Jump to content

South African Police Service

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

South African Police Service
South African Police Service badge
South African Police Service badge
South African Police Service flag
South African Police Service flag
Agency overview
Preceding agencies
Employees171,692 (2021/22)
Jurisdictional structure
National agencySouth Africa
Operations jurisdictionSouth Africa
Size1,219,090 km2
Population62,091,133 (2022 census)
Constituting instruments
  • Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1996, Chapter 11, Section 205
  • South African Police Service Act 68 of 1995
General nature
Operational structure
Officers117,950 (2022/23)
Civilians52,792 (2019/20)
Minister of Police responsible
Agency executive
  • General Sehlahle Fannie Masemola, National Police Commissioner
  • Visible Policing
  • Cluster Coordination
  • Detective Service
  • Crime Intelligence
  • Criminal Record and Forensic Science Services
  • Protection and Security Services
  • Eastern Cape
  • Free State
  • Gauteng
  • Kwazulu-Natal
  • Mpumalanga
  • Northern Cape
  • Limpopo
  • North West
  • Western Cape
Stations1,138 (2014/15)

The South African Police Service (SAPS) is the national police force of the Republic of South Africa. Its 1,154 police stations[2] in South Africa are divided according to the provincial borders, and a Provincial Commissioner is appointed in each province. The nine Provincial Commissioners report directly to the National Commissioner. The head office is in the Wachthuis Building in Pretoria.[3]

The Constitution of South Africa lays down that the South African Police Service has a responsibility to prevent, combat and investigate crime, maintain public order, protect and secure the inhabitants of the Republic and their property, uphold and enforce the law, create a safe and secure environment for all people in South Africa, prevent anything that may threaten the safety or security of any community, investigate any crimes that threaten the safety or security of any community, ensure criminals are brought to justice and participate in efforts to address the causes of crime.[4]

Amnesty International and others have expressed serious concerns about South African police brutality, including torture and extrajudicial killings.[5][6][7]


Colonial years[edit]

The South African Police Service traces its origin to the Dutch Watch, a paramilitary organisation formed by settlers in the Cape Province in 1655 to protect civilians and to maintain law and order. In 1795, British officials assumed control over the Dutch Watch, and in 1825 established the Cape Constabulary (which became the Cape Town Police Force in 1840). In 1854, a police force was established in Durban which would become the Durban Borough Police, and in 1935 the Durban City Police (DCP).[8] Act 3 of 1855 established the Frontier Armed and Mounted Police Force in the Eastern Cape, restyled as the Cape Mounted Riflemen in 1878.[9]


The South African Police (SAP) was created after the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1913. Four years later, the Mounted Riflemen's Association relinquished its civilian responsibilities to the SAP as most of its riflemen left to serve in the First World War. The SAP and the military maintained a close relationship even after the SAP assumed permanent responsibility for domestic law and order in 1926. Police officials often called on the army for support in case of emergencies. During the Second World War, one SAP brigade served with the 2nd Infantry Division of the South African Army in North Africa.

When the National Party (NP) edged out its more liberal opponents in nationwide elections in 1948, the new government enacted legislation that strengthened the relationship between the police and the military. Police subsequently became heavily armed, especially when facing unruly or hostile crowds. The Police Act (No. 7) of 1958 broadened the mission of the SAP beyond conventional police functions, and allowed police to quell civil unrest and conduct counterinsurgency operations. The Police Amendment Act (No. 70) of 1965 allowed police to detain any person, receptacle, vehicle, aircraft, or premises within one mile of any national border, and to seize anything found without a warrant. This search-and-seize zone was extended to within eight miles of any border in 1979 and to the entire country in 1983.

Post-apartheid (1994–present)[edit]

The new Minister of Safety and Security, Sydney Mufamadi, obtained police training assistance from Zimbabwe, the United Kingdom, and Canada and proclaimed that racial tolerance and human rights would be central to police training in the future. By the end of 1995, the SAPS had incorporated the ten police agencies of the former homelands, and had reorganised at both national and provincial level.

