South American land mammal age

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South American land mammal age is located in South America
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
South American land mammal age
Locations of SALMA type localities
White pog.svg Pleistocene ages
Yellow ffff80 pog.svg Pliocene ages
Yellow pog.svg Miocene ages
Gold pog.svg Oligocene ages
Orange ff8040 pog.svg Eocene ages
Orange pog.svg Paleocene ages

The South American land mammal ages (SALMA) establish a geologic timescale for prehistoric South American fauna beginning 64.5 Ma during the Paleocene and continuing through to the Late Pleistocene (0.011 Ma). These periods are referred to as ages, stages, or intervals and were established using geographic place names where fossil materials where obtained.[1]

The basic unit of measure is the first/last boundary statement. This shows that the first appearance event of one taxon is known to predate the last appearance event of another. If two taxa are found in the same fossil quarry or at the same stratigraphic horizon, then their age-range zones overlap.

Background[edit]

South America was an island continent for much of the Cenozoic, or the "Age of Mammals". As a result, its mammals evolved in their own unique directions, as Australia and Madagascar still have today.

Paleogeographic timeline[edit]

A simplified paleogeographic timeline of South America:[2]

  • 66 Ma – South America was connected to both North America and Antarctica. Soon after this point, it lost its connection to North America.
  • 66–50 Ma – Tiupampan to Casamayoran - South America was connected to Antarctica which, in turn, was connected to Australia. The Antarctica–Australia connection was lost around the end of this interval or perhaps as much as 15 million years later.
  • 50–34 Ma – Casamayoran to Tinguirirican - South America was connected to Antarctica, which was not yet covered by ice.
  • 34 Ma – Tinguirirican - South America and Antarctica became detached and glaciations started to form in Antarctica.
  • 34–9 Ma – Tinguirirican to Chasicoan - South America had no land connections to any other continent.
  • 9–3 Ma – Huayquerian to Chapadmalalan - islands formed between South and North America. A complete Isthmus of Panama most likely formed near the end of this interval, leading to the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI).
  • 3 Ma to present – Uquian to Holocene - the land connection between South and North America is established and migration between the formerly separated continents occurs. The main migrational route is from north to south, rather than the opposite way. This led to much higher extinction levels of groups in South America than in North America.
  • Pleistocene – the glacials and interglacials of the Pleistocene caused drastic eustatic sea level changes, widening and narrowing the land bridge at the 'bottleneck' of Panama. As a side-effect, the vegetation changed during this period of strong climatic changes.
  • Late Pleistocene – the earliest humans arrived in South America and settled in various parts of the continent. Evidence for cohabitation with the latest Pleistocene megafauna has been found at multiple locations, such as Monte Verde in coastal Chile and Tibitó on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense in Colombia.
Albian
Since about 110 million years ago, South America and Africa are detached
Antarctica, Australia and South America were attached as one large isolated paleocontinent for about 15 million years
The Drake Passage, separating South America from Antarctica, was formed since the latest Eocene (~35 Ma)
The paleogeographical history of South America, with the separation from Africa and Antarctica

Definitions[edit]

Epoch SALMA Top age (Ma) Base age (Ma) Etymology Country Location
Holocene
0
0.011
Late Pleistocene Lujanian
0.011
0.8
Luján Formation  Argentina Buenos Aires Province
Mid Pleistocene Ensenadan
0.8
1.2
La Ensenada Formation  Argentina Buenos Aires Province
Early Pleistocene Uquian
1.2
3.0
Uquía Formation  Argentina Jujuy Province
Late Pliocene Chapadmalalan
3.0
4.0
Chapadmalal Formation  Argentina Buenos Aires Province
Early Pliocene Montehermosan
4.0
6.8
Monte Hermoso Formation  Argentina Buenos Aires Province
Late Miocene
Huayquerian
6.8
9.0
Huayquerías Formation  Argentina Mendoza Province
Chasicoan
9.0
10.0
Arroyo Chasicó Formation  Argentina Buenos Aires Province
Mayoan
10.0
11.8
Río Mayo Formation  Argentina Chubut Province
Mid Miocene Laventan
11.8
13.8
La Venta fauna  Colombia Huila Department
Colloncuran
13.8
15.5
Collón Curá Formation  Argentina Neuquén Province
Early Miocene Friasian
15.5
16.3
Río Frías Formation  Chile Aysén Region
Santacrucian
16.3
17.5
Santa Cruz Formation  Argentina Santa Cruz Province
Colhuehuapian
17.5
21.0
Colhué Huapí Member  Argentina Chubut Province
Deseadan
21.0
29.0
Deseado Formation  Argentina Santa Cruz Province
Late Oligocene
Early Oligocene Tinguirirican
29.0
36.0
Tinguiririca fauna  Chile O'Higgins Region
Late Eocene
Mid Eocene Divisaderan
36.0
42.0
Divisadero Largo Formation  Argentina Mendoza Province
Early Eocene Mustersan
42.0
48.0
Lake Musters  Argentina Chubut Province
Early Eocene Casamayoran
48.0
54.0
Casamayor Formation  Argentina Santa Cruz Province
Riochican
54.0
57.0
Río Chico Group  Argentina Chubut Province
Late Paleocene
Itaboraian
57.0
59.0
Itaboraí Formation  Brazil Rio de Janeiro State
Mid Paleocene Peligran
59.0
62.5
Punta Peligro  Argentina Chubut Province
Early Paleocene Tiupampan
62.5
64.5
Tiupampa  Bolivia Cochabamba Department

Cenozoic fossiliferous stratigraphic units in South America[edit]

The following formations have provided vertebrate, insect or plant fossils, formations with other invertebrates are excluded:

SALMA Formations Country Location Notes
Lujanian Luján Formation  Argentina Salado Basin
Chaco Formation  Argentina Chaco Basin
Chíu-Chíu Formation  Chile Calama Basin
Dolores Formation  Uruguay Norte Basin
El Palmar Formation  Argentina Paraná Basin
Fortin Tres Pozos Formation  Argentina Chaco Basin
Los Hoyos beds  Colombia Upper Magdalena Valley
La Huaca Formation  Peru Sechura Basin
La Invernada Formation  Argentina Chaco Basin
Ñuapua Formation  Bolivia Chuquisaca Department
Pampa La Brea Formation  Peru Talara Basin
Rotinet Formation  Colombia Sinú-San Jacinto Basin
Sabana Formation  Colombia Altiplano Cundiboyacense
Saladillo Formation  Argentina Pampean Region
Salto Ander Egg Formation  Argentina Paraná Basin
San Sebastián Formation  Peru Eastern Peruvian Andes
Santa Clara Formation  Argentina Buenos Aires Province
Santa Vitória Formation  Brazil Pelotas Basin
Soatá Formation  Colombia Altiplano Cundiboyacense
Sopas Formation  Uruguay Norte Basin
Tarija Formation  Bolivia Tarija Basin
Tezanos Pinto Formation  Argentina Paraná Basin
Touro Passo Formation  Brazil Paraná Basin
Ulloma Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Ensenadan La Ensenada Formation  Argentina Salado Basin
Belgrano Formation  Argentina Buenos Aires Province
Chíu-Chíu Formation  Chile Calama Basin
Graxaim Formation  Brazil Pelotas Basin
Mesa Formation  Venezuela Eastern Venezuela Basin
Miramar Formation  Argentina Claromecó Basin
Sabana Formation  Colombia Altiplano Cundiboyacense
Tarija Formation  Bolivia Tarija Basin
Ulloma Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Umala Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Uquía Formation  Argentina Eastern Argentinian Andes
Vorohué Formation  Argentina Claromecó Basin
Yupoí Formation  Argentina Paraná Basin
Uquian Uquía Formation  Argentina Eastern Argentinian Andes
Bahía Inglesa Formation  Chile Caldera Basin
Charana Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Chíu-Chíu Formation  Chile Calama Basin
Hernandarías Formation  Argentina Paraná Basin
La Paz Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Sacaba Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
San Andrés Formation  Argentina Claromecó Basin
San Gregorio Formation  Venezuela Falcón Basin
Umala Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Vorohué Formation  Argentina Claromecó Basin
Ware Formation  Colombia Cocinetas Basin
Chapadmalalan Chapadmalal Formation  Argentina Claromecó Basin
Puerto Alvear Formation  Argentina Paraná Basin
Andalhuala Formation  Argentina Santa María-Hualfín Basin
Bahía Inglesa Formation  Chile Caldera Basin
Brochero Formation  Argentina Sierras de Córdoba
Chíu-Chíu Formation  Chile Calama Basin
Coquimbo Formation  Chile Tongoy Bay
Horcón Formation  Chile Valparaíso Basin
La Paz Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
La Portada Formation  Chile Tiburón Basin
Pisco Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Río Quinto Formation  Argentina Pampa de Las Salinas Basin
San Gregorio Formation  Venezuela Falcón Basin
San José Formation  Argentina
 Uruguay
Salado Basin
Santa Lucía Basin
Toro Negro Formation  Argentina Sierra de Los Colorados
Umala Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Ware Formation  Colombia Cocinetas Basin
Montehermosan Monte Hermoso Formation  Argentina Claromecó Basin
Aconquija Formation  Argentina Sierra del Aconquija
Andalhuala Formation  Argentina Santa María-Hualfín Basin
Bahía Inglesa Formation  Chile Caldera Basin
Caleta Herradura Formation  Chile Tiburón Basin
Casira Formation  Bolivia Potosí mountain range
Codore Formation  Venezuela Falcón Basin
Coquimbo Formation  Chile Tongoy Bay
Corral Quemado Formation  Argentina Santa María-Hualfín Basin
Ipururo Formation  Peru Ucayali Basin
La Paz Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Letrero Formation  Ecuador Nabón Basin
Navidad Formation  Chile Chilean Coast Range
Onzole Formation  Ecuador Borbón Basin
Palo Pintado Formation  Argentina Salta Basin
Paraguaná Formation  Venezuela Falcón Basin
Pisco Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Puerta del Diablo Formation  Argentina Valdés Basin
Raigón Formation  Uruguay Norte Basin
Remedios Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Río Negro Formation  Argentina Colorado Basin
Río Quinto Formation  Argentina Pampa de Las Salinas Basin
San José Formation  Argentina
 Uruguay
Salado Basin
Santa Lucía Basin
Solimões Formation  Brazil Solimões Basin
Umala Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Huayquerian Huayquerías Formation  Argentina Cuyo Basin
Andalhuala Formation  Argentina Santa María-Hualfín Basin
Bahía Inglesa Formation - Cerro Ballena  Chile Caldera Basin
Camacho Formation  Uruguay Norte & Santa Lucía Basins
Cerro Azul Formation  Argentina Colorado Basin
Chiquimil Formation  Argentina Santa María-Hualfín Basin
Coquimbo Formation  Chile Tongoy Bay
Las Flores Formation  Argentina Sierra del Tontal
Entrerriana Formation  Argentina Chaco Basin
Epecuén Formation  Argentina Claromecó Basin
Içá Formation  Brazil Madre de Deus Basin
Iñapari Formation  Peru Madre de Dios Basin
India Muerta Formation  Argentina Sierras Pampeanas
Ituzaingó Formation  Argentina Paraná Basin
Kiyu Formation  Uruguay Santa Lucía Basin
Madre de Dios Formation  Peru Madre de Dios Basin
Maimará Formation  Argentina Eastern Argentinian Andes
Mauri Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Miramar Formation  Peru Sechura Basin
El Morterito Formation  Argentina Cajón Valley
Muyu Huasi Formation  Bolivia Muyu Huasi Basin
Navidad Formation  Chile Chilean Coast Range
Palo Pintado Formation  Argentina Salta Basin
Paraná Formation  Argentina Chaco Basin
Pebas Formation  Brazil
 Colombia
 Ecuador
 Peru
Amazon Basin
Piquete Formation  Argentina Salta Basin
Pisco Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Quehua Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Raigón Formation  Uruguay Norte Basin
Rosa Pata Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Saldungaray Formation  Argentina Buenos Aires Province
Salicas Formation  Argentina Sierra de Velasco
Solimões Formation  Brazil Solimões Basin
Urumaco Formation  Venezuela Falcón Basin
Chasicoan Arroyo Chasicó Formation  Argentina Colorado Basin
Bahía Inglesa Formation  Chile Caldera Basin
Caujarao Formation  Venezuela Falcón Basin
Cerro Azul Formation  Argentina Colorado Basin
Coquimbo Formation  Chile Tongoy Bay
Loma de Las Tapias Formation  Argentina Tulum Valley
Madre de Dios Formation  Peru Madre de Dios Basin
Mauri Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Navidad Formation  Chile Chilean Coast Range
Palo Pintado Formation  Argentina Angastaco Basin
Paraná Formation  Argentina Chaco Basin
Pebas Formation  Brazil
 Colombia
 Ecuador
 Peru
Amazon Basin
Pisco Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Puerto Madryn Formation  Argentina Valdés Basin
Urumaco Formation - Urumaco fauna  Venezuela Falcón Basin
Mayoan Río Mayo Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Coquimbo Formation  Chile Tongoy Bay
Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation  Argentina Colorado Basin
Huaylas Formation  Chile Parinacota Province
Mauri Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Navidad Formation  Chile Chilean Coast Range
Paraná Formation  Argentina Chaco Basin
Pebas Formation  Brazil
 Colombia
 Ecuador
 Peru
Amazon Basin
Pisco Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Puerto Madryn Formation  Argentina Valdés Basin
Urumaco Formation  Venezuela Falcón Basin
Yecua Formation  Bolivia Paraná Basin
Laventan Honda Group - La Venta fauna  Colombia Upper Magdalena Valley
Honda Group - Quebrada Honda fauna  Bolivia Quebrada Honda Basin
Aisol Formation  Argentina San Rafael Block
Bahía Inglesa Formation  Chile Caldera Basin
Capadare Formation  Venezuela Falcón Basin
Choquecota Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Cura-Mallín Group  Chile Cura-Mallín Basin
Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation  Argentina Colorado Basin
Ipururo Formation  Peru Ucayali Basin
Mariño Formation  Argentina Cuyo Basin
