South Jamaica, Queens
South Jamaica is a neighborhood in the borough of Queens in New York City, located south of downtown Jamaica. It is part of Queens Community Board 12. Although a proper border has not been established, the neighborhood is an overall subset of the greater Jamaica area that faces the Long Island Rail Road Main Line tracks, Jamaica Avenue and Liberty Avenue to the north; the Van Wyck Expressway on the west; and Merrick Boulevard toward the east, adjoining the neighboring community of St. Albans. Other primary thoroughfares of South Jamaica include Baisley, Foch, Linden, Guy R. Brewer, Sutphin, and Rockaway Boulevards.
- 1 Location
- 2 Nicknames
- 3 History
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Housing
- 6 Education
- 7 Parks and recreation
- 8 Landmarks
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Notable residents
- 11 References
- 12 External links
South Jamaica is generally considered to be the area south of Downtown Jamaica (Jamaica Center), with the Van Wyck Expressway to the west, and Merrick Boulevard to the east. The eastern border extends as far as the LIRR Montauk Branch tracks in the northern part of the neighborhood. John F. Kennedy International Airport lies to the south across the Belt Parkway. This area overlaps with the neighborhoods of St. Albans to the east, and Rochdale and Springfield Gardens to the south. Many maps however consider South Jamaica to be bounded by Linden Boulevard to the north, and Rockaway Boulevard and Baisley Boulevard to the south, with the northern section (including the South Jamaica Houses) defined as part of Jamaica. Other maps consider the area between Linden Boulevard and Baisley/Rockaway Boulevards to be a southern subsection of South Jamaica called Baisley Park; Baisley Pond Park, the Baisley Park Houses, the Baisley Park Branch of Queens Library, and the Baisley Park Bus Depot are located in this area. The neighborhood south of Rockaway and Baisley Boulevards to the Belt Parkway (including Rochdale Village) historically has been considered part of South Jamaica, but is now often mapped as Springfield Gardens North or Rochdale. The three sections constitute the western half of Queens Community Board 12.
South Jamaica is often referred to as "Southside" or "Southside Jamaica" (also spelled as "South Side"). This is said to be derived from the location of the neighborhood and its demographics; Hollis, Queens in the northeast corner of greater Jamaica and Queens CB12 is referred to as "Northside". The South Side nickname dates back to the first half of the 20th century, when several local community organizations carried the name. An additional nickname, "South Suicide Queens", is a reference to the high crime rate in the neighborhood since the 1980s.
South Jamaica is named for its location south of Jamaica; the name Jamaica itself is derived from the Lenape word Yameco meaning "beaver". This was reflected in the naming of Beaver Pond at the border of Jamaica and South Jamaica. Through the 20th century, the neighborhood was also known as Cedar Manor.
17th century to 1930s
Through the 19th century, what is now South Jamaica consisted of farmland. Early developments in South Jamaica included the Prospect Cemetery opened in 1668, and the Prospect and St. Monica's Churches opened around 1857. Baisley Pond, created by local farmers from dammed streams, was acquired by the City of Brooklyn's Williamsburg Water Works Company in 1852 for municipal water supplies.
The Jamaica Race Course was opened in 1894 at Baisley Boulevard and New York Avenue (today's Guy R. Brewer Bouelvard), and expanded in the early 1900s. Some sources state its official opening year as 1903. Transportation was introduced into the neighborhood at the turn of the century. The Far Rockaway Line streetcar was opened along New York Avenue between downtown Jamaica and the Jamaica Racetrack on September 1, 1896, and was extended to the Rockaways by summer 1897. The Cedar Manor station opened at Linden Boulevard along the LIRR Atlantic Branch in 1906. The Queens Boulevard Line streetcar to Midtown Manhattan was extended along Sutphin Boulevard to 109th Avenue in South Jamaica in April 1916. Baisley Pond Park was opened by the city in 1919.
