Demographics of South Africa

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Demographics of South Africa
South-africa-demography.svg
Population of South Africa, 1961–2008
Population 52,981,991 (July 2013 est.)[1]
Growth rate 1.34%[1]
Birth rate 19.61 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Death rate 16.99 deaths/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Life expectancy 61 years (2012 est.)
 • male 59 years (2012 est.)
 • female 63 years (2012 est.)
Fertility rate 2.4 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate 43.78 deaths/1,000
Age structure
0–14 years 28.9% (male 7,093,328/female 7,061,579)
15–64 years 65.8% (male 16,275,424/female 15,984,181)
65 and over 5.4% (male 1,075,117/female 1,562,860) (2010 est.)
Sex ratio
Total 0.99 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
At birth 1.02 male(s)/female
Under 15 1 male(s)/female
15–64 years 1.02 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.68 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality South African
Language
Official See Languages of South Africa

The demographics of South Africa encompasses about 53 million people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions. The last census was held in 2011 and the next will be taken anywhere from 2016–2021.

In 2011, Statistics South Africa counted 2.1 million foreigners in total.[2] However, numerous reports suggest that that is a vast underestimation. The real figure may in fact be as high as five million,[3] including some three million Zimbabweans.[4]

Population[edit]

Historical population[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1 100,000 —    
1000 300,000 +0.11%
1500 600,000 +0.14%
1600 700,000 +0.15%
1700 1,000,000 +0.36%
1820 1,550,000 +0.37%
1870 2,547,000 +1.00%
1904 5,175,463 +2.11%
1911 5,972,757 +2.07%
1913 6,153,000 +1.50%
1921 6,927,403 +1.49%
1936 9,587,863 +2.19%
1946 11,415,925 +1.76%
1950 13,683,162 +4.63%
1955 15,384,557 +2.37%
1960 17,396,367 +2.49%
1970 22,502,502 +2.61%
1980 29,077,143 +2.60%
1990 36,793,490 +2.38%
1995 41,426,810 +2.40%
2001 44,819,777 +1.32%
2007 48,502,063 +1.32%
2011 51,770,560 +1.64%
2015 54,960,000 +1.51%
Note: Population estimates (1 BCE - 1870 BCE) are deduced from quantitative macroeconomic historical calculations. 1 (est.), 1000 (est.), 1500 (est.), 1600 (est.), 1700 (est.), 1820 (est.), 1870 (est.), 1913,[5] 1904[6] 1904-1946,[7][8][9] 1950-2010,[10] 2001, 2011, 2015[11]

U.N. population projections: 2010 to 2040[edit]

Population projections
Year Pop. ±%
2015 53,491,000 —    
2020 55,131,000 +3.1%
2025 56,666,000 +2.8%
2030 58,096,000 +2.5%
2035 59,527,000 +2.5%
2040 60,938,000 +2.4%
Source: United Nations Secretariat[12]

Age and population estimates: 1950 to 2010[edit]

According to the 2010 revision of the United Nations Secretariat's World Population Prospects, South Africa's total population was 50,133,000 in 2010, compared to only 13,683,000 in 1950. In 2010, 30.1% of the people were children under the age of 15, 65.2% were between 15 and 64 years of age, and 4.6% were 65 or older.[13] All population estimates are rounded to the nearest thousand.

Year Total population Percentage
under 15
years old
Percentage
15 to 64
years old
Percentage
at least 65
years old
1950 13,683,000 38.6 57.8 3.6
1955 15,385,000 39.9 56.4 3.8
1960 17,396,000 40.9 55.2 3.9
1965 19,814,000 41.9 54.2 3.9
1970 22,502,000 42.1 54.5 3.4
1975 25,699,000 41.9 54.9 3.2
1980 29,077,000 41.5 55.3 3.1
1985 32,983,000 40.5 56.4 3.1
1990 36,794,000 38.9 57.9 3.2
1995 41,402,000 36.0 60.6 3.4
2000 44,760,000 33.7 62.6 3.7
2005 47,793,000 31.7 64.2 4.1
2010 50,133,000 30.1 65.2 4.6
2015 54,490,000 29.2 63.0 7.7

Historical censuses[edit]

1904 Census[edit]

South African Population Figures for the 1904 Census. Source:[6]