The Investigative Psychology Unit (IPU), also referred to as Investigative Psychology Section (IPS), was founded by forensic psychologist Micki Pistorius[10] in 1996. Elmarie Myburgh was a founding member It was then a division of the Serious and Violent Crimes Unit, later being moved to the Detective Service, and from June 2008 to the Criminal Record and Forensic Science Service (CRFSS). At that time, it comprised only three members at national head office level, led by Gerard Labuschagne.[11]


Patrol in Stellenbosch

South African Police Service headquarters in located in Pretoria.


As of March 2023, there were three Deputy National Commissioners, with each of these split into divisions as follows:[12]

  • Policing:
    • Visible Policing and Operations
    • Protection and Security Services
  • Crime Detection:
    • Detective and Forensic Services
    • Crime Intelligence
  • Support Services
    • Human Resource Management
    • Human Resource Development
    • Legal and Policy Services
    • Technology Management Services

Rank structure[edit]

A new ranking system of the South African Police Service was adopted in April 2010.[13] The change caused some controversy as new ranks like "general" and "colonel" have a military connotation. Furthermore, the new rank system mirrors the system used by the South African Police during the apartheid era. In 2009, Deputy Minister of Police Fikile Mbalula spoke of making the police a paramilitary force by changing the SAPS ranking system so that it would closely mirror the military ranking system. This created a significant amount of controversy from people critical of what they called the "militarisation" of the police.[14][15][16]

The ranking system was amended in 2016. The role of regional police commissioner was introduced, with the rank of lieutenant general. The major and lieutenant ranks were eliminated, with lieutenants assuming the rank of captain and majors assuming the rank of lieutenant colonel.[17][18]

Current senior staff[edit]

As of 2024 the National Commissioner is Lt. Gen. Sehlahle Fannie Masemola,[19] who was appointed on 31 March 2022.[20][21] Leon Mbangwa is Chief of Staff.[22]

SAPS organisational profile[edit]

SAPS organisational profile (March 2023)[12]
Rank Number of officers/employees
Ministerial personnel 30
National Commissioner (General) 1
Deputy National Commissioner (Lt. Gen.) 4
Div. Commissioners/National Head/Deputy Nat. Head, other top management (Lt. Gen.) 12
Provincial Commissioners (Lt. Gen.) 9
Major General 156
Brigadier 623
Colonel 2,417
Lieutenant Colonel 5,975
Captain 12,155
Non-commissioned officers 123,896
Public Service Act employees 34,226
Total employees 179,502
Police ranks of South Africa: Commissioned Officers
Group Senior Management
Rank General (Gen) Lieutenant General (Lt Gen) Major General (Maj Gen) Brigadier
Role Designation of
National Commissioner
Actg. National Commissioner,
Deputy National Commissioner,
Regional Commissioner,
Provincial Commissioner,
Divisional Commissioner
Police ranks of South Africa: Commissioned Officers
Group Junior Management
Rank Colonel (Col) Lieutenant Colonel (Lt Col) Captain
Police ranks of South Africa : Non-commissioned Officers
Group Other Ranks
Rank Warrant Officer (WO) Sergeant (Sgt) Constable (Const)



Through the early-1990s, the police were equipped with smoke and tear-gas dispensing vehicles, tank trucks with water cannons, vehicles that dispensed barbed wire or razor wire to cordon off areas, and a number of rotor and fixed wing aircraft for surveillance, ground force management, rapid deployment of Task Force and specialist teams to crime scenes and VIP personnel movements. The RG-12 'Nyala' is on the most commonly used armoured vehicle of the service. The Casspir Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicle is another notable vehicle used by the police.[citation needed]


As of October 2023, with the arrival of a new helicopter, the SAPS Air Wing operates a fleet of 34 aeroplanes and helicopters. The Air Wing has about 50 pilots and 300 other personnel.[24]


The SAPS Air Wing fleet consists of:[25]


Officers with Vektor R5 rifles in Johannesburg, 2010

South African Police Service officers generally carry a Vektor Z88 9mm pistol and pepper spray. Each patrol car is usually also equipped a R5 rifle. To quell disturbances a variety of firearms are used, including BXP sub-machine gun, Musler 12 gauge shotgun (capable of firing anti-riot rubber bullets contained in standard 12 bore shotgun cartridges), as well as tear gas and pencil flares. The R1 rifle has been withdrawn from all front-line police armories since the mid-1990s, but is still used by elements of the Special Task Force.[citation needed]

Criticism and controversies[edit]

