South African Class 6E1, Series 5
|Type and origin|
|Designer||Union Carriage and Wagon|
|Builder||Union Carriage and Wagon|
|Number rebuilt||1 to experimental AC|
|Gauge||3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Cape gauge|
|Bogies||3,430 mm (11 ft 3.04 in) wheelbase|
|Wheel diameter||1,220 mm (48.03 in)|
|Wheelbase||11,279 mm (37 ft 0.06 in)|
|Length||15,494 mm (50 ft 10.00 in)|
|Width||2,896 mm (9 ft 6.02 in)|
|Height||Roof: 3,937 mm (12 ft 11.00 in)
Pantograph (down): 4,089 mm (13 ft 4.98 in)
|Axle load||22,226 kg (21.9 long tons)|
|Locomotive weight||88,904 kg (87.5 long tons)|
|Traction motors||Four AEI 283 AZ|
|Transmission||18/67 gear ratio|
|Maximum speed||113 km/h (70 mph)|
|Power output||Per motor:
623 kW (835 hp) 1 hour
563 kW (755 hp) continuous
2,492 kW (3,342 hp) 1 hour
2,252 kW (3,020 hp) continuous
|Tractive effort||311 kN (70,000 lbf) starting
221 kN (50,000 lbf) 1 hour
193 kN (43,000 lbf) continuous at 40 km/h (25 mph)
|Locomotive brake||Air & Regenerative|
|Train brakes||Air & Vacuum|
|Operator(s)||South African Railways
Transnet Freight Rail
|Power class||3 kV DC|
|Number in class||99|
|Number(s)||E1546-E1599, E1601-E1645 |
The South African Class 6E1, Series 5 of 1974 is a South African electric locomotive from the South African Railways era.
Between 1974 and 1976 the South African Railways placed one hundred Class 6E1, Series 5 electric locomotives with a Bo-Bo wheel arrangement in mainline service. One of them was later withdrawn from revenue service for use as an experimental 25 kV AC locomotive.
- 1 Manufacturer
- 2 Characteristics
- 3 Series identifying features
- 4 Operation
- 5 Service
- 6 Test bed for 25 kV AC research
- 7 Reclassification and rebuilding
- 8 Liveries illustrated
- 9 References
The 3 kV DC Class 6E1, Series 5 electric locomotive was designed and built for the South African Railways (SAR) by Union Carriage and Wagon (UCW) in Nigel, Transvaal, with the electrical equipment supplied by the General Electric Company (GEC).
One hundred locomotives were delivered between 1974 and 1976, numbered in the range from E1546 to E1645. UCW did not allocate builder’s numbers to the locomotives it built for the SAR and used the SAR unit numbers for their record keeping.
The Class 6E1 was built with sophisticated traction linkages on their bogies and with stabilisers mounted between the linkages on the bogies and the locomotive body. Together with its electronic wheelslip detection system, these traction linkages and stabilisers ensure the maximum transfer of power to the rails without causing wheelslip.
These dual cab locomotives have a roof access ladder on one side only, just to the right of the cab access door. The roof access ladder end is marked as the number 2 end. A passage along the centre of the locomotive connects the cabs, which are identical apart from the fact that the handbrake is located in cab 2. A pantograph hook stick is stowed in a tube mounted below the lower edge of the locomotive body on the roof access ladder side. The locomotive has three small panels along the lower half of the body on the roof access ladder side, and only one panel on the opposite side.
Series identifying features
The Class 6E1 was produced in eleven series over a period of nearly sixteen years. While some Class 6E1 series are visually indistinguishable from their predecessors or successors, some externally visible changes did occur over the years. Series 1 locomotives had their sandboxes mounted on the bogies, while Series 2 to 11 had their sandboxes mounted along the bottom edge of the locomotive body, with the sandbox lids fitting into recesses in the body.
The Series 3 to Series 5 locomotives are visually indistinguishable from each other, the only externally visible difference being the narrower stirrup middle step below the side doors of the first fifty Series 3 locomotives, those in the number range from E1296 to E1345.
When there is no compressed air in the locomotive's system to raise a pantograph to start up, a pantograph hook stick is used to manually raise the pantograph. This starts the high voltage motor that drives the auxiliary alternator to supply 110V power to start the compressor and power other control circuits. Once there is enough main air pressure to keep the pantograph in the raised position, the pantograph hook stick can be dropped.
The locomotive is controlled via resistors over which the voltage is dropped in a configuration of series and parallel electrical circuits. The circuit breakers that switch these circuits work under very high power and voltage and are therefore all pneumatically operated for insulation purposes. Compressed air is required to open or close the switch actions and air is also used for the weakfield cam switch, which also switches under very high currents.
Upon starting off and in the low notches the major part of the voltage is dropped over the banks of resistors and all four traction motors are in series. The blowers that accelerate the dissipation of heat in the resistor banks give the Class 6E1 its very distinctive sound, a deep and loud whine when power is applied.
As the driver notches up, some of the resistor banks are cut out via the pneumatically operated switches and the voltage increases across the traction motors. The more resistors that are cut out as the driver notches higher, the more power is developed by the traction motors. At around 22 to 28 kilometres per hour (14 to 17 miles per hour) the locomotive switches to a parallel combination, where the two traction motors per bogie are in a series electrical circuit while the two bogies are in parallel electrical circuit. Eventually, when all resistors are cut out, the locomotive is operating in full-field.
When the traction motors are operated in full-field, be it in series or parallel mode, they are performing at maximum power for normal operation. To increase the speed at this point, if necessary, higher power output is required from the traction motors. The only way to increase power is to force a higher current flow over short periods. To accomplish this, the weakfield cam switch switches resistance in parallel with the field coils, which reduces the overall resistance of the field coils. This increases the magnetic flux and more power is generated by the traction motors.