In the 1920s, the neighborhood's population exploded after streets were laid down and houses constructed. Many African Americans began moving into the neighborhood at this time, while White residents began leaving the neighborhood, coinciding with other white flight periods in the city. By the 1930s, the neighborhood was considered to be predominantly Black, especially in contrast to other southeast Queens neighborhoods, although a significant White population remained. At this time, the neighborhood was considered a major slum, due to overcrowding, high crime, and lack of infrastructure. Many houses were frame houses constructed only of wood and were not fireproof, while residences in the neighborhood were without modern utilities such as electricity and indoor plumbing. The Jamaica Racetrack, meanwhile, was blamed for bringing down property values, and was in poor operating condition.
In 1939, the city began slum clearance projects in the neighborhood. The first was the South Jamaica Houses public housing project, originally referred to as the "'South Jamaica' slum clerance project", opened in July 1940. A second portion of the project opened in 1954. By 1955, following the takeover of the Jamaica Race Course by the Greater New York Association, the city and city planner Robert Moses began evaluating plans to replace the track with new development. Plans included an additional public housing development, and one of several potential Queens sites for the failed relocation of the Brooklyn Dodgers. In October 1956, Moses planned a middle-income cooperative to be constructed on the site. The track was closed in 1959 and demolished in 1960, replaced by an expanded Aqueduct Racetrack.
In 1959, the LIRR Atlantic Branch was grade-separated, leading to the closure of the Cedar Manor station. The Baisley Park Houses were opened in 1961. Rochdale Village opened in December 1963 on the former Jamaica Racetrack site, bringing with it the neighborhood's first supermarkets and shopping centers. The Cedar Manor Co-op opened around this time as well. By this time, the neighborhood was overwhelmingly Black, with the exception of the racially integrated Rochdale Village. In 1970, the New York City Board of Higher Education approved plans to replace 50 acres (20 ha) of slum land with a permanent campus for York College. The site included the Prospect Cemetery and the Prospect and St. Monica's Churches. At the same time, under the Program for Action the Metropolitan Transportation Authority planned to extend subway service into the neighborhood, by connecting the LIRR Atlantic Branch with the planned Archer Avenue subway in downtown Jamaica via a ramp in or near the campus site. The subway connection was never constructed, due to funding issues caused by the city's fiscal crisis. The York College campus, also delayed by the fiscal crisis, began construction in 1980 and opened in stages beginning in 1988.
1970s to 1990s
Despite urban renewal efforts, in 1966 South Jamaica was designated an official poverty zone by the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson during the president's War on Poverty, and was considered one of the few remaining slums in the otherwise middle-class borough of Queens. In the late 1960s and continuing though the 1970s, South Jamaica and other Southeast Queens neighborhoods saw increasing rates of drug sales and usage, including cocaine and heroin epidemics. The neighborhood also had some of the highest rates of automobile theft in the city, attributed to the proximity to car theft rings centered in John F. Kennedy International Airport. In 1972, South Jamaica was declared "the largest officially designated poverty area in Queens" by the Human Resources Administration.
The neighborhood was also the center of several racial issues in the 1970s. Students from South Jamaica were bused into other school districts in order to maintain integration of schools, leading to outcry from White residents of those districts. Other racial events included the shooting of Clifford Glover on April 28, 1973 by a plainclothes NYPD officer. The acquittal of the officer and his partner led to incidents of looting, rioting, and incidents of violence against Whites in South Jamaica and Downtown Jamaica.
In the 1980s and 1990s, South Jamaica was one of several New York City neighborhoods victimized by the national crack cocaine epidemic. Several gangs operated in the neighborhood. The Corley gang operated out of the South Jamaica Houses. The Supreme Team, formed in 1981 by Kenneth "Supreme" McGriff, operated out of the Baisley Park Houses. The cartel of Lorenzo "Fat Cat" Nichols was also headquartered in the neighborhood, supplying much of the cocaine in the area and around Queens. These groups had originated from the Seven Crowns gang that was started during the cocaine and heroin epidemic in the 1970s, and which expanded into a multi-state operation by the 1980s. Increases in murder rates and other crime followed the spike in drug-related activity. In 1986, the 113th and 103rd police precincts led Queens in murder incidents, with the 113th precinct ranking tenth in the city. On February 26, 1988, rookie police officer Edward Byrne was killed while guarding the house of a witness in a drug-related trial. Byrne's murder, and other violent crime in the neighborhood led South Jamaica to become a symbol for the national drug epidemic, and the city's war on drugs instigated by Mayor Ed Koch. Following the killing, Koch created the Tactical Narcotics Team (TNT) program, with the first team dispatched to South Jamaica on March 14, 1988.
