South Korea–United States relations
|Korean Embassy, Washington D.C.||United States Embassy, Seoul|
|Ambassador Ahn Ho-Young||Ambassador Mark Lippert|
Republic of Korea–United States relations (Hangul: 한미 관계; Hanja: 韓美 關係; RR: Hanmi gwangye; MR: Hanmi kwan'gye) have been extensive since 1950, when the United States helped establish the modern state of South Korea, also known as the Republic of Korea, and fought on its UN-sponsored side in the Korean War (1950–1953). During the subsequent four decades, South Korea experienced tremendous economic, political and military growth, and significantly reduced U.S. dependency. From Roh Tae-woo's administration to Roh Moo-hyun's administration, South Korea sought to establish an American partnership, which has made the Seoul–Washington relationship subject to some strains, especially with the Anti-US/Korean sentiments. However, relations between the United States and South Korea have greatly strengthened under the conservative, pro-U.S. Lee Myung-bak administration. At the 2009 G-20 London Summit, U.S. President Barack Obama called South Korea "one of America's closest allies and greatest friends." In addition, South Korea has been designated as a Major non-NATO ally.
According to a 2014 BBC World Service Poll, 58% of South Koreans view the United States' influence positively, while 28% view it negatively; 55% of Americans view South Korea's influence positively, while 34% view it negatively. South Korea is one of the most pro-American nations in the world.
- 1 Country comparison
- 2 Historical background
- 3 Origins of the South Korea–United States alliance
- 4 Military alliance
- 5 Issues
- 6 Economic relations
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
|Republic of Korea||United States of America|
|Coat of Arms|
|Area||99,392 km2 (38,375 sq mi)||9,820,630 km2 (3,791,770 sq mi)|
|Population Density||506/km2 (1,310/sq mi)||35/km2 (91/sq mi)|
|Largest City||Seoul – 10,464,051 (25,650,063 Metro)||New York City – 8,600,710 (19,006,798 Metro)|
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|First Leader||Rhee Syng-man||George Washington|
|Current Leader||Moon Jae-in||Donald Trump|
|Official languages||Korean||English (de facto, none at federal level)|
|GDP (nominal)||US$1.450 trillion ($28,739 per capita)||US$16.245 trillion ($51,704 per capita)|
Leaders of South Korea and the United States from 1950
Korean War (6.25 War)
Cross-border skirmishes and raids at the 38th Parallel escalated into open warfare when the North Korean forces invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950. The Korean War broke out when North Korea invaded South Korea. In response, 16 member countries of the United Nations, including the United States, came to the defense of South Korea. It was the first significant armed conflict of the Cold War with extensive deployment of American and other troops.
Origins of the South Korea–United States alliance
Following the end of World War II, the United States established a bilateral alliance with South Korea instead of establishing a multilateral alliance with South Korea and other East Asian countries.
Moreover, the "U.S. alliance with South Korea would consequently have three functions. First, it would serve as part of a network of alliances and military installations designed to ring the Soviet threat in the Pacific. Second, it would deter a second North Korean attack, with U.S. ground troops serving as the "tripwire" guaranteeing U.S. involvement. Third, it would restrain the South from engaging in adventurism."
The Republic of Korea and the United States agreed to a military alliance in 1953. They called it "the relationship forged in blood". In addition, roughly 29,000 United States Forces Korea troops are stationed in South Korea. In 2009, South Korea and the United States pledged to develop the alliance’s vision for future defense cooperation. Currently South Korean forces would fall under United States control should the war resume. This war time control is planned to revert to South Korea in 2020.
At the request of the United States, President Park Chung-hee sent troops to Vietnam to assist American troops during the Vietnam War, maintaining the second largest contingent of foreign troops after the United States. In exchange, the United States increased military and economic assistance to South Korea. President Roh Moo-hyun, despite having been elected on a liberal platform, also authorized dispatching a small contingent of troops to Iraq in 2004 at the request of President George Bush.
Since the end of the Korean War, South Korea and the United States have maintained strong ties.