Colony Cape Colony Natal Transvaal Orange River
Colony
Total Percent
Black  1,424,787 904,041 937,127 225,101 3,491,056 67.5%
White 579,741 97,109 297,277 142,679 1,116,805 21.6%
Coloured 395,034 6,686 24,226 19,282 445,228 8.6%
Asiatic 10,242 100,918 11,321 253 122,734 2.4%
Total 2,409,804 1,108,754 1,269,951 387,315 5,175,463 100.0%
% of S. Africa 46.6% 21.4% 24.5% 7.5% 100%

1960 Census[edit]

Sources: Statesman's Year-Book 1967–1968;[14] Europa Year Book 1969 [15]

Province Cape of
Good Hope
Natal Transvaal Orange
Free State
Total Percent
Bantu 3,011,080 2,199,920 4,633,378 1,083,886 10,928,264 68.3%
White 1,003,207 340,235 1,468,305 276,745 3,088,492 19.3%
Coloured 1,330,089 45,253 108,007 25,909 1,509,258 9.4%
Asiatic 18,477 394,854 63,787 7 477,125 3.0%
Total 5,362,853 2,980,262 6,273,477 1,386,547 16,003,139 100.0%
% of S. Africa 33.5% 18.6% 39.2% 8.7% 100.0%

Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey) [16][edit]

Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1998 21,90 2,90 (2,3) 19,2 2,25 (1,8) 25,4 3,92 (2,9)
2003 17,5 2,1 (1,6) 18,4 2,1 (1,6) 16,1 2,2 (1,6)

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events in South Africa has improved considerably during the past decade, but still not considered to be complete for black South Africans. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[13] (Natural increase or decrease over a time period is the difference between that period's live births and deaths, before accounting for inward or outward migration.)

United Nations estimates, 2010

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural Increase per year Crude Birth Rate
(per 1,000 per year)
Crude Death Rate
(per 1,000 per year)
Natural Increase
(per 1,000 per year)
Total Fertility Rate (over av'ge woman's life) Infant Mortality Rate (per 100,000 live births)
1950–1955 629 000 295 000 + 334 000 43.3 20.3 + 23.0 6.50 96
1955–1960 697 000 297 000 + 400 000 42.5 18.1 + 24.4 6.50 91
1960–1965 774 000 310 000 + 464 000 41.6 16.7 + 25.0 6.30 87
1965–1970 808 000 312 000 + 496 000 38.2 14.7 + 23.5 5.70 84
1970–1975 909 000 317 000 + 592 000 37.7 13.1 + 24.6 5.47 77
1975–1980 980 000 319 000 + 661 000 35.8 11.7 + 24.1 5.00 71
1980–1985 1 052 000 307 000 + 745 000 33.9  9.9 + 24.0 4.56 61
1985–1990 1 086 000 299 000 + 787 000 31.1  8.6 + 22.5 4.00 53
1990–1995 1 073 000 332 000 + 742 000 27.5  8.5 + 19.0 3.34 51
1995–2000 1 082 000 450 000 + 632 000 25.1 10.4 + 14.7 2.95 56
2000–2005 1 111 000 645 000 + 466 000 24.0 13.9 + 10.1 2.80 59
2005–2010 1 074 000 746 000 + 328 000 21.9 15.2 +  6.7 2.55 55
2010–2015 21.0 12.5 +  8.5 2.40 55
Total Fertility Rate = average number of children over a woman's lifetime; Infant Mortality Rate per 100,000 live births
Year Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate
(per 1,000)
Crude death rate
(per 1,000)
Natural increase
(per 1,000)
Fertility rates
(per woman)
Average population
2002 1 118 916 608 480 510 436 24,5 13,3 11,2 2,79
2003 1 127 380 643 285 484 095 24,4 13,9 10,5 2,77
2004 1 134 751 671 101 463 650 24,3 14,4 9,9 2,75
2005 1 141 351 682 059 459 292 24,1 14,4 9,7 2,73
2006 1 150 015 625 210 524 805 24,0 13,0 11,0 2,71
2007 1 162 056 564 663 597 393 23,9 11,6 12,3 2,70
2008 1 175 212 542 038 633 174 23,8 11,0 12,8 2,68
2009 1 188 662 528 342 660 320 23,7 10,5 13,2 2,66
2010 1 201 175 535 396 665 779 23,6 10,5 13,1 2,64
2011 1 211 011 556 087 654 924 23,4 10,7 12,7 2,61
2012 1 222 324 555 921 666 403 23,2 10,6 12,6 2,60
2013 1 232 668 539 880 692 788 23,1 10,1 13,0 2,58 52 982 000
2014 1 242 070 516 929 725 141 22,9 9,5 13,4 2,57
2015 1 250 782 531 965 718 817 22,7 9,6 13,1 2,55 54 956 900

