South Australian Company
The South Australian Company was formed in London on 9 October 1835 by George Fife Angas and other wealthy British merchants to develop a new settlement in South Australia; its purpose was to build a new colony by meeting an essential financial obligation of the South Australia Act of 1834. The South Australian Company ended business in its own right on 17 March 1949 when it was liquidated by Elders Trustee & Executor Company Ltd, which had been managing its Australian affairs since the death of the last Colonial Manager, Arthur Muller in 1936.
The formation of the company followed considerable lobbying by the South Australian Association, a group consisting of philanthropists, radical thinkers, dissenters and merchants. After a years of negotiation, false starts, changes and amendments to suggested charters, the British Parliament finally gave approval and passed the South Australian (Foundation) Act on 15 August 1834.
The founding Board of directors were George Fife Angas (Chairman); Raikes Currie; Charles Hindley MP; James Hyde; Henry Kingscote; John Pirie, Alderman; Christopher Rawson; John Rundle MP; Thomas Smith; James Ruddell Todd; and Henry Waymouth; with Edmund John Wheeler, Manager; Samuel Stephens, Colonial Manager; and Edward Hill, Secretary pro tem.
The original purpose of the company was to help prospective colonists meet the obligations set out in the South Australia Act of 1834. The United Kingdom did not want the "province" to be a financial burden, like other colonies, and imposed certain conditions through the Act. One of these conditions was the sale of real property (land) to the value of £35,000. Each director was required to buy at least £2,500 in shares in the company. The biggest sales in land carried out by the company were done in the names of Angas, who purchased £40,000, and the Currie family, who purchased £9,000. Research published in 2018 and 2019 concluded that these sales and the creation of company, which secured the establishment of South Australia, link the colony's creation with slavery in the British West Indies.
Arrivals of 1836
In January 1836 four ships sailed from England on behalf of the Company. They developed a settlement at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, in July 1836, but when farming proved unviable, they transferred their settlement to the mainland. The Company provided basic infrastructure for the new colony and sold or leased land to immigrants who came to settle.
Over the course of six months nine ships, which may be termed the First Fleet of South Australia, arrived in the new colony:
|27 July||Duke of York||(190 ton)||S.A. Company||38 passengers|
|30 July||Lady Mary Pelham||(206 ton)||S.A. Company||29|
|16 August||John Pirie||(105 ton)||S.A. Company||28|
|21 August||Rapid||(162 ton)||Commissioners||24|
|11 September||Cygnet||(239 ton)||Commissioners||84|
|5 October||Emma||(181 ton)||S.A. Company||22|
|2 November||L'Africaine||(316 ton)||Various||76|
|20 November||Tam O'Shanter||(360 ton)||O. Gilles||74|
|23 December||HMS Buffalo||(850 ton)||Commissioners||171|
Under the Acts that established the Colony, the UK government appointed Commissioners to oversee implementation of the Acts; Thirteen based in London with a Resident Commissioner stationed in the colony. Those first appointed were Colonel Robert Torrens (Chairman), Rowland Hill (Secretary), G. Barnes (Treasurer), George Fife Angas, E. Barnard, William Hutt, J. G. Shaw-Lefevre, W. A. Mackinnon M.P., S. Mills, Jacob Barrow Montefiore, G. Palmer, and J. Wright. The first Resident Commissioner was James Hurtle Fisher.
The Colonial Managers of the South Australian Company were:
|William John Brind||1861||1894|||
|Henry Yorke Sparks||1894||1900|||
|Henry Percival Moore||1901||1929|||
|Arthur Leopold Albert Muller||1930||1936|||
David McLaren 1837-1841
William Giles 1841-1860
William Brind 1861-1894
Henry Sparks 1894-1900
Henry Moore 1901-1929
Arthur Muller 1930-1936
Officers of the company
Most of the major streets in the Adelaide city centre were named after the founding directors of the company
- 1836–1848 George Fife Angas (1789–1879)  (Angas Street)
- 1848–18?? James Ruddell Todd
- 1886–1888 Sir John Rose
- 1889–1897 Charles Gay Roberts
- 1898–1898 Godfrey Webb
- 1899–1923 Henry Joslin 
- 1836–18?? Raikes Currie  (Currie Street)
- 1836–18?? Charles Hindley (Hindley Street)
- 1836–18?? James Hyde
- 1836–18?? Henry Kingscote
- 1836–18?? John Pirie (Pirie Street)
- 1836–18?? Christopher Rawson
- 1836–18?? John Rundle (Rundle Street)
- 1836–18?? Thomas Smith
- 1836–18?? James Ruddell Todd
- 1836–18?? Henry Waymouth (Waymouth Street)
- 1880–1911 Major General Sir Stanley De A.C. Clarke, G.C.V.O., C.M.G.