According to American think tank Pew Research Center, South Koreans have one of the most favorable views in the world towards the United States and Americans (ranked within top 4 among the countries in the world). Also, according to a Korean Gallup poll, South Korea views the U.S. as the most favorable country in the world. In the political side, the United States supported South Korea after 1945 as a "staunch bastion against communism", even when it was ruled by a dictatorship. In a March 2011 Gallop Poll, 74% of South Koreans said that they believe that the U.S. influence in the world is favorable, and in a November 2011 Gallup Poll, 57% of South Koreans approved of U.S. leadership, with 22% disapproving; by contrast, only 30% of South Koreans approved of China's leadership.
Americans are steadily viewing South Korea more positively as well, with the 2011 Gallop poll – a 65% favorability rating – being the highest rating to date. Thus, the relationship between the two countries, as indicated by polling results, is steadily improving.
On February 9, 2000, the Eighth U.S. Army ordered twenty boxes of formaldehyde, a toxic fluid, dumped into the Han River. South Korean environmentalist groups protested that it could be harmful to aquatic life forms, but the U.S. military insisted that it was diluted with water. This incident was satirized in the 2006 South Korean monster film The Host, where a horrible mutated monster from the river menaces the inhabitants of Seoul.
The Government of South Korea banned imports of U.S. beef in 2003 in response to a case of mad cow disease in Washington state. In 2008, the protests against U.S. beef recalled the student "pro-democracy" movements of the 1980s. Nevertheless, South Korea became the world's third largest U.S. beef importer in 2010. With its strong import growth, South Korea surpassed Japan for the first time to become the largest market for U.S. beef in Asia.
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South Korea and the United States are important economic partners to each other. Nearly 60 billion dollars of trade volume between the two countries display the significant economic interdependence between the two states. However, according to the CRS report, South Korea is much more economically reliant on the United States than the United States is on South Korea. This is supported with the fact that the United States ranks first as a trading partner for South Korea. However, a recent policy brief introduces the fact that the ratio of exports to the United States has declined significantly from around 40 percent to less than 20 percent in 2002 while the share of exports to China has increased drastically which led China to become the number one export destination for South Korea. Although the economy of South Korea and the United States is becoming more integrated with the recent ratification of the KORUS Free Trade Agreement, there remains some major trade disputes between the two nations in the areas including telecommunications, automotive industry, intellectual property rights issues, pharmaceutical industry, and agricultural industry especially in terms of rice and beef.
- Free trade agreement between the United States of America and the Republic of Korea
- Index of Korea-related articles
- United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK, 1945–1948)
- Six-party talks
- President Obama Vows Strengthened U.S.-South Korea Ties Archived 2009-07-04 at the Wayback Machine. 2 Apr 2009. Embassy of the United States, Seoul
- Farberov, Snejana (6 July 2012). "Hillary Clinton flies into Kabul as U.S. declares Afghanistan major non-NATO ally". Daily Mail. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
Afghanistan becomes the 15th such country the U.S. has declared a major non-NATO ally. The list includes Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, New Zealand, the Philippines, South Korea and Thailand.
- "Remarks by President Obama and President Park of South Korea in a Joint Press Conference". White House. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
And of course, around the world, people are being swept up by Korean culture—the Korean Wave. And as I mentioned to President Park, my daughters have taught me a pretty good Gangnam Style.
- Jayu Park Archived 2011-01-14 at the Wayback Machine. lifeinkorea.com
- Devine, Robert A.; Breen, T. H.; Frederickson, George M.; Williams, R. Hal; Gross, Adriela J.; Brands, H.W. (2007). America Past and Present 8th Ed. Volume II: Since 1865. Pearson Longman. pp. 819–821. ISBN 0-321-44661-5.
- Hermes, Jr., Walter (1992) . Truce Tent and Fighting Front. United States Army Center of Military History. pp. 2, 6–9. CMH Pub 20-3-1.
- From South Korea, a note of thanks June 25, 2010. Los Angeles Times
- Cha, Victor (Winter 2009–2010). Powerplay: Origins of U.S. Alliances in Asia. p. 174.