Age and sex distribution[edit]

South African National Census of 2011

Population pyramid, 2005
Age group Male Female percent Female Total percent of S.A.
under 5 2867585 49.6% 2817867 5685452 11.0%
5–9 2425181 49.7% 2394570 4819751 9.3%
10–14 2344275 49.0% 2250611 4594886 8.9%
15–19 2498572 50.1% 2504905 5003477 9.7%
20–24 2694646 49.9% 2679896 5374542 10.4%
25–29 2542682 49.7% 2516635 5059317 9.8%
30–34 2036206 49.5% 1992804 4029010 7.8%
35–39 1709347 50.7% 1758420 3467767 6.7%
40–44 1402328 52.4% 1546291 2948619 5.7%
45–49 1195740 54.4% 1424543 2620283 5.1%
50–54 1011349 54.4% 1206940 2218289 4.3%
55–59 811950 54.8% 985458 1797408 3.5%
60–64 612364 55.8% 773404 1385768 2.7%
65–69 401548 58.1% 556256 957804 1.9%
70–74 293498 60.8% 454832 748330 1.4%
75–79 165283 65.7% 315984 481267 0.9%
80–84 100694 68.8% 222222 322916 0.6%
85-plus 75543 70.5% 180130 255673 0.5%
TOTAL 25188791 51.3% 26581769 51770560 100%
Number of children 0–14 Number of women 15–49 Proportion Fertility Rate
15812264 13866489 1.14 2.35
Age group Population Male Female Percent
0–14 15812268 7969880 7842388 31.26
15–64 32235534 15538934 16696600 63.72
65+ 2538955 1006222 1532733 5.02

Age and race distribution[edit]

South African National Census of 2011

Age distribution within each racial group[edit]