Mauri Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Paraná Formation  Argentina Chaco Basin
Pebas Formation  Brazil
 Colombia
 Ecuador
 Peru
Amazon Basin
Pisco Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Santa Inés Formation  Venezuela Eastern Venezuela Basin
Sincelejo Formation  Colombia Sinú-San Jacinto Basin
Socorro Formation  Venezuela Falcón Basin
Urumaco Formation  Venezuela Falcón Basin
Colloncuran Collón Curá Formation  Argentina Cañadón Asfalto Basin
Neuquén Basin
Castilletes Formation  Colombia Cocinetas Basin
Cerdas beds  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Cura-Mallín Group  Chile Cura-Mallín Basin
Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation  Argentina Colorado Basin
Mariño Formation  Argentina Cuyo Basin
Mauri Formation  Bolivia Altiplano Basin
Nazareno Formation  Bolivia Tupiza Basin
Pebas Formation  Brazil
 Colombia
 Ecuador
 Peru
Amazon Basin
Pisco Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Friasian Río Frías Formation  Chile Aysén Basin
Castilletes Formation  Colombia Cocinetas Basin
Chilcatay Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Cura-Mallín Group  Chile Cura-Mallín Basin
Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation  Argentina Colorado Basin
Parángula Formation  Venezuela Barinas-Apure Basin
Pebas Formation  Brazil
 Colombia
 Ecuador
 Peru
Amazon Basin
Río Foyel Formation  Argentina Patagonian Andes
Río Yuca Formation  Venezuela Barinas-Apure Basin
Santacrucian Santa Cruz Formation  Argentina Austral Basin
Aisol Formation  Argentina San Rafael Block
Cantaure Formation  Venezuela Falcón Basin
Castillo Formation  Venezuela Falcón Basin
Cerro Boleadoras Formation  Argentina Austral Basin
Chaguaramas Formation  Venezuela Eastern Venezuela Basin
Chilcatay Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Chucal Formation - Chucal fauna  Chile Altiplano Basin
Cura-Mallín Group  Chile Cura-Mallín Basin
Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation  Argentina Colorado Basin
Jimol Formation  Colombia Cocinetas Basin
Mariño Formation  Argentina Cuyo Basin
Pinturas Formation  Argentina Austral Basin
Río Yuca Formation  Venezuela Barinas-Apure Basin
Colhuehuapian Colhué Huapí Member  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Abanico Formation  Chile Abanico Basin
Biblián Formation  Ecuador Cuenca Basin
Castillo Formation  Venezuela Falcón Basin
Cerro Bandera Formation  Argentina Neuquén Basin
Chichinales Formation  Argentina Neuquén Basin
Chilcatay Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Cura-Mallín Group  Chile Cura-Mallín Basin
Gaiman Formation  Argentina Valdés Basin
Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation  Argentina Colorado Basin
Monte León Formation  Argentina Austral Basin
Montera Formation  Peru Sechura Basin
Pirabas Formation  Brazil Amazon Basin
Río Jeinemeni Formation  Argentina Austral Basin
Sarmiento Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Uitpa Formation  Colombia Cocinetas Basin
Deseadan Deseado Formation  Argentina Deseado Massif
Abanico Formation  Chile Abanico Basin
Agua de la Piedra Formation  Argentina Precordillera
Barzalosa Formation  Colombia Upper Magdalena Valley
Chambira Formation  Peru Ucayali Basin
Chilcatay Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Dos Bocas Formation  Ecuador Progreso Basin
Fray Bentos Formation  Argentina
 Uruguay
Paraná Basin
Gaiman Formation  Argentina Valdés Basin
Mariño Formation  Argentina Cuyo Basin
Monte León Formation  Argentina Austral Basin
Moquegua Formation  Peru Moquegua Basin
Mugrosa Formation  Colombia Middle Magdalena Valley
Petaca Formation  Bolivia Subandean Belt
"Puca Group" - Lacayani fauna  Bolivia Subandean Belt
Río Baguales Formation  Chile Aysén Basin
Salla Formation  Bolivia Salla-Luribay Basin
Sarmiento Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Tremembé Formation/São Paulo Formation  Brazil Taubaté Basin
Tinguirirican Abanico Formation - Tinguiririca fauna  Chile Abanico Basin
Chota Formation  Peru Bagua Basin
Entre-Corrégos Formation  Brazil Aiuruoca Basin
Gualanday Group  Colombia Central Colombian Ranges
Laguna Brava Formation  Argentina Precordillera
Loreto Formation  Chile Magallanes Basin
El Milagro Formation  Peru Bagua Basin
Otuma Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Sarmiento Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Seca Formation  Ecuador Progreso Basin
Soncco Formation  Peru Eastern Peruvian Andes
Divisaderan Divisadero Largo Formation  Argentina Cuyo Basin
Abanico Formation  Chile Abanico Basin
Andesitas Huancache Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Chota Formation  Peru Bagua Basin
Leticia Formation  Argentina Austral Basin
Loreto Formation  Chile Magallanes Basin
Paracas Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Pozo Formation  Peru Ucayali Basin
Sarmiento Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Soncco Formation  Peru Eastern Peruvian Andes
Yumaque Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Mustersan Sarmiento Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Abanico Formation  Chile Abanico Basin
Andesitas Huancache Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Chota Formation  Peru Bagua Basin
Geste Formation  Argentina Puna Plateau
Laguna del Hunco Formation  Argentina Cañadón Asfalto Basin
Paracas Formation  Peru Pisco Basin
Pozo Formation  Peru Ucayali Basin
Soncco Formation  Peru Eastern Peruvian Andes
Vaca Mahuida Formation  Argentina Neuquén Basin
Ventana Formation  Argentina Neuquén Basin
Yahuarango Formation - Santa Rosa fauna  Peru Ucayali Basin
Casamayoran Casamayor Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Abanico Formation  Chile Abanico Basin
Bogotá Formation  Colombia Altiplano Cundiboyacense
Cayara Formation  Bolivia Cochabamba Department
Chota Formation  Peru Bagua Basin
Fonseca Formation  Brazil Fonseca Basin
Guabirotuba Formation  Brazil Curitiba Basin
Huitrera Formation  Argentina Neuquén Basin
Laguna del Hunco Formation  Argentina Cañadón Asfalto Basin
Los Cuervos Formation  Colombia Cesar-Ranchería Basin
Lumbrera Formation  Argentina Salta Basin
Maíz Gordo Formation  Argentina Salta Basin
Quebrada de los Colorados Formation  Argentina Salta Basin
Sarmiento Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Riochican Río Chico Group  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Bogotá Formation  Colombia Altiplano Cundiboyacense
Bororó Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Chota Formation  Peru Bagua Basin
Koluel Kaike Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Maíz Gordo Formation  Argentina Salta Basin
Mogollón Formation  Peru Talara & Tumbes Basins
Muñani Formation  Peru Altiplano Basin
Peñas Coloradas Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Río Loro Formation  Argentina Sierras Pampeanas
Salamanca Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Itaboraian Itaboraí Formation  Brazil Itaboraí Basin
Bogotá Formation  Colombia Altiplano Cundiboyacense
Cerrejón Formation  Colombia Cesar-Ranchería Basin
Chota Formation  Peru Bagua Basin
Koluel Kaike Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Las Flores Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Maíz Gordo Formation  Argentina Salta Basin
Mealla Formation  Argentina Salta Basin
Mogollón Formation  Peru Talara & Tumbes Basins
Muñani Formation  Peru Altiplano Basin
Peñas Coloradas Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Río Loro Formation  Argentina Sierras Pampeanas
Peligran Peñas Coloradas Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Bogotá Formation  Colombia Altiplano Cundiboyacense
Cerrejón Formation  Colombia Cesar-Ranchería Basin
Chota Formation  Peru Bagua Basin
Guaduas Formation  Colombia Altiplano Cundiboyacense
Salamanca Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin
Santa Lucía Formation  Bolivia Potosí Basin
Tiupampan Santa Lucía Formation  Bolivia Potosí Basin
Chota Formation  Peru Bagua Basin
Guaduas Formation  Colombia Altiplano Cundiboyacense
Lefipán Formation  Argentina Cañadón Asfalto Basin
Maria Farinha Formation  Brazil Paraíba Basin
Salamanca Formation  Argentina Golfo San Jorge Basin