Entering the 21st century, South Jamaica has seen a revival in terms of safety and quality of life. While crime is still higher than other Queens areas, the NYPD 113th Precinct (which also patrols Hollis, St. Albans and Springfield Gardens) saw dramatic decreases in violent crime since the 1990s, with a drop in major crime of 76 percent between 1993 and 2010.
Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of South Jamaica was 38,894, an increase of 3,713 (10.6%) from the 35,181 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 918.87 acres (371.85 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 42.3 inhabitants per acre (27,100/sq mi; 10,500/km2).
The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 72.2% (28,084) African American, 1.0% (378) White, 0.8% (316) Native American, 5.2% (2,018) Asian, 0.1% (43) Pacific Islander, 2.5% (972) from other races, and 3.0% (1,166) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.2% (5,917) of the population.
South Jamaica is predominantly African-American with a strong majority of Afro-Caribbean descent. In recent decades, the Hispanic community has expanded, with residents from Mexico, El Salvador, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic moving to the area. Guyanese and Bangladeshis make up much of the larger portion of newcomers to the community. Bengalis can be found mostly around Sutphin and Merrick Boulevards along 145th, 153rd, 157th, and 170th Streets; South Road; and 105th, 107th, and 109th Avenues. There is also a small population of Haitians, Pakistanis and Trinidadians who live in this area.
A number of smaller apartment buildings along with some public housing projects are also located in the area. This includes the NYCHA-operated Baisley Park Houses and South Jamaica Houses housing projects, as well as the Rochdale Village and Cedar Manor Co-op developments, and the Baisley Park Garden development (also known as Baisley Gardens).
Public and charter schools
Several elementary schools are located in South Jamaica:
- Samuel Huntington School (P.S. 40), on 109th Avenue and Union Hall Street near the South Jamaica Houses.
- William Wordsworth School (P.S. 48), on 155th Street and 108th Avenue, two blocks west of the South Jamaica Houses.
- Walter Francis Bishop School (P.S. 160), on Inwood Street off of Sutphin Boulevard.
- P.S. 123, on 119th Avenue between Inwood Street and 145th Street, just south of Foch Boulevard.
- Edward K. Ellington School (P.S. 140), on 116th Avenue east of Brewer Boulevard; named after Duke Ellington.
- Ruby S. Couche Elementary School (P.S. 30) and P.S. 354, on Baisley Boulevard and Bedell Street in Rochdale Village.
- Lyndon B. Johnson School (P.S. 223), on Sutphin Boulevard just north of Rockaway Boulevard adjacent to the Baisley Park Garden development; named after U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson.
- Clarence Witherspoon School (P.S. 45), on Rockaway Boulevard and 150th Street across from Baisley Pond Park and Baisley Park Garden.
- Talfourd Lawn Elementary School (P.S. 50), on 101st Avenue and Allendale Street one block north of Liberty Avenue, and just west of the Van Wyck Expressway.
- Thurgood Marshall Magnet School (P.S. 80), on 137th Avenue in Rochdale Village; named after Thurgood Marshall.
- Rochdale Early Advantage Charter School, on Baisley Boulevard and 165th Street across from Rochdale Village.
Middle and junior high schools include:
- Junior High School 40, adjacent to P.S. 40.
- Richard Grossley Junior High School (J.H.S. 8), just off of Merrick Boulevard between 108th and 109th Avenues.
- Eagle Academy for Young Men of Southeast Queens (Eagle Academy III), a middle and high school located at Merrick and Linden Boulevards.