By generation[edit]
Age group All races % of All Black African % of Blacks Coloured % of Col'd White % of Whites Indian or other Asian % of Asians Others % of others
0–14 15,100,089 29.2% 12,702,324 31.0% 1,311,811 28.4% 771,187 16.8% 258,602 20.1% 56,164 20.0%
15–64 33,904,479 65.5% 26,502,329 64.6% 3,085,684 66.9% 3,165,965 68.9% 939,379 73.0% 211,126 75.3%
65-plus 2,765,992 5.3% 1,796,285 4.4% 217,906 4.7% 649,686 14.2% 88,949 6.9% 13,164 4.7%
All ages 51,770,560 100% 41,000,938 (100%) 4,615,401 (100%) 4,586,838 (100%) 1,286,930 (100%) 280,454 (100%)
% of SA 100% 79.20% 8.92% 8.86% 2.49% 0.54%
By five-year cohorts[edit]
Age group All races % of All Black African % of Blacks Coloured % of Col'd White % of Whites Indian or Asian % of Asians Others % of others
under 5 5,685,452 11.0% 4,830,442 11.8% 470,090 10.2% 268,267 5.8% 90,795 7.1% 25,857 9.2%
5 to 9 4,819,751 9.3% 4,054,019 9.9% 421,038 9.1% 245,567 5.4% 82,584 6.4% 16,543 5.9%
10 to 14 4,594,886 8.9% 3,817,863 9.3% 420,683 9.1% 257,353 5.6% 85,223 6.6% 13,764 4.9%
15 to 19 5,003,477 9.7% 4,171,450 10.2% 431,263 9.3% 284,896 6.2% 98,556 7.7% 17,312 6.2%
20 to 24 5,374,542 10.4% 4,479,848 10.9% 428,159 9.3% 313,616 6.8% 115,949 9.0% 36,970 13.2%
25 to 29 5,059,317 9.8% 4,156,759 10.1% 385,750 8.4% 336,355 7.3% 125,521 9.8% 44,932 16.0%
30 to 34 4,029,010 7.8% 3,237,677 7.9% 326,803 7.1% 318,329 6.9% 113,398 8.8% 32,802 11.7%
35 to 39 3,467,767 6.7% 2,674,154 6.5% 319,231 6.9% 342,316 7.5% 108,120 8.4% 23,945 8.5%
40 to 44 2,948,618 5.7% 2,164,738 5.3% 319,279 6.9% 351,473 7.7% 95,904 7.5% 17,225 6.1%
45 to 49 2,620,283 5.1% 1,902,133 4.6% 294,467 6.4% 325,185 7.1% 85,621 6.7% 12,877 4.6%
50 to 54 2,218,289 4.3% 1,559,926 3.8% 247,535 5.4% 324,539 7.1% 75,783 5.9% 10,506 3.7%
55 to 59 1,797,408 3.5% 1,242,201 3.0% 186,148 4.0% 295,596 6.4% 65,332 5.1% 8,132 2.9%
60 to 64 1,385,768 2.7% 913,441 2.2% 137,050 3.0% 273,657 6.0% 55,194 4.3% 6,425 2.3%
65 to 69 957,805 1.9% 601,060 1.5% 86,285 1.9% 227,308 5.0% 38,277 3.0% 4,875 1.7%
70 to 74 748,331 1.4% 485,852 1.2% 60,311 1.3% 173,434 3.8% 25,084 1.9% 3,649 1.3%
75 to 79 481,267 0.9% 310,708 0.8% 37,441 0.8% 116,922 2.5% 13,954 1.1% 2,242 0.8%
80 to 84 322,916 0.6% 218,145 0.5% 19,278 0.4% 77,073 1.7% 7,155 0.6% 1,265 0.5%
85-plus 255,673 0.5% 180,520 0.4% 14,591 0.3% 54,949 1.2% 4,479 0.3% 1,133 0.4%
All ages 51,770,560 100% 41,000,938 (100%) 4,615,401 (100%) 4,586,838 (100%) 1,286,930 (100%) 280,454 (100%)
% of SA 100% 79.20% 8.92% 8.86% 2.49% 0.54%
Age group All races Black African % of age grp Coloured % of age grp White % of age grp Indian or Asian % of age grp Other % of age grp
under 5 5,685,452 4,830,442 85.0% 470,090 8.3% 268,267 4.7% 90,795 1.6% 25,857 0.5%
5 to 9 4,819,751 4,054,019 84.1% 421,038 8.7% 245,567 5.1% 82,584 1.7% 16,543 0.5%
10 to 14 4,594,886 3,817,863 83.1% 420,683 9,1% 257,353 5.6% 85,223 1.9% 13,764 0.3%
15 to 19 5,003,477 4,171,450 83.4% 431,263 8.6% 284,896 5.7% 98,556 2.0% 17,312 0.3%
20 to 24 5,374,542 4,479,848 83.4% 428,159 8.0% 313,616 5.8% 115,949 2.2% 36,970 0.7%
25 to 29 5,059,317 4,156,759 82.2% 385,750 7.6% 336,355 6.6% 125,521 2.5% 44,932 0.9%
30 to 34 4,029,010 3,237,677 80.4% 326,803 8.1% 318,329 7.9% 113,398 2.8% 32,802 0.8%
35 to 39 3,467,767 2,674,154 77.1% 319,231 9.2% 342,316 9.9% 108,120 3.1% 23,945 0.7%
40 to 44 2,948,618 2,164,738 73.4% 319,279 10.8% 351,473 11.9% 95,904 3.3% 17,225 0.6%
45 to 49 2,620,283 1,902,133 72.6% 294,467 11.2% 325,185 12.4% 85,621 3.3% 12,877 0.5%
50 to 54 2,218,289 1,559,926 70.3% 247,535 11.2% 324,539 14.6% 75,783 3.4% 10,506 0.5%
55 to 59 1,797,408 1,242,201 69.1% 186,148 10.4% 295,596 16.4% 65,332 3.6% 8,132 0.5%
60 to 64 1,385,768 913,441 65.9% 137,050 9.9% 273,657 19.7% 55,194 4.0% 6,425 0.5%
65 to 69 957,805 601,060 62.8% 86,285 9.0% 227,308 23.7% 38,277 4.0% 4,875 0.5%
70 to 74 748,331 485,852 64.9% 60,311 8.1% 173,434 23.2% 25,084 3.4% 3,649 0.5%
75 to 79 481,267 310,708 64.6% 37,441 7.8% 116,922 24.3% 13,954 2.9% 2,242 0.5%
80 to 84 322,916 218,145 67.6% 19,278 6.0% 77,073 23.9% 7,155 2.2% 1,265 0.4%
85-plus 255,673 180,520 70.6% 14,591 5.7% 54,949 21.5% 4,479 1.8% 1,133 0.4%
All ages 51,770,560 41,000,938 79.20% 4,615,401 8.92% 4,586,838 8.86% 1,286,930 2.49% 280,454 0.54%