Fossil content[edit]

SALMA Group Fossils Formation Notes
Lujanian Mammals Calomys callosus, Chaetophractus villosus, Ctenomys lujanensis, C. magellanicus, Dilobodon lujanensis, Doedicurus clavicaudatus, Dolichotis patagonum, Dusicyon avus, Eligmodontia typus, Equus (Amerhippus) cf. curvidens, Equus caballus, Eulamaops paralellus, Eutatus seguini, Galea musteloides, Glossotherium myloides, G. robustum, Glyptodon clavipes, G. perforatus, G. reticulatus, G. rudimentarius, Hemiauchenia paradoxa, Hippidion devillei, H. principale, Holochilus brasiliensis, Lagostomus maximus, Lama glama, L. gracilis, L. guanicoe, Lestodelphys halli, Lestodon armatus, L. gaudryi, L. trigonidens, Lontra longicaudis, Lycalopex gymnocercus, Lyncodon patagonicus, Macrauchenia patagonica, Megatherium americanum, Microcavia australis, M. robusta, Morenelaphus azpeitianus, M. lujanensis, Myocastor coypus, M. priscus, Neochoerus aesopi, Neochoerus sulcidens, Neothoracophorus depressus, N. elevatus, Neuryurus rudis, Notiomastodon platensis, Pampatherium typum, Panochthus tuberculatus, Panthera onca, Panthera platensis, Pediolagus salinicola, Pseudalopex gymnocercus, Reithrodon auritus, R. cf. physodes, Scelidotherium leptocephalum, Smilodon populator, Stegomastodon superbus, Tayassu tajacu, Tolypeutes tricinctus matacus, Toxodon bilobidens, T. platensis, Arctotherium sp., Neosclerocalyptus sp. Luján
Holmesina rondoniensis Rio Madeira
Birds Cathartes fossilis, Lagopterus minutus, Nannopterum brasilianum, Sarcorhamphus fossilis Luján
Insects Cyclocephala signaticollis, Diloboderus abderus, Epipedonota cristallisata, Nyctelia picipes, Scotobius pilularius Luján
Ensenadan Mammals Epieurycerus truncus, Tonnicinctus mirus Ensenada
Balaenoptera musculus, Eubalaena australis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Ziphiidae indet. Graxaim
Homotherium venezuelensis, Smilodon gracilis, Tapirus sp. Mesa
Eutatus sp., Mesotherium sp., Neosclerocalyptus sp., Palaeolama sp. Miramar
Equus (Amerhippus) andium, Equus (Amerhippus) insulatus, Andinomys cf. edea, Arctodus tarijensis, A. wingei, Arctotherium tarijense, A. wingei, Calomys cf. lancha, Canis dirus, Canis proplatensis, Chaetophractus tarijensis, C. villosus, Charitoceros tarijensis, Chlamydotherium cf. sellowi, Chrysocyon brachyurus, Coendou magnus, Conepatus suffocans, Ctenomys brachyrhinus, C. subassentiens, Cuvieronius hyodon, C. tropicus, Dasypus cf. villosus, Dicotyles cf. major, Euphractus sexcinctus, Euryzygomatomys hoffstetteri, Felis platensis, Felis yaguaroundi, Glossotherium robustum, G. tarijensis, Glyptodon clavipes, G. reticulatus, Hemiauchenia cf. paradoxa, Hippidion bonaerensis, H. devillei, H. principale, Hoplophorus echazui, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Kunsia fronto, Lama castelnaudi, L. glama, L. intermedia, L. mesolithica, L. cf. oweni, L. provicugna, Lestodon armatus, Lutreolina crassicaudata, Macrauchenia patagonica, Megatherium americanum, M. tarijensis, Myocastor coypus, M. perditus, Nectomys cf. squamipes, Neochoerus tarijensis, Neothoracophorus cf. elevatus, Nothropus tarijensis, Oxymycterus cf. paranensis, Palaeolama crequii, P. weddeli, Pampatherium cf. humboldtii, Panochthus cf. tuberculatus, Panthera onca, Phyllotis cf. darwini, Platygonus tarijensis, Propraopus sulcatus, Protocyon tarijensis, Pseudalopex gymnocercus, Puma concolor, Reigomys primigenus, Scelidodon tarijensis, Scelidotherium patrium, Smilodon populator, Tapirus tarijensis, Tapirus terrestris terrestris, Theriodictis tarijensis, Toxodon cf. platensis, Haplomastodon sp., Hippocamelus sp., Hydrochoerus sp., Nasua sp., Notiomastodon sp. Tarija
Hippidion devillei, Pardinamys humahuaquensis, Pseudomacrauchenia yepesi, Glyptodon sp., ?Neuryurus sp., cf. Palaeolama sp., Scelidotherium sp., Cervidae indet. Uquía
Glyptodon munizi Vorohué
Hippidion principale, Holmesina paulacoutoi, Lestodon armatus, Macrauchenia patagonica, Megatherium americanum, Neolicaphrium recens, Notiomastodon platensis, Pampatherium typum, Panthera onca, Smilodon populator, Tayassu pecari, Toxodon platensis, Arctotherium sp., Dolichotis sp., Euphractus sp., Galea sp., Glyptodon sp., Lama sp., Mazama sp., Myocastor sp., Neosclerocalyptus sp., Panochthus sp., Propraopus sp., Scelidodon sp., Stegomastodon sp., Theriodictis sp., Tolypeutes sp. Yupoí
Birds Neochen debilis Belgrano
Anas bahamensis, Anas cheuen, Callonetta talarae, Pleistoanser bravardi, Zonotrichia robusta Miramar
Vultur gryphus Tarija