- 1889–1919 Sir John H. Kennaway, Bart. C.B., M.P.
- 1891–1922 Andrew Johnston 
- 1895–1931 John Henry Grant 
- 1899–1931 Sir R.H. Hermon Hodge (later Lord Wyfold) 
- Joseph Fisher
- Robert Barr Smith
- Tom Elder Barr Smith 
- Company Secretaries
- Attorneys in South Australia
- William Bartley 
- 1850–1906 Sir Samuel Davenport, K.C.M.G.
- 1876–1923 John Warren Bakewell 
- Local Board of Advice, Adelaide
- 1841–1885 William Bartley 
- 1841–18?? Edward Stephens
- 1856–1870 William Bakewell, M.P., Crown Solicitor 
- 1876–1923 John Warren Bakewell 
- 1886-1930+ Joseph Fisher 
- 1894–1932 Sir John Lancelot Stirling K.C.M.G., M.L.C.
First office, erected 1836 at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island. (c. 1870)
List of people associated with the South Australian Company
Most of the major streets in the Adelaide city centre were named after the founding directors of the company. Naming of the settlements streets was completed on 23 May 1837 and gazetted on 3 June by the Street Naming Committee (Adelaide).
|George Fife Angas (1789–1879)||Commissioner||Angas Street|
|Raikes Currie (1801–1881)||Founding director||Currie Street|
|Divett, Edward||Trustee||Divett Place|
|Sir James Hurtle Fisher (1790–1875)||Resident Commissioner (#1)||Hurtle Square|||
|George Gawler (1795–1869)||Governor of SA (1838–1841)||Gawler Place||Gawler (town), Gawler Ranges, etc. Refer Gawler (disambiguation)|
|William Giles (1791–1862)||Colonial Manager (1841–1860)|||
|Robert Gouger (1802–1846)||Colonial Secretary (#1)||Gouger Street|||
|Pascoe St Leger Grenfell (1798–1879)||South Australian Church Society||Grenfell Street|
|Sir George Grey (1812–1898)||Governor of SA (1841–1845)|||
|Charles Hindley||Founding director||Hindley Street|||
|Sir John Hindmarsh (1785–1860)||Governor of SA (1836–1838)||Hindmarsh Square|||
|William Hutt||Commissioner||Hutt Street|
|Henry Kingscote||Founding Director||Kingscote, Kangaroo Island|
|Sir George Strickland Kingston (1807–1880)||Deputy Surveyor General||Kingston SE|
|William Light (1786–1839)||Surveyor General||Light Square|||
|David McLaren (1785–1850)||Colonial Manager (1837–1841)|||
|Moore, Henry Percival||Colonial Manager (1901–1929)|||
|Sir John Morphett (1809–1892)||Land Agent||Morphett Street|||
|Muller, Arthur Leopold Albert||Colonial Manager (1930–1936)|||
|Sir John Pirie||Founding director||Pirie Street|||
|Rawson, Christopher||Founding director|||
|Frederick Robe (1801–1871)||Governor of SA (1845–1848)||Robe, South Australia|
|John Rundle||Founding director||Rundle Street|||
|Smith, Thomas||Founding director|||
|Sparks, Henry Yorke||Colonial Manager (1894–1900)|||
|Edward Stephens (1811–1861)||First manager of SA Banking Co|||
|Samuel Stephens (1808–1840)||Colonial Manager (1836–1837)|||
|Todd, James Ruddell||Founding director|||
|Robert Torrens (1780–1864)||Commissioner||River Torrens|
|Daniel Bell Wakefield (1796–1862)||Drafted the bill that became the founding act||Wakefield Street|||
|Edward Gibbon Wakefield (1796–1862)||Early proposer of colonisation|||
|Henry Waymouth||Founding director||Waymouth Street|||
|William Wolryche-Whitmore||South Australian Church Society||Whitmore Square|
|Sir Henry Edward Fox Young (1803–1870)||Governor of SA (1848–1854)|||
- "Ending Of Famous S.A. Company". The Advertiser (Adelaide). 91, (28135). South Australia. 9 December 1948. p. 2. Retrieved 7 May 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- History of the South Australian Company, SA Memory
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- William John Brind SA Memory
- 'The South Australian Company' The Adelaide Observer 7 July 1894, p.14 col. E.