Public trust in the South African Police Service between 1998 and 2021. The Marikana Massacre (2012) and Zuma Riots (2021) are highlighted.[26]


Since the departure of democratic South Africa's first National commissioner George Fivaz in January 2000, a number of successive commissioners have been unable to complete a single term in office, most implicated in and charged with misconduct.[27][28]

The distribution of personnel has been controversial, with local legislators questioning why areas most in need of policing resources are being neglected.[29] The department was criticised by the Western Cape Government for providing the lowest number personnel (adjusted for population) with a shortage of 2,392 officers,[30] despite having the highest murder rate.[31][32] This was the subject of the Khayelitsha Commission in 2012.

Brutality and repression[edit]

Amnesty International has expressed concerns about police brutality, including torture and extrajudicial killings, in South Africa.[33][34][35][36][37][38] There has also been concern about brutal training methods for the police.[39] According to Peter Jordi from the Wits Law Clinic "[Police] Torture is spiralling out of control. It is happening everywhere."[40] Brandon Edmonds argues that "The cops prey on the poor in this country."[41] Independent studies have confirmed that the SAPS has been used to repress peaceful marches.[42] In April 2009, SAPS attempted to ban unFreedom Day[43] and was implicated in support for September 2009 ANC mob that attacked the elected leadership of the shack settlement at Kennedy Road, Durban.[44][45][46] Police officers have also been accused of excessive policing in Blikkiesdorp in Delft, Cape Town, by suppression of freedom and ordering illegal curfews.[47][48][49]

In 2011, 630 police officers from Gauteng Province were arrested for fraud and corruption, rape and murder.[50] An April 2012 editorial in The Times opined: "It seems torture and outright violation of human rights is becoming the order of the day for some of our police officers and experts warn that the line between criminals and our law enforcement officers is "blurred"."[51]

In February 2013, police in Daveyton, Gauteng were caught on video brutalising Mido Macia, a Mozambican taxi driver accused of parking illegally. Macia was handcuffed to a police van and dragged through the streets, later succumbing to his injuries.[52] Eight police officers were arrested and later convicted of murder.[53]

Three police officers were arrested for the controversial shooting of Nathaniel Julies, a 16 year-old boy with down syndrome, in Eldorado Park.[citation needed]

Marikana massacre[edit]

The Marikana Massacre,[54] was a mass shooting that occurred when police broke up a gathering by striking Lonmin workers on a 'koppie' (hilltop) near the Nkaneng shack settlement in Marikana on 16 August 2012. 34 miners were killed and 78 miners injured, causing anger and public outcry, fueled by reports that most of the victims were shot from behind[55] and many shot far from police lines.[56] It later emerged that the violence had actually started on 11 August when leaders from the National Union of Mineworkers opened fire on striking NUM members killing two.[57] It is alleged that police did nothing in the aftermath thereby creating a situation in which workers felt that they would have to use other means to protect themselves.[58] Between 12 and 14 August, approximately 8 more people were killed including two policemen and two security guards.[59] It is the country's deadliest incident between police and the civilian population since the Sharpeville Massacre of 1960, and has been referred to as a turning-point in post-1994 South Africa.[60][61][62]


On 10 September 2007 an arrest warrant was issued by the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) for National Police Commissioner Jackie Selebi (Interpol president from 2004 to 2008). On 23 September 2007, President Mbeki suspended NPA Head Vusi Pikoli, allegedly because of "an irretrievable breakdown" in the relationship between Pikoli and Justice Minister Brigitte Mabandla. However, journalists at the Mail and Guardian claim to have solid information supporting the widespread suspicion that President Mbeki suspended Pikoli as part of a bid to shield Police Commissioner Selebi.[63] According to the Mail and Guardian on 5 October 2007 the NPA was investigating Selebi for corruption, fraud, racketeering and defeating the ends of justice.[63] Selebi was found guilty of corruption in July 2010, but not guilty of further charges of perverting the course of justice.[64]

In February 2011 Bheki Cele was implicated in unlawful conduct and maladministration with a R500m lease agreement for the new police headquarters in Pretoria.[65] In October 2011, President Jacob Zuma announced that Cele had been suspended pending an investigation into the agreement.[66] After recommendation from a board of inquiry, Zuma dismissed Cele and announced that Riah Phiyega, the first female commissioner, would replace him.[67]

