
- Gosaba (SC) (assembly constituency no. 100),
- Basanti (SC) (assembly constituency no. 101),
- Kultali (SC) (assembly constituency no. 102),
- Jaynagar (assembly constituency no. 136),
- Baruipur (assembly constituency no. 104),
- Canning West (SC) (assembly constituency no. 105),
- Canning East (assembly constituency no. 106),
- Bhangar (assembly constituency no. 107),
- Jadavpur (assembly constituency no. 108),
- Sonarpur (SC) (assembly constituency no. 109),
- Bishnupur East (SC) (assembly constituency no. 110),
- Bishnupur West (assembly constituency no. 111),
- Behala East (assembly constituency no. 112),
- Behala West (assembly constituency no. 113),
- Garden Reach (assembly constituency no. 114),
- Maheshtala (assembly constituency no. 115),
- Budge Budge (assembly constituency no. 116),
- Satgachia (assembly constituency no. 117),
- Falta (assembly constituency no. 118),
- Diamond Harbour (assembly constituency no. 119),
- Magrahat West (assembly constituency no. 120),
- Magrahat East (SC) (assembly constituency no. 121),
- Mandirbazar (SC) (assembly constituency no. 122),
- Mathurapur (assembly constituency no. 123),
- Kulpi (SC) (assembly constituency no. 124),
- Patharpratima (assembly constituency no. 125),
- Kakdwip (assembly constituency no. 126),
- Sagar (assembly constituency no. 127),
- Kabitirtha (assembly constituency no. 147),
- Alipore (assembly constituency no. 148),
- Tollygunge (assembly constituency no. 150) and
- Dhakuria (assembly constituency no. 151).
Gosaba, Basanti, Kultali, Canning West, Sonarpur, Bishnupur East, Magrahat East, Mandirbazar and Kulpi constituencies are reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates. Along with one assembly constituency from North 24 Parganas district, Gosaba, Basanti, Kultali, Jaynagar, Canning West and Canning East assembly constituencies form the Joynagar (Lok Sabha constituency), which is reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC). Baruipur, Jadavpur, Bishnupur East, Behala East, Behala West, Magrahat West and Kabitirtha constituencies form the Jadavpur (Lok Sabha constituency). Bishnupur West, Garden Reach, Maheshtala, Budge Budge, Satgachia, Falta and Diamond Harbour constituencies form the Diamond Harbour (Lok Sabha constituency). Magrahat East, Mandirbazar, Mathurapur, Kulpi, Patharpratima, Kakdwip and Sagar constituencies form the Mathurapur (Lok Sabha constituency), which is reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC). Along with six assembly segments from North 24 Parganas district, Bhangar assembly constituency forms the Basirhat (Lok Sabha constituency). Along with three assembly constituencies from Kolkata district, Sonarpur, Alipore, Tollygunge and Dhakuria form the Calcutta South (Lok Sabha constituency).
2008 to date
In the 2008 order of the Delimitation Commission in respect of the delimitation of constituencies in the West Bengal, the district was divided into thirty-one assembly constituencies. Baruipur East, Basanti, Bishnupur, Canning West, Gosaba, Kultali, Jaynagar, Magrahat East and Mandirbazar constituencies are reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates.
|Gosaba (SC)||127||Patharpratima||130||Diamond Harbour||143||Baruipur East (SC)||137||Kasba||149|
|Basanti (SC)||128||Kakdwip||131||Falta||144||Baruipur West||140||Behala East||153|
|Kultali (SC)||129||Sagar||132||Satgachhia||145||Sonarpur South||147||Behala West||154|
|Jaynagar (SC)||136||Kulpi||133||Bishnupur (SC)||146||Bhangar||148||**|
|Canning West (SC)||138||Raidighi||134||Maheshtala||155||Jadavpur||150||**|
|Canning East||139||Mandirbazar (SC)||135||Budge Budge||156||Sonarpur North||151||**|
|Magrahat East (SC)||141||Magrahat West||142||Metiaburuz||157||Tollyganj||152||**|
**constituencies from Kolkata District
According to the 2011 census South 24 Parganas district had a population of 8,153,176, roughly equal to the nation of Honduras or the US state of Virginia. This gave it a ranking of 6th among the districts in India (out of a total of 640). The district had a population density of 819 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,120/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 18.05%. In 2011 South Twenty Four Parganas had a sex ratio of 949 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 78.57%.
Flora and fauna
In 1984, South 24 Parganas district became home to Sundarbans National Park, which has an area of 1,330 km2 (513.5 sq mi). It shares the park with North 24 Parganas district. It is also home to four wildlife sanctuaries: Haliday Island, Lothian Island, Narendrapur, and Sajnekhali.
Sundarbans, formerly Sunderbunds, is a vast tract of forest and saltwater swamp forming the lower part of the Ganges Delta, extending about 260 kilometres (160 mi) along the Bay of Bengal from the Hooghly River Estuary (India) north and east to the Meghna River Estuary in Bangladesh. The whole tract reaches inland for 100 to 130 kilometres (60– to 80 miles).
A network of estuaries, tidal rivers, and creeks intersected by numerous channels, it encloses flat, marshy islands covered with dense forests. The name Sundarbans is perhaps derived from the term meaning "forest of sundari," a reference to the large mangrove tree that provides valuable fuel. Along the coast the forest passes into a mangrove swamp; the southern region, with numerous wild animals and crocodile-infested estuaries, is virtually uninhabited. It is one of the last preserves of the Bengal tiger and the site of a tiger preservation project. The cultivated northern area yields rice, sugarcane, timber, and betel nuts.
The region is also famous for some commonly domesticated livestock breeds which includes the Garole breed of sheep and Chinae hans or Muscuovy ducks, the Garole sheep is considered as the progenitor of the Booroola merino sheep and is noted for its prolific character. However, the wool of the sheep which can be a valuable natural asset does not find any use among the natives. Bakkhali beach resort located on one of the islands jutting out into the Bay of Bengal is gaining in popularity, with improvements in transport links with Kolkata.The woodlands and swamps of Sundarbans provide habitat to a number of species. Sundarbans is the homeland for Bengal Tiger, one of the most sought creatures around. The locality has a site for the preservation of tigers which is quite frequently visited by tourists and environmentalists. The estuaries in the region are infested with crocodiles. The area has been declared as world heritage site by the UNESCO. Boat tours are provided at many places in the region.
- "District Census 2011". Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. 2011. Retrieved 2013-05-28.
- Muazzam Hussain Khan (Banglapedia)
- (RevisedMarch-2008).doc "Directory of District, Sub division, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal" Check
|url=value (help). National Informatics Centre, India. 19 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-03.
- "District Profile". Official website of South 24 Parganas district. Retrieved 2008-12-03.
- "Population, Decadal Growth Rate, Density and General Sex Ratio by Residence and Sex, West Bengal/ District/ Sub District, 1991 and 2001". West Bengal. Directorate of census operations. Retrieved 2008-12-03.
- "PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUENCY MAP, South 24 Parganas". Retrieved 2011-04-17.
- "General Election to the Legislative Assembly, 2001 – List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies: West Bengal" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2006.
- "Press Note, Delimitation Commission" (PDF). Assembly Constituencies in West Bengal. Delimitation Commission. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- "Electors Details as on 30-10-2010: South 24 Parganas" (PDF). South 24 Parganas District.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: West Bengal".[dead link]
- "Protected Area Network in India" (PDF). Ministry of Environment and Forests,Government of India. 1 September 2011.
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||Howrah district||Kolkata district||North 24 Parganas district|
|East Midnapore district|
|Bay of Bengal|