South African Class 9 4-6-2

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CSAR Class 9 4-6-2
South African Class 9 4-6-2
SAR Klasse 9.jpg
CSAR no. 600, SAR no. 727, c. 1904
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Designer Central South African Railways
(P.A. Hyde)
Builder Vulcan Foundry
Serial number 1904-1907, 1985
Model CSAR Class 9
Build date 1904
Total produced 5
Specifications
Configuration:
 • Whyte 4-6-2 (Pacific)
 • UIC 2'C1'n2
Driver 2nd coupled axle
Gauge 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Cape gauge
Leading dia. 30 in (762 mm)
Coupled dia. 57 in (1,448 mm)
Trailing dia. 30 in (762 mm)
Tender wheels 33 12 in (851 mm) as built
34 in (864 mm) retyred
Wheelbase 52 ft 58 in (15,865 mm)
 • Engine 27 ft 8 12 in (8,446 mm)
 • Leading 6 ft 4 in (1,930 mm)
 • Coupled 11 ft (3,353 mm)
 • Tender 17 ft 38 in (5,191 mm)
 • Tender bogie 4 ft 7 in (1,397 mm)
Wheel spacing
(Asymmetrical)
1-2: 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm)
2-3: 5 ft 9 in (1,753 mm)
Length:
 • Over couplers 59 ft 10 34 in (18,256 mm)
Height 12 ft 10 in (3,912 mm)
Frame type Bar
Axle load 13 LT 1 cwt (13,260 kg)
 • Leading 13 LT 16 cwt 2 qtr (14,050 kg)
 • 1st coupled 13 LT 0 cwt 2 qtr (13,230 kg)
 • 2nd coupled 13 LT 1 cwt (13,260 kg)
 • 3rd coupled 12 LT 19 cwt (13,160 kg)
 • Trailing 7 LT 10 cwt 3 qtr (7,658 kg)
 • Tender bogie 23 LT 15 cwt (24,130 kg) each
 • Tender axle 11 LT 17 cwt 2 qtr (12,070 kg)
Adhesive weight 39 LT 0 cwt 2 qtr (39,650 kg)
Loco weight 60 LT 7 cwt 3 qtr (61,360 kg)
Tender weight 47 LT 10 cwt (48,260 kg)
Total weight 107 LT 17 cwt 3 qtr (109,600 kg)
Tender type XM3 (2-axle bogies)
Fuel type Coal
Fuel capacity 10 LT (10.2 t)
Water cap 4,000 imp gal (18,200 l)
Firebox type Round-top
 • Firegrate area 21.75 sq ft (2.021 m2)
Boiler:
 • Pitch 7 ft 3 in (2,210 mm)
 • Diameter 5 ft (1,524 mm)
 • Tube plates 12 ft 7 in (3,835 mm)
 • Small tubes 205: 2 in (51 mm)
Boiler pressure 200 psi (1,379 kPa)
Safety valve Ramsbottom
Heating surface 1,481 sq ft (137.6 m2)
 • Tubes 1,350 sq ft (125 m2)
 • Firebox 131 sq ft (12.2 m2)
Cylinders Two
Cylinder size 18 in (457 mm) bore
26 in (660 mm) stroke
Valve gear Stephenson
Valve type Balanced slide
Couplers Johnston link-and-pin
Performance figures
Tractive effort 22,170 lbf (98.6 kN) @ 75%
Career
Operators Central South African Railways
South African Railways
Class CSAR & SAR Class 9
Number in class 5
Numbers CSAR 600-604, SAR 727-731
Delivered 1904
First run 1904
Withdrawn 1926
The 2nd coupled axle had flangeless wheels

The South African Railways Class 9 4-6-2 of 1904 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal Colony.

In 1904, the Central South African Railways placed five Class 9 steam locomotives with a 4-6-2 Pacific type wheel arrangement in service. In 1912, when they were assimilated into the South African Railways, they were renumbered but retained their Class 9 designation.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Central South African Railways[edit]

Establishment[edit]

Upon its establishment in 1902 at the end of the Second Boer War, the Central South African Railways (CSAR) inherited a variety of locomotive types from the Imperial Military Railways (IMR), which had been established by the British military during the war through the absorption of the separate state and other railways of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR) and the Oranje-Vrijstaat as possession was obtained of the territories of these two republics.[7]

The larger two of these constituent railways were the Nederlandsche-Zuid-Afrikaansche Spoorweg-Maatschappij (NZASM), which operated between Pretoria, capital of the ZAR, and Lourenço Marques, capital of the Portuguese colony of Moçambique, and the Oranje-Vrijstaat Gouwerment-Spoorwegen (OVGS). Smaller constituents were the Pretoria-Pietersburg Railway (PPR) and the Selati Railway.[7]

Of the mixed amalgam of locomotives which were inherited from these railways, the best was probably the 8th Class 4-8-0, designed by H.M. Beatty of the Cape Government Railways (CGR). These locomotives were brand new, having been acquired by the IMR shortly before the end of the war, and featured a bar frame, narrow firebox and cylinders with overhead slide valves actuated by Stephenson valve gear.[5][6][7]

While the Orange Free State obtained their locomotives second-hand from the CGR or directly from the manufacturers used by the CGR, the mainly German suppliers of railway equipment to the old NZASM underestimated the requirements of a railway that would extend over 291 miles (468 kilometres) from Komatipoort at the border with Mozambique to Pretoria and rise 6,000 ft (1,829 m) in the process. Apart from the various smaller tank locomotives, they supplied the NZASM with 46 Tonner 0-6-4 tank engines with an adhesive weight of 32 tons and a tractive effort of 16,580 pounds-force (73.8 kilonewtons) to work a mainline.[8]