Racial composition of each age group in 2015 (estimates)[edit]

Age group All races % of All Black African % of Blacks Coloured % of Col'd White % of Whites Indian or other Asian % of Asians
0–14 16,612,043 30.23% 14,244,663 32.21% 1,288,601 26.66% 789,492 17.41% 289,285 21.24%
15–64 35,465,499 64.53% 28,170,797 63.69% 3,299,771 68.28% 3,026,475 66.75% 968,649 71.12%
65-plus 2,879,378 5.24% 1,812,535 4.10% 244,544 5.06% 718,041 15.84% 104.068 7.64%
All ages 54,956,920 100% 44,227,995 (100%) 4,832,916 (100%) 4,534,008 (100%) 1,362,002 (100%)
% of SA 100% 80.48% 8.79% 8.25% 2.48%
Age group All races % of All Black African % of Blacks Coloured % of Col'd White % of Whites Indian or Asian % of Asians
under 5 5,936,350 10.80% 5,156,508 11.66% 426,156 8.82% 254,978 5.62% 98,708 7.25%
5 to 9 5,537,225 10.08% 4,746,115 10.73% 430,666 8.91% 263,378 5.81% 97,065 7.13%
10 to 14 5,138,468 9.35% 4,342,040 9.82% 431,779 8.93% 271,136 5.98% 93,512 6.87%
15 to 19 5,124,373 9.32% 4,292,220 9.70% 437,412 9.05% 295,733 6.52% 99,007 7.27%
20 to 24 5,302,246 9.65% 4,461,515 10.09% 426,013 8.81% 306,415 6.76% 108,304 7.95%
25 to 29 5,232,254 9.52% 4,437,570 10.03% 389,429 8.06% 287,485 6.34% 117,771 8.65%
30 to 34 4,307,693 7.84% 3,535,173 7.99% 366,955 7.59% 281,358 6.21% 124,206 9.12%
35 to 39 3,774,921 6.87% 3,001,989 6.79% 376,488 7.79% 279,439 6.16% 117,005 8.59%
40 to 44 3,204,952 5.83% 2,444,972 5.53% 368,886 7.63% 288,370 6.36% 102,725 7.54%
45 to 49 2,738,580 4.98% 2,004,009 4.53% 307,363 6.36% 335,434 7.40% 91,774 6.74%
50 to 54 2,297,586 4.18% 1,619,249 3.66% 264,593 5.47% 332,977 7.34% 80,767 5.93%
55 to 59 1,942,942 3.54% 1,334,800 3.02% 209,933 4.34% 328,999 7.26% 69,210 5.08%
60 to 64 1,539,953 2.80% 1,039,301 2.35% 152,698 3.16% 290,075 6.40% 57,879 4.25%
65 to 69 1,153,159 2.10% 737,581 1.67% 105,403 2.18% 265,818 5.86% 44,357 3.26%
70 to 74 805,114 1.46% 511,723 1.16% 65,465 1.35% 198,876 4.39% 28,949 2.13
75 to 79 502,005 0.91% 313,800 0.71% 41,978 0.87% 128,675 2.84% 17,552 1.29%
80-plus 419,100 0.76% 249,431 0.56% 31,698 0.66% 124,672 2.75% 13,210 0.97%
All ages 54,956,920 100% 44,227,995 (100%) 4,832,916 (100%) 4,534,008 (100%) 1,362,002 (100%)
% of SA 100% 80.48% 8.79% 8.25% 2.48%
Age group All races Black African % of age grp Coloured % of age grp White % of age grp Indian or Asian % of age grp
under 5 5,936,350 5,156,508 86.86% 426,156 7.18% 254,978 4.30% 98,708 1.66%
5 to 9 5,537,225 4,746,115 85.71% 430,666 7.78% 263,378 4.76% 97,065 1.75%
10 to 14 5,138,468 4,342,040 84.50% 431,779 8.40% 271,136 5.28% 93,512 1.82%
15 to 19 5,124,373 4,292,220 83.76% 437,412 8.54% 295,733 5.77% 99,007 1.93%
20 to 24 5,302,246 4,461,515 84.14% 426,013 8.03% 306,415 5.78% 108,304 2.04%
25 to 29 5,232,254 4,437,570 84.81% 389,429 7.44% 287,485 5.49% 117,771 2.25%
30 to 34 4,307,693 3,535,173 82.07% 366,955 8.52% 281,358 6.53% 124,206 2.88%
35 to 39 3,774,921 3,001,989 79.52% 376,488 9.97% 279,439 7.40% 117,005 3.10%
40 to 44 3,204,952 2,444,972 76.29% 368,886 11.51% 288,370 9.00% 102,725 3.21%
45 to 49 2,738,580 2,004,009 73.18% 307,363 11.22% 335,434 12.25% 91,774 3.35%
50 to 54 2,297,586 1,619,249 70.48% 264,593 11.52% 332,977 14.49% 80,767 3.52%
55 to 59 1,942,942 1,334,800 68.70% 209,933 10.80% 328,999 16.93% 69,210 3.56%
60 to 64 1,539,953 1,039,301 67.49% 152,698 9.92% 290,075 18.84% 57,879 3.76%
65 to 69 1,153,159 737,581 63.96% 105,403 9.14% 265,818 23.05% 44,357 3.85%
70 to 74 805,114 511,723 63.56% 65,465 8.13% 198,876 24.70% 28,949 3.60%
75 to 79 502,005 313,800 62.51% 41,978 8.36% 128,675 25.63% 17,552 3.50%
80-plus 419,100 249,431 59.52% 31,698 7.56% 124,672 29.75% 13,210 3.15%
All ages 54,956,920 44,227,995 4,832,916 4,534,008 1,362,002
% of SA 80.48% 8.79% 8.25% 2.48%