The locomotive itself used air brakes, but it was equipped to operate trains with air or vacuum brakes. The brake system would be set up for either air or vacuum train working by means of a turning switch on the driver's brake valve and by pre-setting the appropriate brake valves in the passage.
The Class 6E1 locomotives were built with an air brake system consisting of various valves connected to each other with pipes, commonly referred to as a “bicycle frame” brake system. The compressed air pipes run under the locomotive's belly in a zig-zag pattern, going through bolster and other members to extend its length to allow the maximum amount of moisture to condense on the way to the reservoirs. As a result it has multiple pipe connections. A weakness of the system was that, after an accident or even a hard coupling, these pipes tended to develop leaks at the joints that were extremely difficult to repair.
While hauling a vacuum braked train, the locomotive's air brake system would be disabled and the train would be controlled using the train brakes alone to slow down and stop. While hauling an air braked train, on the other hand, the locomotive brakes would engage along with the train brakes. While working either type of train downgrade, the locomotive's regenerative braking system would also work in conjunction with the train brakes.
When the locomotive was stopped, the air brakes on both bogies were applied together. The handbrake or parking brake, located in Cab no. 2, only operated on the unit's last axle, or no. 7 and 8 wheels.
The Class 6E1 family saw service all over both of the 3 kV DC mainline and branchline networks, the smaller Cape Western network between Cape Town and Beaufort West and the larger network that covers portions of the Northern Cape, the Free State, Natal, Gauteng, North West Province and Mpumalanga.
Test bed for 25 kV AC research
One of the one hundred Series 5 units, no. E1600, was withdrawn from revenue service in 1978, rebuilt as a test-bed for 25 kV AC electrification and reclassified to Class Experimental AC. This was done while the electrification of the four isolated 25 kV routes was in progress. E1600 was never returned to revenue service. The four 25 kV AC routes are:
- From Pyramid South to Pietersburg and via Rustenburg to Thabazimbi.
- From Ermelo to Richards Bay.
- From Port Elizabeth to De Aar and from there northward to Kimberley and southward to Beaufort West.
- From East London to Springfontein.
Reclassification and rebuilding
Reclassification to Class 16E
During 1990 and 1991 Spoornet semi-permanently coupled several pairs of otherwise largely unmodified Class 6E1 locomotives, reclassified them to Class 16E and allocated a single locomotive number to each pair, with the individual locomotives in the pairs inscribed "A" or "B". The aim was to accomplish savings on cab maintenance by coupling the locomotives at their number 1 ends, abandoning the number one end cabs in terms of maintenance and using only the number two end cabs.
Two known Series 5 locomotives, numbers E1549 and E1607, were part of such Class 16E pairs and became Class 16E numbers 16-319B and 16-335A respectively.
Rebuilding to Class 18E
Beginning in 2000, Spoornet began a project to rebuild Series 2 to 11 Class 6E1 locomotives to Class 18E, Series 1 and Series 2 at the Transnet Rail Engineering (TRE) workshops at Koedoespoort. In the process the cab at the number 1 end was stripped of all controls and the driver's front and side windows were blanked off in order to have a toilet installed, thereby forfeiting the loco's bi-directional ability.
Since the driving cab's noise level had to be below 85 decibels, cab 2 was selected as the Class 18E driving cab primarily based on its lower noise level compared to cab 1, which is closer and more exposed to the compressor's noise and vibration. Another factor was the closer proximity of cab 2 to the low voltage switch panel. The fact that the handbrake was located in cab 2 was not a deciding factor, but was considered an additional benefit.
The known Class 6E1, Series 5 locomotives that were used in this project were all rebuilt to Class 18E, Series 2 locomotives. Their numbers and renumbering details are shown in the table.
All the Class 6E1, Series 5 locomotives were delivered in the SAR Gulf Red and yellow whiskers livery. The main picture shows no. E1629 in the Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (PRASA) Shosholoza Meyl livery. Illustrated below are some of the other liveries that Series 5 locomotives served in.
No. E1557 in Spoornet orange livery at Slypklip near Warrenton, Northern Cape, 22 September 2006
No. E1564 in the correct Spoornet maroon livery without “SPOORNET” at Beaconsfield, 17 September 2009
No. E1558 in an incorrect Spoornet maroon livery with “SPOORNET” at Orkney, 13 October 2009
No. E1603 in Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa blue livery, Durban, 24 November 2014
- South African Railways Index and Diagrams Electric and Diesel Locomotives, 610mm and 1065mm Gauges, Ref LXD 14/1/100/20, 28 January 1975, as amended
- Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. pp. 128–129. ISBN 0869772112.
- Middleton, John N. (2002). Railways of Southern Africa Locomotive Guide - 2002 (as amended by Combined Amendment List 4, January 2009) (2nd, Dec 2002 ed.). Herts, England: Beyer-Garratt Publications. pp. 50, 57, 60.
- "UCW - Electric locomotives" (PDF). The UCW Partnership. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
- E1345 with narrow stirrup
- E1346 with wide stirrup
- Operation - South African Classes 6E, 6E1, 16E, 17E and 18E
- Dulez, Jean A. (2012). Railways of Southern Africa 150 Years (Commemorating One Hundred and Fifty Years of Railways on the Sub-Continent - Complete Motive Power Classifications and Famous Trains - 1860-2011) (1st ed.). Garden View, Johannesburg, South Africa: Vidrail Productions. p. 297. ISBN 9 780620 512282.
- Information obtained from Transnet engineers and drivers
- Information gathered from the rebuild files of individual locomotives at Transnet Rail Engineering’s Koedoespoort shops, or obtained from John Middleton as well as several Transnet employees