Reptiles &
amphibians
Leiosaurus marellii La Ensenada
Caiman venezuelensis, Crocodylia indet. Mesa
Bufo cf. marinus, Ceratophrys sp. Tarija
Fishes Pogonias cromis Graxaim
Uquian Mammals Chaetophractus cf. villosus, Ctenomys chapadmalensis, Hippidion devillei, Hydrochoeropsis dasseni, Lestodon ?castellanosi, Megatherium ?uquiensis, Paraglyptodon uquiensis, Platygonus uquiensis, Pyramiodontherium ?carlesi, Windhausenia delacroixi, Xiphuroides uquiensis, Erethizon sp., ?Panochthus sp., Urotherium sp., Doedicurinae indet., Euphractinae indet., Gomphotheriidae indet., Sclerocalyptinae indet. Uquía
Macrauchenia cf. ullomensis, Glossotherium sp., Plaxhaplous sp., Cervidae indet. Charana
Megatherium medinae Chíu-Chíu
Aenigmys diamantensis, Eumysops sp. Hernandarías
Thalassocnus yaucensis Pisco
Panochthus intermedius Sacaba
Eumysops marplatensis, Neuryurus sp. San Andrés
Palaeolama weddelli, Doedicurus sp. San José
Macrauchenia patagonica, Scelidodon cf. tarijensis, Cervidae indet. Umala
Eumysops cavoides, E. marplatensis, Galictis sorgentini, Leopardus vorohuensis, Platygonus chapalmalensis, Protocyon scagliaruen, Smilodon riggii, Canis sp., Catagonus sp., Didelphis sp., Dolichotis sp., Dusicyon sp., Hippidion sp., Lagostomus sp., Lama sp., Megatherium sp., Mesotherium sp., Microcavia sp., Microtragulus sp., Paedotherium sp., Palaeolama sp., Pithanotomys sp., Tremacyllus sp., Toxodon sp., Windhausenia sp. Vorohué
Birds Phalacrocorax aff. bougainvillii Pisco
Aratinga vorohuensis Vorohué
Reptiles Uquiasaurus heptanodonta Uquía
Chapadmalalan Mammals Didelphis brachyodonta, Didelphis reigi, Lutreolina cf. crassicaudata, Paraglyptodon chapalmalensis, Platygonus marplatensis, Thylophorops chapalmalensis, Marmosa indet. Chapadmalal
Paedotherium typicum, Paramyocastor diligens, Eumysops sp. Puerto Alvear
Abrothrix magnus, Chukimys favaloroi Brochero
Caviodon multiplicatus, Doellotatus chapadmalensis, Dolicavia minuscula, Eucelophorus cf. chapalmalensis, Macrochorobates chapadmalensis, Macroeuphractus retusus, Paedotherium bonaerense, P. typicum, Pascualia aff. laeviplicata, Tremacyllus impressus, Actenomys sp., Lagostomus (Lagostomopsis) sp., Pithanotomys sp. Río
Quinto
aff. Holmesina floridianus, Marisela gregoriana, Pliodasypus vergelianus, Boreostemma sp., Cardiatherium sp., cf. Caviodon sp., Cyonasua sp., Neoepiblema sp., Megatheriidae indet., Toxodontidae indet. San
Gregorio
Artigasia magna, Plesiomegatherium hansmeyeri, Pliomegatherium sp. San José
Chorobates villosissimus, cf. Doellotatus inornatus, Lomaphorops corallinus, Neuryurus cf. giganteus, Pyramiodontherium scillatoyanei, Xyophorus aff. bandesioi, Eoauchenia sp., Paleuphractus sp., cf. Plesiomegatherium sp., Propediolagus sp., cf. Proscelidodon sp., Protabrocoma sp., cf. Urotherium sp. Toro
Negro
Ctenomys chapadmalensis, Doellotatus chapadmalensis, Paraglyptodon uquiensis, Microcavia sp., Plaina sp., Scelidotheridium sp. Uquía
Hydrochoeropsis wayuu, Pliomegatherium lelongi, Chapalmalania sp., ?Hyperleptus sp., Nothrotherium sp., Camelidae indet., Caviidae indet., Erethizontidae indet., Glyptodontidae indet., Lestodontini indet., Megalonychidae indet., Mylodontidae indet., Pampatheriidae indet., Proterotheriidae indet., Scelidotheriinae indet., Tardigrada indet., Toxodontidae indet. Ware
Birds Llallawavis scagliai Playa
Los Lobos
Allo
Reptiles &
amphibians
Rhinella loba Chapadmalal [284]
Anura indet., Squamata indet., Serpentes indet. Brochero
Crocodylus falconensis San
Gregorio
Crocodylus sp., Alligatoridae indet., Crocodylidae indet., Podocnemididae indet. Ware
Fishes Carcharhinidae indet., Characidae indet., Cichlidae indet., Cynodontidae indet., Doradidae indet., Myliobatidae indet., Pimelodidae indet., Pristidae indet., Sciaenidae indet., Serrasalmidae indet., Sphyrnidae indet. Ware
Montehermosan Mammals Actenomys latidens, A. priscus, Argyrolagus palmeri, Caviodon australis, Doellotatus inornatus, Eleutherocercus antiquus, Eoauchenia primitiva, Eucelophorus cabrerai, Eumysops formosus, E. laeviplicatus, Holozaedyus laevisculptus, Hyperdidelphys inexpectata, Kraglievichimys formosus, Lagostomus euplasius, L. incises, Macrochorobates chapadmalensis, Marmosa contrerasi, Myrmecophaga caroloameghinoi, Necromys bonapartei, Notocynus hermosicus, Paedotherium bonaerense, P. typicum, Parahyaenodon argentinus, Paramyocastor diligens, Phugatherium cataclisticum, Phtoramys homogenidens, Pithanotomys columnaris, P. macer, Plaina cf. intermedia, Plohophorus figuratus, Promacrauchenia antiqua, P. kraglievichi, Proscelidodon patrius, Pseudoplataeomys formosus, Pseudotypotherium bravardi, Thylatheridium pascuali, Toxodon chapalmalensis, Tremacyllus impressus, Trigodon gaudryi, Caviodon sp., Chorobates sp., Lestodon sp., Lutreolina sp., Macroeuphractus sp., Neocavia sp., Neophanomys sp., Orthomyctera sp., Palaeocavia sp., Paleuphractus sp., Phugatherium sp., Prodolichotis sp., Pseudotypotherium sp., Sparassocynus sp., Caviidae indet., Cricetidae indet., Dasypodidae indet., Glyptodontidae indet., Macraucheniidae indet., Proterotheriidae indet., Rodentia indet., Sigmodontinae sp., Toxodontidae indet. Monte