- Catherine and Count Basie School (M.S. 72; formerly J.H.S. 72), on Brewer Boulevard in Rochdale Village.
- York Early College Academy, a middle and high school in the M.S. 72 building on Brewer Boulevard in Rochdale Village.
High schools include:
- August Martin High School, a vocational aviation school, on Baisley Boulevard on the south side of Baisley Pond Park; named after Tuskegee Airmen Army Air Forces pilot August Martin.
- Eagle Academy for Young Men III
- The High School for Law Enforcement and Public Safety, on Brewer Boulevard and 116th Avenue just north of Foch Boulevard, adjacent to the Baisley Park Houses.
- Queens High School for the Sciences, a specialized high school, located on the York College campus.
- York Early College Academy
The closest zoned high school is Hillcrest High School just north of Hillside Avenue in Jamaica. Richmond Hill High School is located west of the Van Wyck Expressway in Richmond Hill. Many other regional high schools serving the area have since been converted into educational campuses, housing multiple small high schools. The closest educational campuses are the Jamaica Campus (formerly Jamaica High School) near the Grand Central Parkway to the north, and Springfield Gardens Educational Campus (formerly Springfield Gardens High School) to the south. Campus Magnet (formerly Andrew Jackson High School) is located in Cambria Heights to the east. John Adams Educational Campus (formerly John Adams High School) is located in Ozone Park to the west. The Young Women's Leadership School of Queens was formerly located in the P.S. 40 facility, but is now located across from Hillcrest High School.
- Queens Transitional Center or Queens Transition Center (former J.H.S. 142/I.S. 142), a special education school at Linden Boulevard and 142nd Street (142-10 Linden Boulevard). The facility also houses a branch of The School of Cooperative and Technical Education (Coop Tech).
The following Queens Library branches are located in South Jamaica:
Parks and recreation
- St. Monica's Church, St. Monica's Cemetery, and Prospect Cemetery, located on the current York College campus.
- Jamaica Race Course, a former horse racing facility. The site is now occupied by Rochdale Village.
The AirTrain JFK route transports people between Jamaica and JFK International Airport on its elevated route over the Van Wyck Expressway without stopping. A southern extension of the New York City Subway's IND Archer Avenue Line to South Jamaica was planned under the 1968 Program for Action by way of the LIRR Atlantic Branch, but not completed.
||This list of "famous" or "notable" persons has no clear inclusion or exclusion criteria. Please help to define clear inclusion criteria and edit the list to contain only subjects that fit those criteria. (June 2016)|
- 50 Cent (Curtis Jackson), rapper and actor
- Roi Heenok, rapper
- Tony Yayo, rapper
- Lloyd Banks, rapper
- Sha Money XL, music producer
- G-Unit, rap group
- Milford Graves, musician
- Nicki Minaj, rapper, raised in South Jamaica, Queens.
- Pharoahe Monch, rapper and member of Organized Konfusion
- Lamar Odom, NBA basketball player.
- Bob Beamon, Olympic Athlete and world record holder in the long jump for 23 years.
- Rafer Alston, NBA Basketball Player.
- Ali Vegas, rapper and member of The Drama Kingz
- Fredro Starr, rapper and member of Onyx
- Sticky Fingaz, rapper, actor and member of Onyx
- Supreme, drug lord and leader of the Supreme Team who operated from the Baisley Park Projects
- Grafh, rapper
- Supreme Team, drug trafficking gang
- Lost Boyz, rap group
- Aasim, rapper
- Mr. Cheeks, rapper
- Onyx, rap group
- Wynter Gordon, singer
- Milford Graves, free-jazz drummer
- Nuttin' But Stringz, duo
- Sutter Kain, rapper & producer
- Waka Flocka Flame, rapper
- Metta World Peace, NBA basketball player
- Kwamé, Rapper & producer
- Frenchie, rapper
- Maurice Harkless, NBA Basketball Player.
- Mario Cuomo, former Governor of New York.
- "QUEENS COMMUNITY DISTRICT 12" (PDF). nyc.gov. Government of New York City. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03.