Ethnic groups[edit]

Annual per capita personal income by race group in South Africa relative to white levels.
Population density in South Africa (darker color = higher density)
Dominant population groups in South Africa.
  Black African
  Coloured
  Indian or other Asian
  White
  None dominant

Statistics South Africa asks people to describe themselves in the census in terms of five racial population groups.[18] The 2011 census figures for these groups were Black African at 80.2%, White at 8.4%, Coloured at 8.8%, Indian /Asian at 2.5%, and Other/Unspecified at 0.5%.[19]

The white population has experienced a sharp decline over time, due to Emigration and much lower fertility rates. The first census in South Africa in 1911 showed that whites made up 22% of the population; it declined to 16% in 1980,[20] and 8.9% in 2011.[21]:21

Languages[edit]

South Africa has eleven official languages:[22] IsiZulu[19] 22.7%, IsiXhosa[19] 16%, Afrikaans[19] 13.5%, English language [19] 9.6%, Sepedi [19] 9.1%, Setswana[19] 8%, Sesotho[19] 7.6%, Xitsonga[19] 4.5%, siSwati[19] 2.5%, Tshivenda[19] 2.4% and isiNdebele[19]2.1%.

In this regard it is third only to Bolivia and India in number. While all the languages are formally equal, some languages are spoken more than others. According to the 2011 census, the three most spoken first languages are Zulu (22.7%), Xhosa (16.0%), and Afrikaans (13.5%).[21]:23–25 Despite the fact that English is recognised as the language of commerce and science, it ranked fourth, and was spoken by only 9.6% of South Africans as a first language in 2011.[21]:23–25

The country also recognises several unofficial languages, including Fanagalo, Khoe, Lobedu, Nama, Northern Ndebele, Phuthi, San and South African Sign Language.[23] These unofficial languages may be used in certain official uses in limited areas where it has been determined that these languages are prevalent. Nevertheless, their populations are not such that they require nationwide recognition.