Transformation[edit]

Within two years, the CSAR would be transformed by P.A. Hyde, its first Chief Locomotive Superintendent, who introduced these 4-6-2 Pacifics with an adhesive weight of 39 tons and a tractive effort of 22,170 pounds-force (98.6 kilonewtons), the Class 10 4-6-2 Pacifics with an adhesive weight of 46 tons and a tractive effort of 24,470 pounds-force (108.8 kilonewtons) and the Class 11 2-8-2 Mikados with an adhesive weight of 62 tons and a tractive effort of 30,780 pounds-force (136.9 kilonewtons). These designs by Hyde were cutting edge technology at the time.[8]

For the express passenger service between Johannesburg and Pretoria and long-distance passenger services to Cape Town, the CSAR also introduced passenger coaches with closed vestibules, concertina connections and Gould knuckle couplers. This automatic coupling system would only begin to be implemented on the South African Railways (SAR) in 1927. At the time, all this modern equipment placed the CSAR ahead of both the CGR and Natal Government Railways (NGR) in terms of technical advancement.[1][2][8]

Design[edit]

The first locomotives to be designed by Hyde for the CSAR were based on Beatty’s 8th Class 4-8-0 locomotive. Hyde designed this 4-6-2 Pacific version which became the CSAR's Class 9 and, at the same time, he extrapolated this design to a 4-6-4 tank locomotive for heavy suburban trains which later became the SAR Class F. Both locomotives were ordered in 1904.[7]

Five Pacific locomotives were ordered from the Vulcan Foundry of Newton-le-Willows in England and delivered in 1904. They were numbered in the range from 600 to 604 and designated Class 9 by the CSAR.[1][2][3][4]

Characteristics[edit]

The locomotives had bar frames and used saturated steam. They had balanced slide valves, arranged above the cylinders and actuated by Stephenson valve gear through rocker shafts. The firebox was fitted with Stroudley's flexible stays and the back casing plate was flanged outwards to facilitate the removal of the internal firebox for renewals.[2]

As built, the smokebox was equipped with openings on its sides, near the front, with covers which each had a handle by which it could be opened with a half turn to give direct access to the inside of the smokebox. These openings were known by a variety of terms, the most common being "cinder pocket" or "cleaning hole and cap". Its purpose was, most likely, to facilitate cleaning of the spark arrestor screens to overcome clogging without having to open the smokebox door. The cover handles were attached to the smokebox side by a small chain. Judging from photographs, these covers were removed and the openings closed off in the SAR era.[4]

Renumbering[edit]

When the Union of South Africa was established on 31 May 1910, the three Colonial government railways (CGR, NGR and CSAR) were united under a single administration to control and administer the railways, ports and harbours of the Union. Although the South African Railways and Harbours came into existence in 1910, the actual classification and renumbering of all the rolling stock of the three constituent railways were only implemented with effect from 1 January 1912.[3][9]

In 1912, these locomotives were renumbered in the range from 727 to 731 on the SAR, but retained their Class 9 classification. Their tenders, which were unique to the Class, were designated Type XM3.[3][5][6]

Service[edit]

The Class 9 was very useful for passenger work with moderate loads and worked the Durban-bound mail trains from Johannesburg as far as Charlestown on the Transvaal-Natal border for many years. Later they served mainly on mainline passenger working elsewhere in Transvaal, ending their days working out of Pretoria on the Pietersburg line in the 1920s. They were withdrawn by 1926.[1][2][4][7]

Illustration[edit]

The main picture is a builder's picture of the Class 9. In the picture below, the cinder pocket cover can be seen above the head of the person at far left.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Holland, D.F. (1971). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways. 1: 1859–1910 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. pp. 128–129. ISBN 978-0-7153-5382-0. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Espitalier, T.J.; Day, W.A.J. (1945). The Locomotive in South Africa - A Brief History of Railway Development. Chapter VI - Imperial Military Railways and C.S.A.R. (Continued). South African Railways and Harbours Magazine, January 1945. pp. 14-15.
  3. ^ a b c d Classification of S.A.R. Engines with Renumbering Lists, issued by the Chief Mechanical Engineer's Office, Pretoria, January 1912, pp. 9, 12, 14, 34 (Reprinted in April 1987 by SATS Museum, R.3125-6/9/11-1000)
  4. ^ a b c d Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. p. 51. ISBN 0869772112. 
  5. ^ a b c South African Railways & Harbours/Suid Afrikaanse Spoorweë en Hawens (15 Aug 1941). Locomotive Diagram Book/Lokomotiefdiagramboek, 3'6" Gauge/Spoorwydte. SAR/SAS Mechanical Department/Werktuigkundige Dept. Drawing Office/Tekenkantoor, Pretoria. p. 43.
  6. ^ a b c South African Railways & Harbours/Suid Afrikaanse Spoorweë en Hawens (15 Aug 1941). Locomotive Diagram Book/Lokomotiefdiagramboek, 2'0" & 3'6" Gauge/Spoorwydte, Steam Locomotives/Stoomlokomotiewe. SAR/SAS Mechanical Department/Werktuigkundige Dept. Drawing Office/Tekenkantoor, Pretoria. pp. 6a-7a, 41, 43.
  7. ^ a b c d e Durrant, A. E. (1989). Twilight of South African Steam (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, London: David & Charles. p. 8. ISBN 0715386387. 
  8. ^ a b c Soul of A Railway, System 8, Part 1: Pretoria: including local services, workshops and running sheds, Part 1. Introduction, Caption 8. (Accessed on 15 March 2017)
  9. ^ The South African Railways - Historical Survey. Editor George Hart, Publisher Bill Hart, Sponsored by Dorbyl Ltd., Published c. 1978, p. 25.