Hermoso
Xotodon caravela Aconquija
Brachytherium laternarium, Cardiomys ameghinorum, Cavia cabrerai, Caviodon andalhualensis, Chapalmalania alteafrontis, Chorobates scalabrini, Cyonasua brevirostris, Eosclerocalyptus planus, Hemihegetotherium robustum, Microtragulus catamarcensis, Neophanomys biplicatus, Neotamandua conspicua, Orthomyctera andina, Palaeomyrmidon incomptus, Paradidelphys pattersonii, Paraeuphractus prominens, Phlyctaenopyga ameghinoi, Pithanotomys columnaris, Prodolichotis prisca, Promacrauchenia antiqua, Pyramiodontherium bergi, Scelidotherium pendolai, Sphenotherus zavaletianus, Stromaphorus compressidens, Tetrastylus intermedius, Tremacyllus latifrons, Typotheriopsis internum, Palaeocavia sp., Thylacosmilus sp., Toxodontherium sp., Xotodon sp. Andalhuala
Hemisyntrachelus sp. Bahía
Inglesa
Balaenopteridae indet., Odontoceti indet., Otariidae indet. Caleta
Herradura
Plesiotypotherium casirense, Simomylodon uccasamamensis Casira
Bolivartherium codorensis, Boreostemma pliocena, Falcontoxodon aguilerai, cf. Ischyrorhynchus vanbenedeni, Mirandabradys zabasi, Proeremotherium eljebe, Alitoxodon sp., Plesiomegatherium sp. Codore
Delphinus domeykoi, Megaptera hubachi, Pliopontos sp., ?Squalodon sp., Balaenidae indet. Coquimbo
Borhyaenidium riggsi Corral
Quemado
Posnanskytherium desaguaderoi, Macroeuphractus aff. moreni, Neosclerocalyptus sp., cf. Plohophorops sp., cf. Promacrauchenia sp. La Paz
Anadasypus aequatorianus, Caviomorpha indet., Litopterna indet., Toxodontia indet. Letrero
Cetacea indet. Paraguaná
Posnanskytherium sp., Promacrauchenia sp., Mylodontidae indet. Remedios
Plohophorus aff. figuratus Río
Negro
Oxyodontherium zeballosi Río
Quinto
Catonyx tarijensis San José
Aymaratherium jeani, Megatherium altiplanicum, Microtragulus bolivianus, Phugatherium saavedrai, Posnanskytherium desaguaderoi, Praectenomys rhombidens, P. vagus, Sparassocynus heterotopicus, Macroeuphractus sp., cf. Plaina sp., cf. Promacrauchenia sp., ?Caenolestidae indet., Mylodontinae indet. Umala
Birds Chunga incerta, Dryornis pampeanus, Eudromia cf. elegans, Foetopterus ambiguus, Mesembriornis milneedwardsi, Palaeociconia australis, Protorhea azarae, Tinamisornis intermedius, T. parvulus, Dendrocygninae indet. Monte
Hermoso
Opisthodactylus kirchneri Andalhuala
Pygoscelis grandis, Spheniscus anglicus Bahía
Inglesa
Spheniscus chilensis, Milvago sp., Phalacrocorax sp. Caleta
Herradura
cf. Palaeospheniscus sp., Spheniscus sp., Diomedeidae indet., Spheniscidae indet. Coquimbo
Reptiles &
amphibians
Ceratophrys ameghinorum, Chelonoidis cf. australis, Lepidobatrachus australis, L. laevis, Testudo formosa, Leptodactylus sp., Tupinambis sp., Bufonidae indet., Colubridae indet. Monte
Hermoso
Caiman sp., Gavialoidea indet. Ipururo
Fishes Characidae indet., Percichthyidae indet., Trichomycteridae indet. Monte
Hermoso
Carcharodon carcharias, Prionace glauca Bahía
Inglesa
Carcharodon carcharias, Carcharias sp., Carcharhinus sp., Chondrichthyes indet., Myliobatidae indet. Caleta
Herradura
Carcharodon carcharias Coquimbo
Megalodon, Brotula cf. ordwayi, Carcharhinus egertoni, Carcharhinus priscus, Chilara taylori, Eucinostomus cf. currani, Galeocerdo aduncus, Hemipristis serra, Isistius triangulus, Larimus cf. pacificus, Lepophidium microlepis, Merluccius cf. angustimanus, Negaprion eurybathrodon, Odontaspis acutissima, Orthopristis cf. cantharinus, Otophidium indefatigabile, Paraconger californiensis, Porichthys analis, P. margaritatus, P. cf. notatus, Rhizoprionodon taxandriae, Anchoa sp., Apogon sp., Citharichthys sp., Diaphus sp., Haemulon sp., Lampadena sp., Cynoglossidae indet., Gerreidae indet., Gobiidae indet., Opistognathidae indet., Pleuronectidae indet., ?Serranidae indet. Onzole
Megalodon Paraguaná
Megalodon, Carcharodon hastalis, Hexanchus griseus, Pristiophorus sp. Puerta del
Diablo