Many of the "unofficial languages" of the San and Khoikhoi people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and elsewhere. These people, who are a physically distinct population from other Africans, have their own cultural identity based on their hunter-gatherer societies. They have been marginalised to a great extent, and many of their languages are in danger of becoming extinct.

Many white South Africans also speak other European languages, such as Portuguese (also spoken by black Angolans and Mozambicans), German, and Greek, while some Indians and other Asians in South Africa speak South Asian languages, such as Tamil, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu and Telugu. Although many South Africans are of Huguenot (French) origin. South African French is spoken by fewer than 10,000 individuals country-wide. Congolese French is also spoken in South Africa by migrants.

The primary sign language of Deaf South Africans is South African Sign Language. Other sign languages among indigenous peoples are also used.

By ethnicity[edit]

In 2011, the first language was Zulu for 28.1% of Black residents, Xhosa for 19.8%, Northern Sotho for 11.2%, Tswana for 9.7%, Sesotho for 9.3%, Tsonga for 5.5%, Swati for 3.1%, Venda for 2.9%, English for 2.8%, Southern Ndebele for 2.6%, Afrikaans for 1.5%, while 3.4% had another first language.[24]

Among whites, Afrikaans was the first language for 59.1% of the population, compared to 35.0% for English. Other languages accounted for the remaining 5.9%.[24]

Religion[edit]

According to the 2001 national census, Christians accounted for 79.7% of the population. This includes Protestant (36.6%), Zionist Christian (11.1%), Pentecostal/Charismatic) (8.2%), Roman Catholic (7.1%), Methodist (6.8%), Dutch Reformed (6.7%), Anglican (3.8%); members of other Christian churches accounted for another 36% of the population. Muslims accounted for 1.5% of the population 15.1% , Other 2.3%, and 1.4% were Unspecified and None 15.1%. [19]

African Indigenous Churches made up the largest of the Christian groups. Some believe that many people claiming no affiliation with any organised religion adhered to traditional indigenous religions. Many people have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences.[25]

Muslims are largely found among the Coloured and Indian ethnic groups. They have been joined by black or white South African converts as well as immigrants from other parts of Africa.[26] South African Muslims claim that their faith is the fastest-growing religion of conversion in the country, with the number of black Muslims growing sixfold, from 12 000 in 1991 to 74 700 in 2004[26][27]

The Hindu population has its roots in the British colonial period, but later waves of immigration from India have also contributed to it. Most Hindus are of South Asian origin, but there are many who come from mixed racial stock. Some are converts due to the efforts of Hindu missionaries such as ISKCON.

Other minority religions in South Africa are Sikhism, Jainism and Bahá'í Faith.[28]

By ethnicity[edit]

87.9% of Black residents are Christian, 9.5% have no religion, 0.2% are Muslim, 0.0% are Jewish, 0.0% are Hindu and 2.3% have other or undetermined beliefs.

71.8% of White residents are Christian, 23.8% have no religion, 0.2% are Muslim, 1.4% are Jewish, and 0.0% are Hindu. 2.7% have other or undetermined beliefs.

Immigration[edit]

COB data South Africa.PNG

South Africa hosts a sizeable refugee and asylum seeker population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, this population numbered approximately 144,700 in 2007.[29] Groups of refugees and asylum seekers numbering over 10,000 included people from Zimbabwe (48,400), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (24,800), and Somalia (12,900).[29] These populations mainly lived in Johannesburg, Pretoria, Durban, Cape Town, and Port Elizabeth.[29] Many refugees have now also started to work and live in rural areas in provinces such as Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal.