In February 2018, SAPS Lieutenant-General Khomotso Phahlane, who was also former acting SAPS Commissioner, and his wife appeared in court on charges of fraud and corruption.[68][69][70] On 30 July 2020, Phahlane was dismissed from the police after three years on suspension.[71] The same day, he was found guilty of dishonest conduct.[71]

On 12 July 2019, it was announced the five North West Province police officers were arrested during the week in three separate corruption cases.[72] On 4 June 2020, six senior Gauteng police officers where among 14 people arrested on corruption charges.[73] Two other senior officers, now retired, were arrested as well.[74] Among the Guateng-based SAPS officers charged with corruption included three brigadiers and a retired SAPS Lieutenant General.[74]

On 12 October 2020, Lieutenant-General Bonang Mgwenya, the country's second-most senior police official, was arrested on charges of corruption, fraud, theft and money laundering involving about R200-million and afterwards appeared in Ridge Magistrates court.[75] At the time of Mgwenya's arrest, she and Phahlane were among 14 fellow officers who were charged with corruption.[75] Mgwenya was suspended on 15 October 2020 and was dismissed from SAPS on 13 November 2020.[76]

On 23 December 2020, four Cape Town police officers attached to the national border control unit at Cape Town International Airport were arrested for extorting money from Chinese businesses.[77]

On 23 December 2020, Peter Ntsime, Acting Deputy General Secretary of the South African Policing Union (SAPU), reported that Colonel Kamelash Dalip Singh, a senior SAPU policeman from the KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Anti-Corruption Unit, was arrested, and then released on bail, on a bribe charge. Ntsime criticised the arrest, stating Singh was at the forefront of arresting crooked police officers and was onto a big syndicate. Directorate for Priority Crime Investigation (Hawks) spokesperson, Captain Simphiwe Mhlongo, said that undercover Hawks officers caught Singh red-handed accepting a R5,000 bribe.[78]

On 28 December 2020, three law enforcement officers who were employed by the Emalahleni Municipality were arrested in Mpumalanga on corruption and bribery charges which involved allegations of not issuing standard fines to motorists who committed traffic violations, but instead extorting them for bribes.[79]

In 2022, two criminal charges were lodged by the Independent Police Investigative Directorate against the National Police Commissioner Khehla Sitole for refusing to cooperate with its investigation into the murder of Charl Kinnear. Kinnear was a police intelligence officer investigating organised crime within the SAPS.[80]

List of former National Commissioners[edit]

National Commissioners
From Commissioners of the South African Police To
1913 (1913) Colonel Sir Theodorus Gustaff Truter CMG KBE KPM[81][82] 1928
1928 Major General Isaac Pierre de Villiers CB MC KStJ[83][84]: 8  1940
1940 Brigadier George Robson Carruthers Baston KPM [85][86] 1945[a]
1 August 1945 Major General Robert John Palmer CVO KPM DSO & two bars[87][88][89][90][91][b][92] 1951
1951 Major General Jan-Kamas Brink 1954
1954 Major General Corrie I. Rademeyer 1960
1960 Lieutenant General Hendrik Jacobus du Plooy MVO 1962
1962 Lieutenant General Johannes Martinus Keevy 1968
1968 General Johannes Petrus Gous 1971
1971 General G. J. Joubert SOO 1973
1973 General Theodorus J. Crous 1975
1975 General Gert L. Prinsloo 1978
1978 General Michiel Christian Wilhelm Geldenhuys SED SOO SOE SD 1983
1 June 1983 General Petrus Johann Coetzee SSA SED SOO SOE SD 1987
1987 General Hennie G. de Witt 1989
1990 General Johan Velde van der Merwe SSAS SOE 1996
From Commissioners of the South African Police Service To
29 January 1995 General John George Fivaz SSA SOE[93][94]: 17  31 December 1999
1 January 2000 General J. "Jackie" S. Selebi 2009
July 2009 General Bheki H. Cele[95][c] October 2011
2011 Lieutenant General Nhlanhla Sibusiso Mkhwanazi[96] 2012
2012 General Mangwashi Victoria Phiyega SOEG 2015
15 October 2015 Lieutenant General Khomotso Phahlane[d] 1 June 2017
1 June 2017 Lieutenant General Lesetja Mothiba[e] 22 November 2017
22 November 2017 General Khehla John Sitole SOE[97][f] 31 March 2022
31 March 2022 Lt General Sehlahle Fannie Masemola[98] present

Battle honours[edit]

Police units earned battle honours in both world wars and in border wars with Rhodesia.