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Former name of Ituzaingó Formation
  2. ^ Former name of Cerro Azul Formation
  3. ^ In later research considered part of the Camacho Formation[96]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Darin A. Croft - South American Fossil Mammals
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  208. ^ a b Gelfo & Goin, 2011
  209. ^ a b c d e f Clyde et al., 2014, p.303
  210. ^ a b Pol & Powell, 2011, S9
  211. ^ Oliveira & Goin, 2011
  212. ^ a b Jaramillo et al., 2007, p.168
  213. ^ Raigemborn et al., 2010, p.249
  214. ^ Sánchez & Marquillas, 2010, p.389
  215. ^ a b Montoya & Reyes, 2005, p.54
  216. ^ a b Sempere et al., 1997, p.709
  217. ^ Goin et al., 2006
  218. ^ Carvalho et al., 2016, p.493
  219. ^ Arroyo Tapalque at Fossilworks.org
  220. ^ Paso Otero-Pardo at Fossilworks.org
  221. ^ Paso Otero-Verde at Fossilworks.org
  222. ^ a b Luján at Fossilworks.org
  223. ^ Laguna Las Encadenadas at Fossilworks.org
  224. ^ Quequén Salado - Indio Rico at Fossilworks.org
  225. ^ Vezzosi, 2015, pp.636-637
  226. ^ Vezzosi, 2015, p.899
  227. ^ Góis et al., 2012
  228. ^ Salado River, General Belgrano at Fossilworks.org
  229. ^ La Chumbiada at Fossilworks.org
  230. ^ Góis et al., 2015
  231. ^ La Plata (Ensenada) at Fossilworks.org
  232. ^ a b Graxaim at Fossilworks.org
  233. ^ a b El Breal de Orocual at Fossilworks.org
  234. ^ El Breal de Orocual2 at Fossilworks.org
  235. ^ a b 900 m SW of Punta Hermengo at Fossilworks.org
  236. ^ Machado et al., 2014
  237. ^ a b c Tarija at Fossilworks.org
  238. ^ Tarija-1 at Fossilworks.org
  239. ^ Ortiz et al., 2013
  240. ^ Esquina Blanca - Upper Unit at Fossilworks.org
  241. ^ Baliza Chica at Fossilworks.org
  242. ^ Vezzosi, 2015, pp.631-632
  243. ^ Arroyo Toropi-Level 3 at Fossilworks.org
  244. ^ Agnolin, 2006, p.93
  245. ^ Agnolin, 2006, p.83
  246. ^ Agnolin, 2006, p.84
  247. ^ Agnolin, 2006, p.86
  248. ^ Agnolin, 2006, p.88
  249. ^ Estación Anchorena at Fossilworks.org
  250. ^ Esquina Blanca - Middle Unit at Fossilworks.org
  251. ^ Charana at Fossilworks.org
  252. ^ Jalquincha 1 at Fossilworks.org
  253. ^ Left bank of La Ensenada Creek at Fossilworks.org
  254. ^ East Yauca at Fossilworks.org
  255. ^ 20 km west of Cochabamba at Fossilworks.org
  256. ^ a b Olivares & Verzi, 2015
  257. ^ Punta San Andrés at Fossilworks.org
  258. ^ Arroyo Tarariras at Fossilworks.org
  259. ^ Ayo Ayo tuff at Fossilworks.org
  260. ^ Arroyo Loberia at Fossilworks.org
  261. ^ 15 km N Mar del Plata at Fossilworks.org
  262. ^ Yauca at Fossilworks.org
  263. ^ Tonni & Noriega, 1996
  264. ^ Daza et al., 2012
  265. ^ Mar del Plata at Fossilworks.org
  266. ^ Bajada las Palomas at Fossilworks.org
  267. ^ First point north of Barranca de los Lobos, level III-IV at Fossilworks.org
  268. ^ Punta Martinez de Hoz, level III at Fossilworks.org
  269. ^ First bajada north of Canada Chapar at Fossilworks.org
  270. ^ Diamente Department at Fossilworks.org
  271. ^ Barbière et al., 2016
  272. ^ a b Los Sauces River at Fossilworks.org
  273. ^ Cantera Díaz Nogarol at Fossilworks.org
  274. ^ Castro et al., 2014
  275. ^ Vergel Member at Fossilworks.org
  276. ^ Playa Kiyu at Fossilworks.org
  277. ^ Sierra de Los Colorados at Fossilworks.org
  278. ^ Toro Negro at Fossilworks.org
  279. ^ Esquina Blanca - Lower Unit at Fossilworks.org
  280. ^ a b c Moreno et al., 2015, p.35
  281. ^ Amson et al., 2016, pp.3–15
  282. ^ Pérez et al., 2017
  283. ^ Degrange et al., 2015
  284. ^ Pérez Ben et al., 2019
  285. ^ Norte Casa Chiguaje at Fossilworks.org
  286. ^ Police Station 470062 at Fossilworks.org
  287. ^ Barbière et al., 2018
  288. ^ a b c d Monte Hermoso at Fossilworks.org
  289. ^ a b c Farola Monte Hermoso FI Facies at Fossilworks.org
  290. ^ a b Farola Monte Hermoso FM Facies at Fossilworks.org
  291. ^ Farola Monte Hermoso St Facies at Fossilworks.org
  292. ^ Farola Monte Hermoso Fcf Facies at Fossilworks.org
  293. ^ Farola Monte Hermoso at Fossilworks.org
  294. ^ Barrancas de Monte Hermoso at Fossilworks.org
  295. ^ Farola Monte Hermoso Fsc Facies at Fossilworks.org
  296. ^ Armella et al., 2018
  297. ^ Candela & Bonini, 2017
  298. ^ a b Santa Maria Valley Andalhuala Fm at Fossilworks.org
  299. ^ a b c Bahia Inglesa Unit 3 at Fossilworks.org
  300. ^ a b c Cuenca del Tiburón at Fossilworks.org
  301. ^ Casira Formation at Fossilworks.org
  302. ^ Carrillo et al., 2018
  303. ^ Casa el Jebe at Fossilworks.org
  304. ^ La Meseta at Fossilworks.org
  305. ^ Road to Tio Gregorio Locality at Fossilworks.org
  306. ^ Urumaco, Biozona 4 Loc 85-FC at Fossilworks.org
  307. ^ Mirandabradys Urumaco 03 at Fossilworks.org
  308. ^ 1.5 km Northwest of Cerro Chiguaje at Fossilworks.org
  309. ^ Coquimbo at Fossilworks.org
  310. ^ Bahia de Guayacan at Fossilworks.org
  311. ^ Bahia Herradura at Fossilworks.org
  312. ^ Corral Quemado at Fossilworks.org
  313. ^ La Paz, La Paz, Bolivia at Fossilworks.org
  314. ^ RHM Locality 4 at Fossilworks.org
  315. ^ a b El Yacural at Fossilworks.org
  316. ^ Remedios at Fossilworks.org
  317. ^ Punta Bermeja at Fossilworks.org
  318. ^ Arroyo La Petra at Fossilworks.org
  319. ^ Puerto Arazatí at Fossilworks.org
  320. ^ Pujos et al., 2016
  321. ^ Umala, La Paz, Bolivia at Fossilworks.org
  322. ^ Ayo Ayo at Fossilworks.org
  323. ^ Benson, 2015
  324. ^ Los Dedos, Pliocene at Fossilworks.org
  325. ^ La Cantera at Fossilworks.org
  326. ^ Chanaral de Aceituno at Fossilworks.org
  327. ^ Nicoli, 2015
  328. ^ Farola Monte Hermoso Neocavia at Fossilworks.org
  329. ^ CTA-42 at Fossilworks.org
  330. ^ CTA-59 at Fossilworks.org
  331. ^ Tongoy area Unit 11 at Fossilworks.org
  332. ^ Súa Member at Fossilworks.org
  333. ^ Punta la Gorda at Fossilworks.org
  334. ^ Punta la Colorada at Fossilworks.org
  335. ^ Puerta del Diablo at Fossilworks.org

