South Col

Coordinates: 27°58′30″N 86°55′55.5″E / 27.97500°N 86.932083°E / 27.97500; 86.932083
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South Col
The pinnacle in this view is the South Summit viewed from the South Col
Elevation7,906 m (25,938 ft)
Traversed byA Swiss expedition in 1952
LocationNepal (Khumjung) – China (Tibet)
RangeMahalangur Himal
Coordinates27°58′30″N 86°55′55.5″E / 27.97500°N 86.932083°E / 27.97500; 86.932083
South Col is located in Nepal
South Col
South Col
South Col is located in Tibet
South Col
South Col

The South Col is a col between Mount Everest and Lhotse, the highest and fourth-highest mountains in the world, respectively. The South Col is typically swept by high winds, leaving it free of significant snow accumulation. Since 1950 (when Tibet was closed), most Everest expeditions have left from Nepal and gone via the southeast ridge and the South Col (instead of via the North Col). When climbers attempt to climb Everest from the southeast ridge in Nepal, their final camp (usually Camp IV) is situated on the South Col.

Mount Everest. The South Col is the lowest point of the ridge on the right side. South Summit is right side of the Mount Everest in the picture and the former height is slightly lower than the latter.
Sketch map of Everest region

The South Col was first reached on 12 May 1952 by Aubert, Lambert, and Flory of Edouard Wyss-Dunant's Swiss Mount Everest Expedition which failed to reach the summit.[1] The following year, when Mount Everest was first climbed, Wilfrid Noyce and the Sherpa Annullu were the first climbers on the expedition to reach the col. According to John Hunt, the expedition leader:

It was 2.40 p.m. Wilfrid Noyce and his companion Annullu stood at that moment above the South Col of Everest, at about 26,000 feet [7,900 m]. They were gazing down on the scene of the Swiss drama, and they were also looking upwards to the final pyramid of Everest itself. It was a great moment for them both, and it was shared by all of us who watched it. Their presence there was symbolic of our success in overcoming the most crucial problem of the whole climb; they had reached an objective which we had been striving to attain for twelve anxious days.[2]

Once on the South Col, climbers have entered the death zone; altitude sickness is a significant threat at this elevation and can easily prove fatal. It is also difficult to sleep, and most climbers' digestive systems have significantly slowed or completely stopped. This is because it is more efficient at this altitude for the body to use stored energy sources than to digest new food. Most climbers will begin using supplemental oxygen here and have a maximum of only two or three days to make summit bids. Clear weather and low winds are critical factors in deciding whether to make a summit attempt. If the weather is not favourable within these short few days, climbers are forced to descend, many back to Base Camp. Climbers rarely get a second chance to return to the South Col on a specific expedition.

In 2005, Didier Delsalle of France landed a Eurocopter AS350 B3 helicopter on the South Col.[3] Two days later he made the first helicopter landing on the summit of Mount Everest, a feat he subsequently repeated.[4]

In May 2019, the highest weather stations in the world were installed at Everest, with one location at the South Col, and another on a place higher up on the peak known as "The Balcony" as well as some other stations and locations.[5] The weather stations are about 7 feet (2.1 m) tall and weigh 110 pounds (50 kg).[5] On 21 July 2022, a maximum temperature of −1.4 °C (29.5 °F) was registered at the South Col.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "The Mountain World 1953". George Allen And Unwin Limited. 1953.
  2. ^ John Hunt, The Ascent of Everest, Hodder and Stoughton, 1953, p. 166.
  3. ^ "Landing on Air". National Geographic Adventure. 1 September 2005. Archived from the original on 26 October 2005. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
  4. ^ "French Everest Mystery Chopper's Utopia summit". 27 May 2005. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015.
  5. ^ a b "Inside the Everest expedition that built the world's highest weather station". Exploration & Adventure. 13 June 2019. Archived from the original on 13 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  6. ^ "Exceptionally high temperature recorded on Mount #Everest! With a high of -1.4°C recorded today (July 21) at the South Col weather station (7,945 m), this is probably a world record at this altitude". Retrieved 22 July 2022.

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