First World War[edit]

Battle Honours
First World War
South West Africa 1914–1915
South West Africa 1914–1915
German East Africa 1916-18

Second World War[edit]

Battle Honours
Second World War
Western Desert 1941-43
Point 204
Commonwealth Keep


Battle Honours
Others Awarded
Rhodesia 1967-75


  1. ^ Brig George CR Baston was acting Commissioner of the South African Police Force (1940 - 1945) whilst Maj Gen IP de Villiers served in the Union Defence Force
  2. ^ General Palmer was awarded the DSO and two bars, that is three awards of the DSO[88][91][90] as well as the American Bronze Star.[89]
  3. ^ Subsequently Minister of Police
  4. ^ Acting
  5. ^ Acting
  6. ^ Term ended by mutual agreement between him and the president


  1. ^ "SAPS Profile". South African Police Service. Retrieved 7 August 2008.
  2. ^ "South Africa Yearbook 2019/20 | Government Communication and Information System (GCIS)". www.gcis.gov.za. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  3. ^ "Contact Us ." South African Police Service. Retrieved on 21 November 2017. "SAPS Head Office Wachthuis Building 231 Pretorius Street Pretoria[...] GPS Coordinates: S25.74790 E28.18901"
  4. ^ "SAPS: PROFILE – Vision and Mission". Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2010.
  5. ^ No end in sight for police brutality in South Africa, Justice Malala, The Guardian, 21 February 2013
  6. ^ Footsoliders in a social war: the police, crime and inequality in South Africa CHRISTOPHER MCMICHAEL, Open Democracy, 25 October 2013
  7. ^ Amnesty International South Africa Report, 2012
  8. ^ Newham, Gareth; Themba Masuku and Lulama Gomomo. "Metropolitan Police Services in South Africa, 2002". csvr.org.za. Retrieved 8 August 2009.
  9. ^ McCracken, Donal P (1991). "The Irish in South Africa – The Police, A Case Study (Part 20)". Irish Times. Retrieved 8 August 2009.
  10. ^ Labuschagne, Gérard. "The Profiler Diaries: From the case files of a police psychologist Penguin Random House South Africa". Penguin Random House South Africa. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  11. ^ Omar, Bilkis (8 March 2008). "Investigating psychologically motivated crimes: The work of the SAPS Investigative Psychology Unit". South African Crime Quarterly (25). doi:10.17159/2413-3108/2008/i25a948 (inactive 21 March 2024). ISSN 2413-3108. Retrieved 13 March 2024.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of March 2024 (link)
  12. ^ a b South African Police Service, Strategic Management (31 August 2023). "9. Organisational structure, as at 31 March 2023". South African Police Services ANNUAL REPORT 2022/2023 (PDF) (Report). RP number 196/2023. South African Police Services. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-621-51233-5.
  13. ^ "New rank structure" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
  14. ^ The professor and the police minister. Paul Trewhela, 25 October 2009
  15. ^ Asmal: Militarisation of police is "craziness" Mail & Guardian, 19 October 2009
  16. ^ Green Zone Nation: The South African government’s new growth path, Open Democracy, 19 March 2012
  17. ^ "Police rank reform the best in years". IOL. 31 May 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  18. ^ "Police To Introduce New Regional Commissioner Rank". Eyewitness News. 31 May 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  19. ^ "South African Police Service (SAPS)". South African Government. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  20. ^ Chabalala, Jeanette (31 March 2022). "Fannie Masemola named new national police commissioner". News24. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  21. ^ "Services". SAPS (South African Police Service). 31 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  22. ^ "Department of Police (SAPS)". Management. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  23. ^ "Services | SAPS (South African Police Service)". www.saps.gov.za. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  24. ^ Helfrich, Kim (10 October 2023). "Two new helicopters for SAPS Air Wing". DefenceWeb. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  25. ^ Martin, Guy (19 March 2024). "Armscor seeking troop carrying helicopter for the SAPS". defenceWeb. Retrieved 19 March 2024.