- Jackson, Kenneth T.; Keller, Lisa; Flood, Nancy (2010). The Encyclopedia of New York City: Second Edition. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300182570. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- Ethan Brown (8 December 2010). Queens Reigns Supreme: Fat Cat, 50 Cent, and the Rise of the Hip Hop Hustler. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 7–14. ISBN 978-0-307-48993-7. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Peter Eisenstadt (23 February 2011). Rochdale Village: Robert Moses, 6,000 Families, and New York City's Great Experiment in Integrated Housing. Cornell University Press. pp. 49–52. ISBN 0-8014-5968-0. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Roberts, Sam (May 8, 2005). "Before Public Housing, a City Life Cleared Away". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Claudia Gryvatz Copquin (2007). The Neighborhoods of Queens. Yale University Press. pp. 100–107. ISBN 0-300-11299-8.
- "NYC Census FactFinder". nyc.gov.
- Pesce, Nicole Lyn (December 26, 2010). "Your Nabe: Guide to South Jamaica, Queens". Daily News. New York. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "QUEENS COMMUNITIES Population Characteristics and Neighborhood Social Resources: Volume II". BJPA.org. Bureau of Community Statistical Services Research Department, The Community Council of Greater New York. June 1958. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- "JAMAICA NOW Neighborhood Action Plan" (PDF). nycedc.com. New York City Economic Development Corporation, New York City Department of City Planning. February 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "MTA Neighborhood Maps: Jamaica" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- Pinchevsky, Tal (May 7, 2009). "ON GOLDEN POND". New York Post. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "Baisley Pond Park". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
- Brennan, Casey (October 1, 2015). "Jamaica, Queens: What to do, see, eat and more in NYC's next affordable frontier". AM New York. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Brashears, Bradley; Shannon, Ellyn; Bellisio, Angel (December 2015). "Freedom Ticket: Southeast Queens Proof of Concept" (PDF). pcac.org. New York City Transit Riders Council. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- James, George (April 19, 1987). "Seeking Answers to Queens's Rise in Murders". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- Dao, James (August 6, 1992). "Seeking Revival in No Man's Land of the Drug War". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- "ST. ALBANS & SOUTH JAMAICA". DNAinfo.com. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- Seth Ferranti. The Supreme Team: The Birth of Crack and Hip-Hop, Prince’s Reign of Terror and the Supreme/50 Cent Beef Exposed. Gorilla Convict Publications. ISBN 978-0-9800687-5-7. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- Felicity Britton (1 April 2013). Nicki Minaj: Conquering Hip-Hop. Twenty-First Century Books. pp. 8–11. ISBN 978-1-4677-1060-2. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- Jean-Pierre Hombach. 50 Cent. Lulu.com. pp. 57–60. ISBN 978-1-4716-0385-3. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "South Jamaica Slum Clearing Urged on U.S.: Leaders Argue Over Designation, but Agree Area Needs Changes". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. August 7, 1935. p. 30. Retrieved 15 April 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Independent Voters Club Backs Siegel". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 25, 1935. p. 5. Retrieved 15 April 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- "St. Peter's Society Sets Dance Date". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 5, 1935. p. 25. Retrieved 15 April 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- Lemire, Jonathan (April 27, 2003). "WORKING-CLASS AREA WORKS AT COMEBACK South Jamaica is 'turning corner'". Daily News (New York). Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Worth, Robert F. (March 22, 2004). "At a Legendary Cemetery, a Rare Look Behind the Gates". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Seyfried, Vincent F. (1961). "Full text of "Story of the Long Island Electric Railway and the Jamaica Central Railways, 1894–1933 /"". archive.org. F. E. Reifschneider. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
- "In Cedar Manor" (PDF). New York Press (historical). Fultonhistory.com. May 6, 1908. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Costella, Ann Marie (7 January 2014). "Farmer Baisley's pond: now a beautiful park". Queens Chronicle. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- "New Track Opens To-day". The New York Times. April 27, 1903. p. 8. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
- David Keller; Steven Lynch (2005). Revisiting the Long Island Rail Road: 1925–1975. Arcadia Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7385-3829-7.