Statistics SA assumes in some of their calculations that there are less than 2 million immigrants in South Africa.[30] Other institutions, like the police and Médecins Sans Frontières place estimate the figure at 4 million.[31][32][33][34][35]

Immigration figures[edit]

Immigration assumptions by Statistics South Africa to South Africa based on race. Negative numbers represent net migration from South Africa to other countries.[36]

Year African Asian White
1985-2000 1 135 275 14 476 -304 112
2001-2005 769 038 23 335 -133 782
2006-2010 922 885 34 688 -112 046
2011-2015 1 067 936 40 929 -95 158

Largest municipalities[edit]

Graphs and maps[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Mid-year population estimates, 2013" (PDF). Statistics South Africa. 
  2. ^ "Table 3.5, Statistical release (Revised) P0301.4, Census 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  3. ^ "Nowhere left to go". Retrieved 26 April 2015. 
  4. ^ "Escape From Mugabe: Zimbabwe's Exodus". Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. 
  5. ^ Angus Maddison (2010). "Statistics on World Population, GDP and Per Capita GDP, 1-2008 AD". University of Groningen. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  6. ^ a b Smuts I: The Sanguine Years 1870–1919, W.K. Hancock, Cambridge University Press, 1962, pg 219
  7. ^ The Statesman's Year-Book 1977–1978 (ed. John Paxton), St. Martin's Press, New York (& Macmillan, London), 1977, page 1296
  8. ^ [1], City of Cape Town / Isixeko Sasekapa, Stad Kaapstad: Metropolitan Municipality & Main Places – Statistics & Maps on City Population
  9. ^ [2], South Africa: Provinces & Major Urban Areas – Statistics & Maps on City Population
  10. ^ Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (2015). "Total Population - Both Sexes (XLS, 3.74 MB) - 2015 revision". United Nations. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  11. ^ "Mid-year population estimates" (PDF). Statistics South Africa. 23 July 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  12. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision". UN. Retrieved 28 July 2014. 
  13. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  14. ^ The Statesman's Year-Book, 1967–1968 (104th annual edition), edited by S.H. Steinberg, Macmillan, London; St. Martin's Press, New York, 1967, pages 1405–1424
  15. ^ The Europa Year Book 1969, Volume II: Africa, The Americas, Asia, Australasia, Europa Publications, London, 1969, page 1286
  16. ^ http://www.dhsprogram.com/
  17. ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P0302/P03022015.pdf
  18. ^ Lehohla, Pali (5 May 2005). "Debate over race and censuses not peculiar to SA". Business Report. Retrieved 25 August 2013. Others pointed out that the repeal of the Population Registration Act in 1991 removed any legal basis for specifying 'race'. The Identification Act of 1997 makes no mention of race. On the other hand, the Employment Equity Act speaks of 'designated groups' being 'black people, women and people with disabilities'. The Act defines 'black' as referring to 'Africans, coloureds and Indians'. Apartheid and the racial identification which underpinned it explicitly linked race with differential access to resources and power. If the post-apartheid order was committed to remedying this, race would have to be included in surveys and censuses, so that progress in eradicating the consequences of apartheid could be measured and monitored. This was the reasoning that led to a 'self-identifying' question about 'race' or 'population group' in both the 1996 and 2001 population censuses, and in Statistics SA's household survey programme. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Africa :: SOUTH AFRICA". CIA The World Factbook. 
  20. ^ Study Commission on U.S. Policy toward Southern Africa (U.S.) (1981). South Africa: time running out : the report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa. University of California Press. p. 42. ISBN 0-520-04547-5. 
  21. ^ a b c Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. ISBN 9780621413885. 
  22. ^ "Constitution of South Africa, Chapter 1, Section 6". Fs.gov.za. Archived from the original on 29 July 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
  23. ^ "The languages of South Africa". SouthAfrica.info. 4 February 1997. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  24. ^ a b "Community profiles > Census 2011". Statistics South Africa Superweb. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  25. ^ Department of State, USA.
  26. ^ a b "In South Africa, many blacks convert to Islam". 
  27. ^ "Muslims say their faith growing fast in Africa". Religionnewsblog.com. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  28. ^ "South Africa – Section I. Religious Demography". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 15 July 2006. 
  29. ^ a b c "World Refugee Survey 2008". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 19 June 2008. 
  30. ^ "P03022009_6". Statssa.gov.za. Retrieved 2014-01-05. [permanent dead link]
  31. ^ So where are Zimbabweans going?, BBC News. 8 November 2005.
  32. ^ SA population may be much larger than previously thought Beeld 1 June 2009.
  33. ^ Reference to 1996 HSRC study
  34. ^ South African Police Service 2009 Annual Report Archived 25 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. page 9 indicating the number exceeds 3 million
  35. ^ [3][dead link]
  36. ^ "Mid-year population estimates 2014" (PDF). Statsitcs South Africa. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]