  26. ^ "Changing patterns of trust in the police in South Africa". HSRC. 23 March 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  27. ^ Khaas, Tebogo (5 November 2017). "Black Monday: We are going backwards". News24. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  28. ^ editorials (27 October 2017). "Top cop position is a poisoned chalice". The Citizen. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  29. ^ VAN DER MERWE, Marelise (8 April 2016). "Beyond Khayelitsha: Just how unequal is distribution of police in South Africa?". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  30. ^ "Western Cape's police shortage receiving 'lots of attention' – top cop". News24. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  31. ^ "Public hearings to be held over police shortages in Western Cape". News24. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  32. ^ Knoetze, Daneel (26 August 2014). "Highest crime areas have fewest cops - Khayelitsha commission". Ground Up. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  33. ^ Amnesty red flag police brutality, Craig Dodds, 13 May 2011
  34. ^ Amnesty International South Africa Report 2011
  35. ^ See for instance this statement by Abahlali baseMjondolo
  36. ^ "Housing and Evictions at the N2 Gateway Project in Delft". Abahlali baseMjondolo. 8 May 2008.
  37. ^ "Video of Delft shootings on eTV". YouTube. 19 February 2008.
  38. ^ "Pictures of Delft evictions and police brutality". Anti-Eviction Campaign. 22 February 2008.
  39. ^ "Police training: Brutality exposed". Mail and Guardian. 3 June 2011.
  40. ^ 'Predator police' in reign of terror GRAEME HOSKEN, The Times, 30 April 2012
  41. ^ The New Toyi Toyi, Brandon Edmonds, Mahala, 12 May 2012
  42. ^ See, for instance, a report on illegal police repression in South Africa by the Freedom of Expression Institute[usurped]
  43. ^ "UnFreedom Day 2009". Libcom.
  44. ^ "'Attackers associated with ANC'". News24.
  45. ^ "The Attacks Continue in the Presence of the Police and Senior ANC Leaders". Abahlali baseMjondolo.
  46. ^ "Joint Statement on the attacks on the Kennedy Road Informal Settlement in Durban". Professor John Dugard SC, et al. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013.
  47. ^ Smith, David (1 April 2010). "Life in 'Tin Can Town' for the South Africans evicted ahead of World Cup". London: The Guardian Newspaper.
  48. ^ "Somalis harassed and threatened, but too broke to leave". Anti-Eviction Campaign. Archived from the original on 5 April 2010.
  49. ^ "Photos: 'Blikkiesdorp', the Symphony Way TRA 18 01 2009". Anti-Eviction Campaign. Archived from the original on 24 November 2009.
  50. ^ Global Post, South Africa troubled by corrupt cops, 10 May 2012
  51. ^ If the police are no better than thugs, who will save us?, Editorial, The Times, 30 April 2012
  52. ^ "President Zuma of South Africa shocked over 'police dragging'". BBC News. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  53. ^ Milton Nkosi (1 March 2013). "South Africa: Eight police arrested over drag death". BBC News. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  54. ^ "South Africa's ANC to discuss mine shootings row". BBC News. 27 August 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  55. ^ Striking South African miners 'were shot in the back', The Daily Telegraph, 27 August 2012
  56. ^ The murder fields of Marikana: the cold murder fields of Marikana, by Greg Marinovich, The Daily Maverick, 8 September 2012
  57. ^ "NUM: Lethal force ahead of Marikana shootings was justified". Mail & Guardian. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  58. ^ "Marikana prequel: NUM and the murders that started it all". Daily Maverick. 12 October 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  59. ^ Marikana inquiry updates 23 October 2012, Times Live, 23 October 2012
  60. ^ The South African Police Service and the Public Order War, by Chris McMichael, Think Africa Press, 3 September 2012
  61. ^ The Marikana Massacre: A turning point for South Africa, by Nigel Gibson, Truthout, 2 September 2012
  62. ^ South Africa: Marikana is a turning point, by William Gumede, The Guardian, 29 August 2012
  63. ^ a b The desperate bid to shield Selebi
  64. ^ "South Africa ex-police head Selebi guilty of corruption". BBC. 2 July 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
  65. ^ "Cele must explain, says protector". News24. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  66. ^ "Bheki Cele suspended over lease saga". News24. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  67. ^ "Bheki Cele fired". News24. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  68. ^ Bateman, Barry (8 February 2018). "Former Top Cop Phahlane to Appear in Court on Fraud, Corruption Charges". Eyewitness News.