- The ROK-US Mutual Defense Treaty Archived 2011-01-22 at the Wayback Machine. Embassy of the Republic of Korea in the United States
- Speeches of U.S. Ambassador, March 20, 2009 Archived May 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
… One of the first phrases I learned in Korean, I heard in Korean, when people talked about the US-Korea relationship, was 혈맹관계, "the relationship forged in blood." I remember how moved I was by that, by the passion which people used in talking about it. Our relationship, as you all well know, goes further back even than that …
(March 20, 2009, U.S. Ambassador in the Republic of Korea)
- Joint Statement of ROK-US Foreign and Defense Ministers’ Meeting 07-21-2010. The Korea Times
- "US, South Korea agree to again delay handover of wartime operational control to Seoul."
- Joint vision for the Alliance of the Republic of Korea and the United States of America June 16, 2009. The White House
- Opinion of the United States Pew Research Center
- South Koreans remain strongly pro-American Pew Research Center
- "한국에 긍정적 영향을 미친 국가는 미국 " 80.7% (80.7% Korean think US gave most positive influence to Korea)(in Korean)
- Stockwell, Eugene (1976-05-01). "South Korea's leader Communism's best ally?". The Gadsden Times. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-23. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- U.S. Leadership Approval Ratings Top China's in Asia Gallup (company)
- 2014 World Service Poll BBC
- Jon Herskovitz (2006-09-07). "South Korean movie monster gobbles up box office". Reuters. Retrieved 2006-11-02.
- S. Korea becomes world's third largest U.S. beef importer July 16, 2010. People's Daily
- Manyin, M. (2004). South Korea-U.S. Economic Relations: Cooperation, Friction, and Future Prospects. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/34347.pdf
- Noland, M. (2003). The Strategic Importance of US-Korea Economic Relations. International Economics Policy Briefs. Retrieved from http://www.iie.com/publications/pb/pb03-6.pdf
- Baldwin, Frank, ed. Without Parallel: The American-Korean Relationship since 1945 (1973).
- Berger, Carl. The Korean Knot: A Military-Political History (U of Pennsylvania Press, 1964).
- Chay, Jongsuk. Diplomacy of Asymmetry: Korea-American Relations to 1910 (U of Hawaii Press, 1990).
- Chung, Jae Ho. Between Ally and Partner: Korea-China Relations and the United States (2008) excerpt and text search
- Cumings, Bruce. The Origins of the Korean War: Liberation and the Emergence of Separate Regimes, 1945-1947 (Princeton UP, 1981).
- Cumings, Bruce. ed. Child of Conflict: The Korean-American Relationship, 1943-1953 (U of Washington Press, 1983).
- Dennett, Tyler. "Early American Policy in Korea, 1883-7." Political Science Quarterly 38.1 (1923): 82-103. in JSTOR
- Denett, Tyler. Americans in East Asia: A Critical Study of the Policy of the United States with References to China, Japan, and Korea in the Nineteenth Century. (1922) online free
- Harrington, Fred Harvey. God, Mammon, and the Japanese: Dr. Horace N. Allen and Korean- American Relations, 1884-1905. (U of Wisconsin Press, 1944).
- Hong, Hyun Woong. "American Foreign Policy Toward Korea, 1945-1950" (PhD dissertation, Oklahoma State University, 2007) online bibliography pp 256-72.
- Kim, Byung-Kook; Vogel, Ezra F. The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea (Harvard UP, 2011).
- Kim, Seung-young, ed. American Diplomacy and Strategy toward Korea and Northeast Asia, 1882 - 1950 and After (2009) online
- Lee, Yur-Bok and Wayne Patterson. One Hundred Years of Korean-American Relations, 1882-1982 (1986) online
- Ryu, Dae Young. "An Odd Relationship: The State Department, Its Representatives, and American Protestant Missionaries in Korea, 1882—1905." Journal of American-East Asian Relations 6.4 (1997): 261-287.
- Yuh, Leighanne. "The Historiography of Korea in the United States". International Journal of Korean History (2010). 15#2: 127–144.