Bibliography[edit]

SALMA[edit]

  • Flynn, J., and C.C. Swisher. 1995. Cenozoic South American Land Mammal Ages: correlation to global geochronology. Geochronology Time Scales and Global Stratigraphic Correlation, SEPM Special Publication 54. 317–333.
Paleogene

Pebas Wetlands[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Paleogene
Pleistocene
Austral Basin
Santa María-Hualfín Basin
Santa Fe Province
Aconquija Formation
Agua de la Piedra Formation
Aisol Formation
Andalhuala Formation
Andesitas Huancache Formation
Arroyo Chasicó Formation
Belgrano Formation
Bororó Formation
Brochero Formation
Casamayor Formation
Cerro Azul Formation
Cerro Bandera Formation
Chapadmalal Formation
Chichinales Formation
Chiquimil Formation
Collón Curá Formation
Deseado Formation
Divisadero Largo Formation
La Ensenada Formation
Las Flores Formation, Sierra del Tontal
Las Flores Formation, Golfo San Jorge Basin
Fortín Tres Pozos Formation
Gaiman Formation
Geste Formation
Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation
Hernandarias Formation
Huayquerías Formation
Huitrera Formation
India Muerta Formation
La Invernada Formation
Ituzaingó Formation
Koluel Kaike Formation
Laguna Brava Formation
  • Vizán, H.; S. Geuna; R. Melchor; E.S. Bellosi; S.L. Lagorio; C. Vásquez; M.S. Japas; G. Ré, and M. Do Campo. 2013. Geological setting and paleomagnetism of the Eocene red beds of Laguna Brava Formation (Quebrada Santo Domingo, northwestern Argentina). Tectonophysics 583. 105–123.
Laguna del Hunco Formation
Lefipán Formation
Leticia Formation
Loma de Las Tapias Formation
Luján Formation
Lumbrera Formation
Maimará Formation
Maíz Gordo Formation
Mariño Formation
Mealla Formation
Miramar & San Andrés Formations
Monte Hermoso Formation
Monte León Formation
El Morterito Formation
Palo Pintado Formation
Paraná Formation
Peñas Coloradas Formation
Pinturas Formation
Piquete Formation
Playa de Los Lobos Allo Formation
Puerta del Diablo Formation
Puerto Madryn Formation
Quebrada de Los Colorados Formation
Río Chico Group
Río Foyel Formation
  • Acosta Hospitaleche, Carolina; Miguel Griffin; Marcos Asensio; Alberto Luis Cione, and Claudia Tambussi. 2013. Middle Cenozoic penguin remains from the Patagonian Cordillera. Andean Geology 40. 490–503. Accessed 2017-10-26.
  • Encinas, Alfonso; Andrés Folguera; Florencia Bechis; Kenneth L. Finger; Patricio Zambrano; Felipe Pérez; Pablo Benarbé; Francisca Tapia, and Ricardo Riffo and Luis Buatois, Darío Orts, Sven N. Nielsen, Victor V. Valencia, José Cituño, Verónica Oliveros, Lizet de Girolamo Del Mauro and Víctor Alberto Ramos. 2018. The Late Oligocene–Early Miocene Marine Transgression of Patagonia in The Evolution of the Chilean-Argentinean Andes, 443–474. Springer. Accessed 2018-09-11. ISBN 978-3-319-67774-3
Río Loro Formation
Río Mayo Formation
Río Negro Formation
Río Quinto Formation
Saladillo Formation
Salamanca Formation
Saldungaray Formation
Salicas Formation
Santa Cruz Formation
Sarmiento Formation & Colhué Huapí Member
Toro Negro Formation
Uquía Formation
Vaca Mahuida Formation
Ventana Formation
Vorohué Formation
Yupoí Formation

Bolivia[edit]

Casira Formation
Cerdas beds
Honda Group
Lacayani fauna
Ñuapua Formation
Quehua Formation
Salla Formation
Santa Lucía Formation
Tarija Formation
Umala Formation
Yecua & Petaca Formations

Brazil[edit]

Entre-Corrégos Formation
Fonseca Formation
Graxaim Formation
Guabirotuba Formation
Içá Formation
Itaboraí Formation
Maria Farinha Formation
Pirabas Formation
Rio Madeira Formation
Santa Vitória Formation
Solimões Formation
Touro Passo Formation
Tremembé Formation

Chile[edit]

Abanico Formation
Bahía Inglesa Formation
Caleta Herradura Formation
  • Di Celma, Claudio, and Gino Cantalamessa. 2007. Sedimentology and high-frequency sequence stratigraphy of a forearc extensional basin: The Miocene Caleta Herradura Formation, Mejillones Peninsula, northern Chile. Sedimentary Geology 198. 29–52.
Chíu-Chíu Formation
Chucal Formation
Coquimbo Formation
Cura-Mallín Group
Horcón Formation
Huaylas Formation
Loreto Formation
Navidad Formation
La Portada Formation
Río Baguales Formation
Río Frías Formation

Colombia[edit]

Altiplano Cundiboyacense
Cesar-Ranchería Basin
Cocinetas Basin
Barzalosa Formation
  • Acosta, Jorge E.; Rafael Guatame; Juan Carlos Caicedo A., and Jorge Ignacio Cárdenas. 2002. Mapa Geológico de Colombia - Plancha 245 - Girardot - 1:100,000 - Memoria Explicativa, 1–92. INGEOMINAS.
Gualanday Group
Honda Group
Los Hoyos beds
Mugrosa Formation
  • Gómez, Luis Alfonso; Alejandro Patiño; Giancarlo Renzoni; Alejandro Beltrán; Claudia Quintero, and Martín Manrique. 2008. Geología de la Plancha 119 Barrancabermeja - 1:100,000, 1–105. INGEOMINAS.
Rotinet Formation
Sincelejo Formation

Ecuador[edit]

Biblián Formation
Dos Bocas Formation
Letrero Formation
Onzole Formation
Seca Formation

Paraguay[edit]

Chaco Formation

Peru[edit]

Peruvian Amazon
Sechura Basin
Chambira Formation
Chilcatay Formation
Chota Formation
Iñapari Formation
Madre de Dios Formation
Mogollón Formation
Moquegua Formation
Muñani Formation
Paracas Formation
Pisco Formation
Pozo Formation
Soncco Formation
Yahuarango Formation
Yumaque Formation

Uruguay[edit]

Pleistocene
Camacho Formation
Dolores Formation
Fray Bentos Formation
Raigón Formation
San José Formation
Sopas Formation

Venezuela[edit]

Chaguaramas Formation
  • Horovitz, Inés, and Marcelo R. Sánchez Villagra. 2012. El Registro Fósil del Cenozoico, 133–156. Venezuela Paleontológica: Evolución de la diversidad en el pasado. Accessed 2017-10-21.
Parángula Formation
Falcón Basin
Cantaure & Paraguaná Formations
Capadare Formation
Castillo Formation
Mesa Formation
Río Yuca Formation
San Gregorio Formation
Santa Inés Formation
Urumaco, Socorro & Codore Formations

Further reading[edit]