  69. ^ Serrao, Angelique (25 January 2018). "Top cop's luxury car fleet comes under the spotlight". News24.
  70. ^ Serrao, Angelique (8 February 2018). "A look back into the case against Phahlane". News24.
  71. ^ a b Thamm, Marianne (30 July 2020). "Former acting national police commissioner Khomotso Phahlane sacked". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  72. ^ Mabuza, Ernest (12 July 2019). "Five cops arrested for corruption and bribery in North West". Sunday Times. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  73. ^ Richardson, Paul (4 June 2020). "Top South African Police Officers Arrested in Graft Crackdown". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  74. ^ a b "SAPS arrests police officers over fraud, corruption". SABC News. 4 June 2020. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  75. ^ a b Thamm, Marianne (12 October 2020). "SA's second most senior cop, Lieutenant-General Bonang Mgwenya, appears on corruption charges for dodgy tenders". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  76. ^ Grobler, Riaan (13 November 2020). "Deputy police commissioner Bonang Mgwenya fired following corruption charges". News 24. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  77. ^ Nombemde, Philani (23 December 2020). "Cape Town border control police officers arrested for 'business robbery'". Sunday Times. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  78. ^ "Anti-corruption unit cop gets bail for allegedly taking a bribe". IOL. 23 December 2020. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  79. ^ Chothia, Andrea (28 December 2020). "Three law enforcement officers arrested for bribery and corruption". The South African. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  80. ^ Thamm, Marianne (30 January 2022). "SAPS in Crisis: Game on: Ipid lays second criminal charge against National Police Commissioner Sitole". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  81. ^ 1918 New Year Honours#Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG)
  82. ^ "No. 30451". The London Gazette (Supplement). 28 December 1917. p. 82. Note: Chancery of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Downing Street, 1st January, 1918.: To be Ordinary Members of the Third Class, or Companions, of the said Most Distinguished Order
  83. ^ "South African Army Officers 1939-1945". World War II unit histories. Retrieved 14 October 2022.
  84. ^ Heymans, Hennie (May 2016). "The Fighting Police of South Africa". Nongqai. 7 (8). Pretoria: 8. Retrieved 15 October 2022 – via issuu.com.
  85. ^ "Dutch awards to South African nationals for World War II".
  86. ^ "Brigadier GRC Baston". South African Mirror. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  87. ^ "Maj General Robert "Bobbie" Palmer". South African Mirror. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  88. ^ a b "No. 35473". The London Gazette (Supplement). 27 February 1942. p. 997. Note: Award of the first DSO
  89. ^ a b "No. 38288". The London Gazette (Supplement). 11 May 1948. p. 2919. Note: Award of the Bronze Star while a Brigadier
  90. ^ a b "No. 37235". The London Gazette (Supplement). 21 August 1945. p. 2919. Note: Award of the Second Bar to the Distinguished Service Order. (Third Award of the DSO)
  91. ^ a b "No. 37039". The London Gazette (Supplement). 17 April 1945. p. 2072. Note: Award of the First Bar to the Distinguished Service Order. (Second award of the DSO)
  92. ^ Houterman, Hans. "Palmer, Robert John Biography" (PDF). World War II unit histories. Retrieved 14 October 2022.
  93. ^ South African Government. "1999 National Orders awards". www.gov.za. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  94. ^ Heymans, Hennie Brig (Rtd) (21 May 2018). "Nongqai". issuu.com. 9 (6): 17. Retrieved 16 October 2022 – via Issuu.
  95. ^ South African Government. "Bheki Cele, Gen". www.gov.za. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  96. ^ Mbatha, Major General: Nonkululeko (25 October 2011). "Maj. Gen. Lucky Mkhwanazi: The SAPS CV - POLITICS". Politicsweb. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  97. ^ "Curriculum Vitae of General KJ Sitole" (PDF). SAPS. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  98. ^ South African Government. "Sehlahle Fannie Masemola, Lt Gen". www.gov.za. Retrieved 15 October 2022.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]