- Seyfried, Vincent F. (1950). "Full text of "New York and Queens County Railway and the Steinway Lines, 1867–1939."". archive.org. Vincent F. Seyfried. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
- "Several Queens Trolley Lines Quit 70 Years Ago". New York Division Bulletin. Electric Railroaders Association. 50 (10): 1, 4. October 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- "Well and Truly Laid". The New York Times. April 16, 1940. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- LaShawn Harris (5 April 2016). Sex Workers, Psychics, and Numbers Runners: Black Women in New York City's Underground Economy. University of Illinois Press. pp. 191–192. ISBN 978-0-252-09842-0. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- "To Clear Housing Area: Workmen to Start Razing Monday on South Jamaica Site". The New York Times. July 19, 1939. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Jamaica Slum Plea Pressed: Rothman Says Commission Will Continue Fight for Clearance". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 31, 1935. p. 1. Retrieved 15 April 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- Eisenstadt, Peter (2007). "Rochdale Village and the rise and fall of integrated housing in New York City" (PDF). nyc.gov.
- "$20,000,000 HOUSING TO PROCEED HERE; Mayor Announces Action on 5 Projects as Result of Pact Ending Building Stoppages UNION PLAN IS PRAISED Coyne Says That Jurisdictional Disputes No Longer Will Result in Tie-Ups". The New York Times. August 17, 1939. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- "$1,397,000 Construction Bid On Jamaica Housing Approved". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 22, 1939. p. 15. Retrieved 15 April 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- Nichols, Joseph C. (October 5, 1955). "New Track Group Takes Over Today". The New York Times. p. 45. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
- Olear, Greg (January 2008). "The Largest Cooperative in Queens". The Cooperator. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Bigart, Homer (October 5, 1956). "Moses Plans Deal on Jamaica Track". The New York Times. p. 26. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
- Nichols, Joseph C. (August 2, 1959). "Babu First as Jamaica Closes". The New York Times. p. S1. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
- "Din of Destruction at Jamaica Replaces Thunder of Hoofbeats". The New York Times. September 24, 1960. p. 25. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
- "Local Speakers At The Planning Commission Hearing" (PDF). The Leader-Observer. Fultonhistory.com. December 19, 1963. p. 1. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Burks, Edward C. (April 30, 1972). "'Social Profile' of Depressed South Jamaica". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Schumach, Murray (April 10, 1972). "Queens: Bastion of the Middle Class". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Clines, Francis X. (November 24, 1970). "City Approve York College Campus Plan". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "New Line May Get Double Trackage: Transit Unit Studies Shift on Queens Super-Express". The New York Times. February 21, 1971. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
- Joseph B. Raskin (1 November 2013). The Routes Not Taken: A Trip Through New York City's Unbuilt Subway System. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-5369-2. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
- Johnson, Kirk (December 9, 1988). "Big Changes For Subways Are to Begin". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- James, George (November 2, 1988). "YORK COLLEGE IN QUEENS GETS A PERMANENT HOME". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Possession of Dangerous Drugs Found a Postscript to Many Routine Arrests in Middle-Class Queens". The New York Times. November 14, 1971. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Burnham, David (February 14, 1972). "A Wide Disparity is Found in Crime Throughout City". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Lelyveld, Joseph (September 11, 1970). "School Busing Put to Queens Test". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- Shipler, David K. (March 20, 1972). "Busing in New York: Ambivalence, Not Outrage". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- "Policeman Charged with Negro Boy's Murder". New Straits Times. April 30, 1973. Retrieved September 15, 2010.