Resignation of Mr. W.J. Brind and appointment of Mr. H.Y. Sparks as Manager; biographical sketch of Henry Yorke Sparks.
- Death of Mr. H. Y. Sparks South Australian Register 22 October 1900 p.4
- Death of H. Y. Sparks The Advertiser 22 October 1900 p.5 – Includes biography
- Personal The Advertiser 6 December 1913 p.19 (Henry Percival Moore)
- Personal The Advertiser 11 January 1901 p.5 – Includes brief biography of Henry Percival Moore
- New Manager – South Australian Company The Mail 28 December 1929 p.3 – Includes brief biography of Arthur L. A. Muller
- Obituary – Mr Arthur L. A. Muller The Advertiser 10 March 1936 p.21
- Angas, George Fife (1789–1879), Australian Dictionary of Biography online
- The Globe - 03 June 1886 p.5
- Leeds Mercury - Friday 08 June 1888 p.7
- The Globe - 06 June 1889 p.5
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- Dundee Courier - Thursday 09 June 1898 p.2
- http://images.slsa.sa.gov.au/brg/42/122/BRG42_122_1.htm Joslin, Henry, 1839-1927
- http://images.slsa.sa.gov.au/mpcimg/07500/B7334_1.htm Clarke, Stanley, Sir, d.1911
- http://images.slsa.sa.gov.au/mpcimg/07500/B7334_2.htm & http://images.slsa.sa.gov.au/brg/42/122/BRG42_122_3.htm Kennaway, John H., Sir, d.1919
- http://images.slsa.sa.gov.au/mpcimg/07500/B7334_3.htm Johnston, Andrew, d.1922
- http://images.slsa.sa.gov.au/mpcimg/07500/B7334_4.htm Grant, John Henry
- http://images.slsa.sa.gov.au/mpcimg/07500/B7334_5.htm Hodge, R.H. Hermon, Sir
- http://images.slsa.sa.gov.au/mpcimg/07500/B7334_13.htm & http://images.slsa.sa.gov.au/mpcimg/36500/B36432.htm Barr Smith, Thomas Elder, 1863-1941
- http://images.slsa.sa.gov.au/mpcimg/07500/B7334_6.htm Hutchison, James
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- Gawler, George (1795–1869), Australian Dictionary of Biography online
- Gouger, Robert (1802–1846), Australian Dictionary of Biography online
- Grey, Sir George (1812–1898), Australian Dictionary of Biography online
- Hindmarsh, Sir John (1785–1860), Australian Dictionary of Biography online
- Kingston, Sir George Strickland (1807–1880), Australian Dictionary of Biography online
- Light, William (1786–1839), Australian Dictionary of Biography online
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- Torrens, Robert (1780–1864), Australian Dictionary of Biography online
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- Price, A. Grenfell, Founders & Pioneers of South Australia, Adelaide, 1929
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- Pearse, Malcolm, Australia's Early Managers Australia Pacific Economic and Business History Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, February 2010. p. 12
- State Library of South Australia factsheets online: South Australian Company
- Copyright photo of a South Australian Company promisary note for sixpence, issue Kingscote, 1 June 1836, signed by Samuel Stephens