- Krajicek, David J. (March 11, 2012). "Justice Story: NYPD cop kills boy, 10; officer acquitted of murder but fired from force: Walkie-talkie transmission broadcasts cop saying 'Die, you little bastard' after shooting". Daily News (New York). Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- Dwyer, Jim (April 16, 2015). "A Police Shot to a Boy's Back in Queens, Echoing Since 1973". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- Perlmutter, Emanuel (April 29, 1973). "Officer Kills a Suspect, 10; A Murder Charge Is Filed: Boy Was Slain During an Investigation of a Queens Taxi-Driver Robbery-P.B.A. Calls Arrest 'Outrage'". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- Johnston, Laurie (June 13, 1974). "Jury Clears Shea In Killing of Boy: Finds Queens Officer Shot in Self-Defense-'Holes' in Witness's Account Cited". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- Montgomery, Paul L. (May 4, 1973). "Youths Rampage After Slain Boy's Rites". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- Toy, Vivian S. (April 8, 1999). "Counselor at Youth Home Is Accused of Running a $3 Million-a-Year Drug Ring". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Holloway, Lynette (September 30, 1995). "Officials Say Gang Broken By 21 Arrests". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- Muhammed, Tahira (May 25, 2006). "Former Kingpins Urge Youth To Stay Straight". Queens Chronicle. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- Krajeck, David J. (January 20, 2015). "Rookie police officer Edward Byrne is gunned down while guarding a witness in 1988: Officer Edward Byrne is assassinated while guarding the house of a drug witness in South Jamaica, Queens. The Mayor Koch, COP-SHOT and The News each offered $10,000 rewards for information leading to the killers.". Daily News (New York). Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- David J. Krajicek (13 August 2013). Scooped!: Media Miss Real Story on Crime While Chasing Sex, Sleaze, and Celebrities. Columbia University Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-0-231-50025-8. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Pitt, David E. (December 9, 1988). "Police Leave Queens House Where Drug Witness Lived". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- James, George (March 15, 1988). "18 Are Arrested By Task Force On Its First Day". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Hughes, C.J. (November 23, 2012). "Side by Side, Yes; Carbon Copies, Never". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
- Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- Pete Ahern (12 November 2013). 3 – Pete: One man's journey. AuthorHouse. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-4918-3137-3. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- "2016 New York City High School Directory" (PDF). schools.nyc.gov. New York City Department of Education. 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- Shams, Tarek (May 16, 2003). "Jamaica's 'Own Bad Guy' 50 Cent Making Good In The Music Biz". Queens Press. Retrieved May 22, 2007.
- Buder, Leonard (May 30, 1971). "High School Lines in Queens Voted: New Zones Approved Over Objections of Board Head". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Protesters Close I.S. 142 to 1,300 Pupils for a Day". The New York Times. November 5, 1970. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Quality Review Report 2014-2015: Queens Transition Center" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Education. April 29, 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Coop Tech Application Information and Procedures" (PDF). New York City Department of Education. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Carolee R. Inskeep (2000). The Graveyard Shift: A Family Historian's Guide to New York City Cemeteries. Ancestry Publishing. pp. 140, 167–168. ISBN 978-0-916489-89-2. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "Full text of "Metropolitan transportation, a program for action. Report to Nelson A. Rockefeller, Governor of New York."". Internet Archive. November 7, 1967. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Burks, Edward C. (October 24, 1973). "Work Begun on Queens Subway Extension". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
- Burks, Edward C. (March 9, 1975). "Building Progresses On Subway In Jamaica". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "Queens Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority.
- Williams, Lena. "TRACK AND FIELD; Soothing an Old Ache", The New York Times, January 1, 2000. Retrieved November 7, 2007. "Neither the outpouring of affection from an adoring public nor the love he finally found after four failed marriages could make up for the neglect and physical abuse he suffered as a child growing up in South Jamaica, Queens."
- Litsky, Frank. " BASKETBALL: N.I.T.; Minnesota Will Meet Penn State for the Title", The New York Times, March 25, 1998. Retrieved October 18, 2007. "Rafer Alston, the junior point guard from South Jamaica, Queens, explained it this way..."
- Rubin, Roger (November 5, 2011). "St. John's basketball is jumpin' thanks to top recruit Moe Harkless from Queens: Harkless is Johnnies best city recruit since Ron Artest". Daily News (New York). Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Nagourney, Adam (January 1, 2015). "Mario Cuomo, Ex-New York Governor and Liberal Beacon, Dies at 82". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2016.